Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 3195-3211, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351812

RESUMO

Purpose Recent behavioral studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of implementing retrieval practice into learning tasks for children. Such approaches have revealed that repeated spaced retrieval (RSR) is particularly effective in promoting children's learning of word form and meaning information. This study further examines how retrieval practice enhances learning of word meaning information at the behavioral and neural levels. Method Twenty typically developing preschool children were taught novel words using an RSR learning schedule for some words and an immediate retrieval (IR) learning schedule for other words. In addition to the label, children were taught two arbitrary semantic features for each item. Following the teaching phase, children's learning was tested using recall tests. In addition, during the 1-week follow-up, children were presented with pictures and an auditory sentence that correctly labeled the item but stated correct or incorrect semantic information. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were time locked to the onset of the words noting the semantic feature. Children provided verbal judgments of whether the semantic feature was correctly paired with the item. Results Children recalled more labels and semantic features for items that had been taught in the RSR learning schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. ERPs also differentiated the learning schedules. Mismatching label-meaning pairings elicited an N400 and late positive component (LPC) for both learning conditions; however, mismatching RSR pairs elicited an N400 with an earlier onset and an LPC with a longer duration, relative to IR mismatching label-meaning pairings. These ERP timing differences indicated that the children were more efficient in processing words that were taught in the RSR schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. Conclusions Spaced retrieval practice promotes learning of both word form and meaning information. The findings lay the necessary groundwork for better understanding of processing newly learned semantic information in preschool children. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.15063060.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Semântica , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Verbal
2.
J Neurodev Disord ; 13(1): 20, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children with developmental language disorders (DLD) have well-documented weaknesses in vocabulary. In recent years, investigators have explored the nature of these weaknesses through the use of novel word learning paradigms. These studies have begun to uncover specific areas of difficulty and have provided hints about possible intervention strategies that might help these children learn words more accurately and efficiently. Among the studies of this type are those that incorporate repeated spaced retrieval activities in the learning procedures. METHODS: In this study, we examined the data from four of these studies that employed the same types of participants (4- and 5-year-old children with DLD and same-age children with typical language development), research design, and outcome measures. The studies differed primarily in the type of learning condition that was being compared to a spaced retrieval condition. A mixed-effects modeling framework was used, enabling the data from the four studies and different outcome measures to be aggregated. RESULTS: Across the studies, more words in the repeated spaced retrieval condition were recalled than those in the comparison conditions. This was true regardless of outcome measure. Children with typical language development recalled more words than the children with DLD. Both groups benefited from spaced retrieval, though effects were larger for the group with DLD. Children recalled words as accurately 1 week after learning as they did at the 5-min mark; the two groups were essentially identical in this respect. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings support the continued refinement of these types of repeated spaced retrieval procedures, as they may have potential to serve as effective approaches to intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem Verbal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Rememoração Mental , Vocabulário
3.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(2): 542-560, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561369

RESUMO

Purpose Recent findings in preschool children indicated novel adjective recall was enhanced when learned using repeated retrieval with contextual reinstatement (RRCR) compared to repeated study (RS). Recall was similar for learned pictures used during training and new (generalized) pictures with the same adjective features. The current study compared the effects of learning method and learned/generalized pictures on the neural processes mediating the recognition of novel adjectives. Method Twenty typically developing children aged 4;6-5;11 (years;months) learned four novel adjectives, two using RRCR and two using RS. Five-minute and 1-week tests assessed adjective recall using learned and generalized pictures. Also, at the 1-week visit, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess children's processing of learned/generalized pictures, followed by naturally spoken novel adjectives in a match-mismatch paradigm. Results Naming recall and match-mismatch judgment accuracy were similar for the RS and RRCR conditions and across learned/generalized pictures. However, ERPs revealed more reliable condition effects in the phonological mapping negativity, indexing phonological expectations, and the late positive component, indexing semantic reanalysis, for the adjectives learned in the RRCR relative to the RS condition. Unfamiliar pictures (generalized) elicited larger amplitude N300 and N400 components relative to learned pictures. Conclusions Although behavioral accuracy measures suggest similar effects of the RS and RRCR learning conditions, subtle differences in the ERPs underlying novel adjective processing indicate advantages of RRCR for phonological processing and semantic reanalysis. While children readily generalized the novel adjectives, ERPs revealed greater cognitive resources for processing unfamiliar compared to learned pictures of the novel adjective characteristics. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13683214.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Encéfalo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Semântica
4.
Autism ; 25(4): 958-970, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246365

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Although preverbal and minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder represent a significant portion of the autism spectrum disorder population, we have a limited understanding of and characterization of them. Although it is a given that their lexical profiles contain fewer words, it is important to determine whether (a) the words preverbal and minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder produce are similar to the first words typically developing children produce or (b) there are unique features of the limited words that preverbal and minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder produce. The current study compared the early word profiles of preverbal and minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder to vocabulary-matched typically developing toddlers. Children with autism spectrum disorder produced proportionally more verbs than typically developing toddlers. Also, children with autism spectrum disorder produced proportionally more action and food words, while typically developing toddlers produced proportionally more animal words, animal sounds and sound effects, and people words. Children with autism spectrum disorder also produced "mommy" and "daddy" at lower rates. Our findings identified several areas of overlap in early word learning; however, our findings also point to differences that may be connected to core weaknesses in social communication (i.e. people words). The findings highlight words and categories that could serve as useful targets for communication intervention with preverbal and minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder.

5.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156473

RESUMO

This study compares the lexical composition of 118 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 12 to 84 months with 4626 vocabulary-matched typically developing toddlers with and without language delay, aged 8 to 30 months. Children with ASD and late talkers showed a weaker noun bias. Additionally, differences were identified in the proportion of nouns and verbs, and in the semantic categories of animals, toys, household items and vehicles. Most differences appear to reflect the extent of the age differences between the groups. However, children with ASD produced fewer high-social verbs than typical talkers and late talkers, a difference that might be associated with ASD features. In sum, our findings identified areas of overlap and distinction across the developing lexical profiles.

6.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(12): 4433-4449, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805241

RESUMO

Purpose There are strong retention benefits when learners frequently test themselves during the learning period. This practice of repeated retrieval has recently been applied successfully to children's word learning. In this study, we apply a repeated retrieval procedure to the learning of novel adjectives by preschool-age children with developmental language disorder (DLD) and their typically developing (TD) peers. We ask whether the benefits of retrieval extend to children's ability to apply the novel adjectives to newly introduced objects sharing the same characteristics as the objects used during the learning period. Method Fourteen children with DLD (M age = 62.64 months) and 13 TD children (M = 62.54 months) learned novel adjectives in 2 sessions. For each child, half of the adjectives were learned in a repeated spaced retrieval condition, and half were learned in a repeated study-only condition. Recall was assessed immediately after the second learning session and 1 week later. A recognition test was also administered at the 1-week mark. Results On the recall tests, for both groups of children, recall was better for adjectives learned in the repeated spaced retrieval condition. Adjectives learned by the 2nd day were retained 1 week later. Every adjective correctly applied to an object used during the learning period was also extended accurately to new objects with the same characteristics. On these recall tests, the children with DLD did not differ from the TD group in the number of items recalled, though their phonetic accuracy was lower. On the recognition test, the DLD group showed greater accuracy for adjectives that had been learned in the repeated spaced retrieval condition than for those learned in the repeated study condition, whereas the TD group performed at high levels in both conditions. Conclusion Repeated spaced retrieval appears to provide an effective boost to word learning. Because its benefits are seen even when a word must be extended to new objects, the application of this procedure seems well suited for learning new language material rather than being limited to item-specific memorization.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fonética , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia
7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(4): 932-943, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986142

RESUMO

Purpose Scholars have long noted that retention improves significantly when learners frequently test themselves on the new material rather than engage in continuous study with no intermittent testing. In this study, we apply the notion of repeated testing or retrieval to the process of word learning in preschool-age children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD). Method Novel words and their meanings were taught to 10 children with DLD and 10 typically developing (TD) children matched on age (DLD, M = 63.4 months; TD, M = 63.2 months). Recall was assessed immediately after the 2nd learning session and then again 1 week later. Results Both groups showed better retention when they had attempted to retrieve the words during the learning period than when they had simply listened to and studied the words paired with their referents. Relative to their TD peers, the children with DLD seemed to be weaker in their encoding, but these children's retention over a 1-week period was indistinguishable from that of their age mates. Conclusion Word learning activities that include opportunities for repeated retrieval appear to significantly benefit retention relative to more traditional word learning activities. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7927046.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino
8.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(4): 944-964, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986145

RESUMO

Purpose Retrieval practice has been found to be a powerful strategy to enhance long-term retention of new information; however, the utility of retrieval practice when teaching young children new words is largely unknown, and even less is known for young children with language impairments. The current study examined the effect of 2 different retrieval schedules on word learning at both the behavioral and neural levels. Method Participants included 16 typically developing children ( M TD = 61.58 months) and 16 children with developmental language disorder ( M DLD = 59.60 months). Children participated in novel word learning sessions in which the spacing of retrieval practice was manipulated: Some words were retrieved only after other words had been presented (i.e., repeated retrieval that required contextual reinstatement [RRCR]); others were taught using an immediate retrieval schedule. In Experiment 1, children's recall of the novel word labels and their meanings was tested after a 5-min delay and a 1-week delay. In Experiment 2, event-related brain potentials were obtained from a match-mismatch task utilizing the novel word stimuli. Results Experiment 1 findings revealed that children were able to label referents and to retain the novel words more successfully if the words were taught in the RRCR learning condition. Experiment 2 findings revealed that mismatching picture-word pairings elicited a robust N400 event-related brain potential only for words that were taught in the RRCR condition. In addition, children were more accurate in identifying picture-word matches and mismatches for words taught in the RRCR condition, relative to the immediate retrieval condition. Conclusions Retrieval practice that requires contextual reinstatement through spacing results in enhanced word learning and long-term retention of words. Both typically developing children and children with developmental language disorder benefit from this type of retrieval procedure. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7927112.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(6): 1460-1461, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800056

RESUMO

Purpose: In this reply, we respond to comments on our article "Tracking the Growth of Tense and Agreement in Children With Specific Language Impairment: Differences Between Measures of Accuracy, Diversity, and Productivity." Conclusion: The finite verb morphology composite can be disproportionately affected by frequently occurring grammatical forms produced through direct activation. This assumption was one of the reasons we wished to compare this measure to the tense marker total and the tense/agreement productivity score. The latter two measures provide valuable developmental information that is not available from the finite morphology composite. Yet, the finite verb morphology composite shows good diagnostic accuracy and an interpretable pattern of growth and is relatively stable across different sample sizes.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Psicolinguística , Transtorno Específico de Linguagem
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(3): 729-739, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484362

RESUMO

Purpose: Previous behavioral studies have found deficits in lexical-semantic abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI), including reduced depth and breadth of word knowledge. This study explored the neural correlates of early emerging familiar word processing in preschoolers with SLI and typical development. Method: Fifteen preschoolers with typical development and 15 preschoolers with SLI were presented with pictures followed after a brief delay by an auditory label that did or did not match. Event-related brain potentials were time locked to the onset of the auditory labels. Children provided verbal judgments of whether the label matched the picture. Results: There were no group differences in the accuracy of identifying when pictures and labels matched or mismatched. Event-related brain potential data revealed that mismatch trials elicited a robust N400 in both groups, with no group differences in mean amplitude or peak latency. However, the typically developing group demonstrated a more robust late positive component, elicited by mismatch trials. Conclusions: These initial findings indicate that lexical-semantic access of early acquired words, indexed by the N400, does not differ between preschoolers with SLI and typical development when highly familiar words are presented in isolation. However, the typically developing group demonstrated a more mature profile of postlexical reanalysis and integration, indexed by an emerging late positive component. The findings lay the necessary groundwork for better understanding processing of newly learned words in children with SLI.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 60(12): 3590-3600, 2017 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29188270

RESUMO

Purpose: Composite measures of children's use of tense and agreement morphology differ in their emphasis on accuracy, diversity, or productivity, yet little is known about how these different measures change over time. An understanding of these differences is especially important for the study of children with specific language impairment, given these children's extraordinary difficulty with this aspect of grammar. Method: We computed 3 types of composite scores from spontaneous speech samples obtained from 17 preschoolers with specific language impairment before, during, and after their participation in a language intervention study. These measures were the Finite Verb Morphology Composite (a measure of accuracy), the Tense Marker Total (a measure of diversity), and the Productivity Score (a measure of productivity). Results: The 3 measures differed in their growth trajectories. Sample size did not alter the linear or quadratic nature of growth of any composite, although it did affect the absolute values found for the Tense Marker Total and Productivity Score. Conclusion: Even when sample size is controlled, early growth can be seen in tense and agreement accuracy with relatively limited diversity and productivity, whereas later growth in diversity and productivity can occur with very little change in accuracy.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Linguística , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Testes de Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem , Masculino , Fala
12.
J Neurodev Disord ; 9: 22, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28630655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial amount of work has examined language abilities in young children with specific language impairment (SLI); however, our understanding of the developmental trajectory of language impairment is limited. Along with studying the behavioral changes that occur across development, it is important to examine the neural indices of language processing for children with different language trajectories. The current study sought to examine behavioral and neural bases of language processing in adolescents showing three different trajectories: those with normal language development (NL), those exhibiting persistent SLI (SLI-Persistent), and those with a history of SLI who appear to have recovered (SLI-Recovered). METHODS: Through a sentence judgment task, we examined semantic and syntactic processing. Adolescents judged whether or not each sentence was semantically and syntactically correct. Stimuli consisted of naturally spoken sentences that were either correct, contained a semantic verb error, or contained a syntactic verb agreement error. Verb agreement errors consisted of omission and commission violations of the third-person singular -s. Behavioral button-press responses and electroencephalographic recordings were collected. Behavioral judgments and mean amplitude of the N400 and P600 components were examined. RESULTS: Adolescents in the SLI-Persistent group had lower sentence judgment accuracy overall, relative to the NL and SLI-Recovered groups. Accuracy in judging omission and commission syntactic errors were marginally different, with marginally lower accuracy for commission errors. All groups demonstrated an N400 component elicited by semantic violations. However, adolescents in the SLI-Persistent group demonstrated a less robust P600 component for syntactic violations. Furthermore, adolescents in the SLI-Recovered group exhibited a similar neural profile to the NL group for the semantic and syntactic omission violations. However, a unique profile with initial negativity was observed in the SLI-Recovered group in the commission violation condition. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with persistent language impairment continue to demonstrate delays in language processing at the behavioral and neural levels. Conversely, the adolescents in the SLI-Recovered group appear to have made gains in language processing skills to overcome their initial impairments. However, our findings suggest that the adolescents in the SLI-Recovered group may have compensatory processing strategies for some aspects of language, as evidenced by a unique event-related potential profile.

13.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 58(11): 1251-1263, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28464253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined underlying mechanisms of word learning, specifically, statistical learning and fast-mapping, in school-aged children with typical and atypical development. METHODS: Statistical learning was assessed through a word segmentation task and fast-mapping was examined in an object-label association task. We also examined children's ability to map meaning onto newly segmented words in a third task that combined exposure to an artificial language and a fast-mapping task. RESULTS: Children with SLI had poorer performance on the word segmentation and fast-mapping tasks relative to the typically developing and ASD groups, who did not differ from one another. However, when children with SLI were exposed to an artificial language with phonemes used in the subsequent fast-mapping task, they successfully learned more words than in the isolated fast-mapping task. There was some evidence that word segmentation abilities are associated with word learning in school-aged children with typical development and ASD, but not SLI. Follow-up analyses also examined performance in children with ASD who did and did not have a language impairment. Children with ASD with language impairment evidenced intact statistical learning abilities, but subtle weaknesses in fast-mapping abilities. CONCLUSIONS: As the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) predicts, children with SLI have impairments in statistical learning. However, children with SLI also have impairments in fast-mapping. Nonetheless, they are able to take advantage of additional phonological exposure to boost subsequent word-learning performance. In contrast to the PDH, children with ASD appear to have intact statistical learning, regardless of language status; however, fast-mapping abilities differ according to broader language skills.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 47(2): 260-274, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796729

RESUMO

Previous work has noted that some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display weaknesses in receptive vocabulary relative to expressive vocabulary abilities. The current study extended previous work by examining the receptive-expressive vocabulary profile in boys with idiopathic ASD and boys with concomitant ASD and fragile X syndrome (ASD + FXS). On average, boys with ASD + FXS did not display the same atypical receptive-expressive profile as boys with idiopathic ASD. Notably, there was variation in vocabulary abilities and profiles in both groups. Although we did not identify predictors of receptive-expressive differences, we demonstrated that nonverbal IQ and expressive vocabulary positively predicted concurrent receptive vocabulary knowledge and receptive vocabulary predicted expressive vocabulary. We discuss areas of overlap and divergence in subgroups of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/psicologia , Vocabulário , Adolescente , Criança , Comorbidade , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
15.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 46(12): 3755-3769, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27696177

RESUMO

This study investigated whether vocabulary delays in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be explained by a cognitive style that prioritizes processing of detailed, local features of input over global contextual integration-as claimed by the weak central coherence (WCC) theory. Thirty toddlers with ASD and 30 younger, cognition-matched typical controls participated in a looking-while-listening task that assessed whether perceptual or semantic similarities among named images disrupted word recognition relative to a neutral condition. Overlap of perceptual features invited local processing whereas semantic overlap invited global processing. With the possible exception of a subset of toddlers who had very low vocabulary skills, these results provide no evidence that WCC is characteristic of lexical processing in toddlers with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Semântica , Senso de Coerência , Pré-Escolar , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Vocabulário
16.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 59(5): 1046-1058, 2016 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618388

RESUMO

Purpose: One aspect of morphosyntax, finiteness marking, was compared in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development matched on mean length of utterance (MLU). Method: Nineteen children with typical development (mean age = 3.3 years), 20 children with SLI (mean age = 4.9 years), and 17 boys with FXS (mean age = 11.9 years) completed the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (TEGI; Rice & Wexler, 2001), and other cognitive and language assessments. Quantitative comparisons on finiteness marking and qualitative comparisons of unscorable (i.e., nontarget) TEGI responses were conducted. Results: Children with typical development and FXS performed better on finiteness marking than children with SLI. Although unscorable responses were infrequent, boys with FXS produced more unscorable responses than children with typical development and SLI. Conclusions: Although boys with FXS have language deficits, they performed similarly to MLU-matched typically developing children on finiteness marking. This language profile differs from children with SLI, who present with a delay-within-a-delay profile with finiteness marking delays that exceed delays in MLU. Unscorable responses produced by the boys with FXS may reflect pragmatic deficits, which are prominent in this population. Assessment procedures should be carefully considered when examining language in boys with FXS.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Fenótipo
17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 46(6): 2260-2266, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26883646

RESUMO

Lexical comprehension is commonly measured by parent report, but it may be difficult for parents of children with ASD to accurately judge their child's comprehension. We compared parent report to an eye-gaze measure of lexical comprehension in which participants observed pairs of images on a screen, along with accompanying speech that named one of the two images. Twenty-two toddlers with ASD participated. Trials were included if the target word was reported as unknown. Children spent significantly more time looking at the target after it was named than before (d = 0.66). These results provide evidence that eye-gaze measures can reveal emerging lexical knowledge in young children with ASD that may otherwise be overlooked.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Compreensão , Fixação Ocular , Pais/psicologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Aprendizagem Verbal , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção da Fala , Vocabulário
18.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 45(12): 4109-23, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26210517

RESUMO

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) often have immature lexical-semantic knowledge; however, the organization of lexical-semantic knowledge is poorly understood. This study examined lexical processing in school-age children with ASD, SLI, and typical development, who were matched on receptive vocabulary. Children completed a lexical decision task, involving words with high and low semantic network sizes and nonwords. Children also completed nonverbal updating and shifting tasks. Children responded more accurately to words from high than from low semantic networks; however, follow-up analyses identified weaker semantic network effects in the SLI group. Additionally, updating and shifting abilities predicted lexical processing, demonstrating similarity in the mechanisms which underlie semantic processing in children with ASD, SLI, and typical development.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Idioma , Semântica , Vocabulário , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Testes de Linguagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia
19.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 23(3): 385-94, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24687049

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous research has suggested that language comprehension might be particularly impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but this profile has been only broadly characterized. In the current study, the authors examined sentence comprehension in school-age boys with ASD, including a subgroup with intellectual disability (ID), with particular attention paid to errors that might differentiate between lexically and syntactically based difficulties. METHOD: Participants were boys with ASD (n = 45, ages 4-11 years) and younger typically developing boys (n = 45, ages 2-6 years). Comprehension was assessed with the Test for Reception of Grammar-Version 2 (TROG-2; Bishop, 2003). Error types were analyzed for a subset of items. RESULTS: Boys with ASD did not differ from younger typically developing boys matched on receptive vocabulary in overall sentence comprehension on the TROG-2 or the number of lexical errors committed. In contrast, the subgroup of boys with ASD and ID (n = 16) had poorer overall performance and committed more lexical errors than younger typically developing boys matched on nonverbal cognition. CONCLUSIONS: On average, comprehension was delayed in school-age boys with ASD but not beyond receptive vocabulary expectations. Boys with ASD and ID, however, had a weakness in sentence comprehension beyond nonverbal cognitive expectations.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/diagnóstico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Percepção da Fala , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Semântica , Vocabulário
20.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 43(9): 2218-27, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23361917

RESUMO

This study examined the longitudinal associations between parent verbal responsiveness and language 3 years later in 34 toddlers with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Parent-child play samples were coded for child engagement and communication acts and for parent verbal responsiveness. Measures of responsive verbal behaviors were used to predict language gain scores 3 years later. Parent directives for language that followed into the child's focus of attention were predictive of child receptive language gains. Parent comments that followed into the child's focus of attention yielded differential effects depending on initial levels of child language. Children who were minimally verbal at age 2½ benefited from parent comments that followed into the their focus of attention, whereas children who were verbally fluent did not demonstrate such a benefit.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia , Linguagem Infantil , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Atenção , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...