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Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 112-119, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033041


BACKGROUND: Horses are one of the potential reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants that could be transferred to human subjects. OBJECTIVE: To describe the AMR patterns of major bacteria isolated from diseased horses in France. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. METHODS: Data collected between 2012 and 2016 by RESAPATH, the French national surveillance network for AMR, were analysed. Only antimicrobials relevant in veterinary and human medicine for the isolated bacteria were considered. Mono- and multidrug resistance were calculated. The resistance proportions of major equine diseases were assessed and compared. Where data permitted, resistance trends were investigated using nonlinear analysis (generalised additive models). RESULTS: A total of 12,695 antibiograms were analysed. The five most frequently isolated bacteria were Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pantoea spp. and Klebsiella spp. The highest proportions of resistance to gentamicin were found for S. aureus (22.1%) and Pseudomonas spp. (26.9%). Klebsiella spp. and E. coli had the highest proportions of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (15.5 and 26.2%, respectively). Proportions of resistance to tetracycline were among the highest for all the bacteria considered. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was below 10% for all Enterobacteriaceae. The highest proportions of multidrug resistance (22.5%) were found among S. aureus isolates, which is worrying given their zoonotic potential. From 2012 to 2016, resistance proportions decreased in Pseudomonas spp. isolates, but remained the same for S. aureus. For Streptococcus spp. and E. coli, resistance proportions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Since antibiograms are not systematic analyses, any selection bias could impact the results. CONCLUSIONS: Such studies are essential to estimate the magnitude of the potential threat of AMR to public health, to design efficient control strategies and to measure their effectiveness. These findings may also guide the initial empirical treatment of horse diseases.

Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , França/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e121, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868979


Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in dogs can be transmitted to humans and close contact between dogs and people might foster dissemination of resistance determinants. The aim of our study was to describe the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pattern of the major causative agents of canine otitis - one of the most common diseases in dogs - isolated in France. Data collected between 2012 and 2016 by the French national surveillance network for AMR, referred to as RESAPATH, were analysed. Resistance trends were investigated using non-linear analysis (generalised additive models). A total of 7021 antibiograms were analysed. The four major causative agents of canine otitis in France were coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and streptococci. Since 2013, resistance to fluoroquinolones has been on the decrease in both P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates. For P. aeruginosa, 19.4% of isolates were resistant to both enrofloxacin and gentamicin. The levels of multidrug resistance (acquired resistance to at least one antibiotic in three or more antibiotic classes) ranged between 11.9% for P. mirabilis and 16.0% for S. pseudintermedius. These results are essential to guide prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. They will also help in designing efficient control strategies and in measuring their effectiveness.

Zoonoses Public Health ; 65(1): e86-e94, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110404


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacteria isolated from food-producing animals is a growing concern with implications for public health. AMR surveillance is essential to identify resistance trends and help in the design of effective and efficient control strategies. The aim of the study was to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from three livestock productions in France (cattle, swine and poultry). The trend in resistance to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in animal health was analysed as follows: amoxicillin (penicillin), spectinomycin or streptomycin (aminoglycoside), tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/Enrofloxacin and ceftiofur were also taken into account as members of critically important antimicrobial families in human and veterinary medicine, that is fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, respectively. Data collected between 2002 and 2015 by the French national surveillance network of AMR referred to as RESAPATH were analysed. Resistance trends were investigated using non-linear analysis (generalized additive models) applied to time-series stratified by livestock production and antibiotic. Irrespective of the species and the antibiotic considered, resistance signals over time showed no significant annual cycle. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins emerged during the period of the study, with a peak at 22% [20.5; 24.0] in poultry in 2010, decreasing afterwards, while it remained consistently below 10% for the other species. The proportion of resistance to fluoroquinolones was broadly similar between species and remained under 30%, with a slight decreasing trend after 2009. Resistances to tetracycline and amoxicillin remained high, between 90% and 40% over time in cattle and swine. After 2010, there was a decrease in resistance to these antibiotics for all species, especially to tetracycline for poultry with a drop from 84% in 2009 to 43% in 2015. These results contribute to risk assessment and constitute objective evidence on which to evaluate the efficacy of control measures implemented to limit AMR occurrence.

Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Gado/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , França/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 23(11): 826-833, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28143782


There has been a great and long-term concern that extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae occurring in animals may constitute a public-health issue. A large number of factors with complex interrelations contribute to the spread of those bacteria among animals and humans. ESBL/AmpC- or carbapenemase-encoding genes are most often located on mobile genetic elements favouring their dissemination. Some shared reservoirs of ESBL/AmpC or carbapenemase genes, plasmids or clones have been identified and suggest cross-transmissions. Even though exposure to animals is regarded as a risk factor, evidence for a direct transfer of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria from animals to humans through close contacts is limited. Nonetheless, the size of the commensal ESBL/AmpC reservoir in non-human sources is dramatically rising. This may constitute an indirect risk to public health by increasing the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up ESBL/AmpC/carbapenemase genes. The extent to which food contributes to potential transmission of ESBL/AmpC producers to humans is also not well established. Overall, events leading to the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC- and carbapenemase-encoding genes in animals seem very much multifactorial. The impact of animal reservoirs on human health still remains debatable and unclear; nonetheless, there are some examples of direct links that have been identified.

Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Enterobacteriaceae , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Gatos , Bovinos , Cães , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Aves Domésticas , Suínos , Zoonoses , beta-Lactamases/genética
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 59(3): 149-58, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21621358


BACKGROUND: Develop and calculate performance indicators allows to continuously follow the operation of an epidemiological surveillance network. This is an internal evaluation method, implemented by the coordinators in collaboration with all the actors of the network. Its purpose is to detect weak points in order to optimize management. A method for the development of performance indicators of epidemiological surveillance networks was developed in 2004 and was applied to several networks. Its implementation requires a thorough description of the network environment and all its activities to define priority indicators. Since this method is considered to be complex, our objective consisted in developing a simplified approach and applying it to an epidemiological surveillance network. METHODS: We applied the initial method to a theoretical network model to obtain a list of generic indicators that can be adapted to any surveillance network. RESULTS: We obtained a list of 25 generic performance indicators, intended to be reformulated and described according to the specificities of each network. It was used to develop performance indicators for RESAPATH, an epidemiological surveillance network of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria of animal origin in France. CONCLUSION: This application allowed us to validate the simplified method, its value in terms of practical implementation, and its level of user acceptance. Its ease of use and speed of application compared to the initial method argue in favor of its use on broader scale.

Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Monitoramento Ambiental , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Vigilância da População , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Coleta de Dados , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos
Med Phys ; 36(11): 5089-98, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19994519


PURPOSE: Texture analysis of femur radiographs may serve as a potential low cost technique to predict osteoporotic fracture risk and has received considerable attention in the past years. A further application of this technique may be the measurement of the quality of specific bone compartments to provide useful information for treatment of bone fractures. Two challenges of texture analysis are the selection of the best suitable texture measure and reproducible placement of regions of interest (ROIs). The goal of this in vitro study was to automatically place ROIs in radiographs of proximal femur specimens and to calculate correlations between various different texture analysis methods and the femurs' anchorage strength. METHODS: Radiographs were obtained from 14 femoral specimens and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck. Biomechanical testing was performed to assess the anchorage strength in terms of failure load, breakaway torque, and number of cycles. Images were segmented using a framework that is based on the usage of level sets and statistical in-shape models. Five ROIs were automatically placed in the head, upper and lower neck, trochanteric, and shaft compartment in an atlas subject. All other subjects were registered rigidly, affinely, and nonlinearly, and the resulting transformation was used to map the five ROIs onto the individual femora. RESULTS: In each ROI, texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurence matrices (GLCM), third-order GLCM, morphological gradients (MGs), Minkowski dimensions (MDs), Minkowski functionals (MFs), Gaussian Markov random fields, and scaling index method (SIM). Coefficients of determination for each texture feature with parameters of anchorage strength were computed. In a stepwise multiregression analysis, the most predictive parameters were identified in different models. Texture features were highly correlated with anchorage strength estimated by the failure load of up to R2=0.61 (MF and MG features, p<0.01) and were partially independent of BMD. The correlations were dependent on the choice of the ROI and the texture measure. The best predictive multiregression model for failure load R2adj=0.86 (p<0.001) included a set of recently developed texture methods (MF and SIM) but excluded bone mineral density and commonly used texture measures. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that texture information contained in trabecular bone structure visualized on radiographs may predict whether an implant anchorage can be used and may determine the local bone quality from preoperative radiographs.

Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radiografia/métodos , Idoso , Automação , Densidade Óssea , Fêmur/fisiologia , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Distribuição Normal , Análise de Regressão