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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299793

RESUMO

Grounded in SDT, several studies have highlighted the role of teachers' motivating and demotivating styles for students' motivation, learning, and physical activity in physical education (PE). However, most of these studies focused on a restricted number of motivating strategies (e.g., offering choice) or dimensions (e.g., autonomy support). Recently, researchers have developed the Situations-in-School (i.e., SIS-Education) questionnaire, which allows one to gain a more integrative and fine-grained insight into teachers' engagement in autonomy-support, structure, control, and chaos through a circular structure (i.e., a circumplex). Although teaching in PE resembles teaching in academic courses in many ways, some of the items of the original situation-based questionnaire (e.g., regarding homework) are irrelevant to the PE context. In the present study, we therefore sought to develop a modified, PE-friendly version of this earlier validated SIS-questionnaire-the SIS-PE. Findings in a sample of Belgian (N = 136) and French (N = 259) PE teachers, examined together and as independent samples, showed that the variation in PE teachers' motivating styles in this adapted version is also best captured by a circumplex structure, with four overarching styles and eight subareas differing in their level of need support and directiveness. The SIS-PE possesses excellent convergent and concurrent validity. With the adaptations being successful, great opportunities for future research on PE teachers (de-)motivating styles are created.


Assuntos
Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento , Humanos , Motivação , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299907

RESUMO

Research suggests that physical education (PE) teachers can play a crucial role in the promotion of students' physical activity. Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, this study investigated how students' perceptions of PE teachers (de-)motivating style relate to students' device-based physical activity levels during PE. Moreover, it was examined whether students' motivation plays an intervening role in this relation and whether students' physical activity differs according to their gender and lesson topic. A sample of 302 secondary school students aged between 11 and 16 years (M = 13.05, SD = 1.04) completed a questionnaire assessing their perceptions of teachers' (de-)motivating style and their personal motivation toward PE. Students also wore ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers during the PE lesson. Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that the teachers' motivating style had a significant positive relation with students' autonomous motivation, both at the student level and the class level, and teachers' controlling style had a significant positive relation with students' controlled motivation and amotivation at both levels. However, in terms of students' physical activity levels, students' gender, the lesson topic, and teachers' controlling style seemed to be more decisive than students' motivation and teachers' motivating style.


Assuntos
Motivação , Educação Física e Treinamento , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Autonomia Pessoal , Professores Escolares , Estudantes
3.
Children (Basel) ; 8(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670830

RESUMO

This study aimed (1) to identify profiles in children based on actual motor competence (AMC), perceived motor competence (PMC), and organized sports participation (OSP), and (2) to examine differences among these profiles in weight status as well as autonomous motivation towards sports. Children's (N = 206; 112 boys; Mage = 10.83 ± 0.92 years) AMC, PMC, OSP, weight status, and autonomous motivation towards sports were measured using validated assessment tools. Cluster analyses identified three profiles with completely convergent levels of AMC, PMC, and OSP and three profiles with partially convergent levels. Children in the convergent profiles with average to high levels of AMC, PMC, and OSP had the most optimal profile, as they combined a healthier weight status with elevated levels of autonomous motivation, while the opposite was true for children with low levels on all three cluster-variables. Partially convergent profiles showed that AMC and PMC appear crucial for weight status, as profiles with relatively low levels of AMC and PMC had the highest weight status, independent of their OSP levels. Overall, the findings highlight the importance of promoting AMC, PMC, and OSP simultaneously to help children in achieving a healthy weight status and being autonomously motivated towards OSP.

4.
Patient Educ Couns ; 104(7): 1773-1780, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and psychometrically evaluate an observation tool to rate healthcare professionals' engagement in need-supportive and need-thwarting counselling in chronic care encounters. METHODS: The observation tool was developed through three stages (January 2018 - June 2019). First, a set of items was developed according to essential components of need-supportive and need-thwarting counselling as identified in Self-Determination Theory. Second, content validation by five experts. Third, ecological validation using video-recorded real-life consultations. For the psychometric evaluation (June - October 2019), the tool was used by three observers to code 55 units of real-life encounters. RESULTS: The Coding and Observing Need-Supportive Counselling in Chronic Care Encounters (COUNSEL-CCE) consists of 44 items clustered into nine theoretically underpinned behavioural approaches. Psychometric testing indicated acceptable to good consistency in scoring between observers and strong consistency within observers. CONCLUSION: The COUNSEL-CCE captures person-oriented alongside process-oriented aspects during chronic care encounters. A person-oriented approach expresses counselling that is responsive to individual preferences and needs, whereas a process-oriented approach indicates the necessity to support competency building within patients, and is more instrumental of nature. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: COUNSEL-CCE is a valuable observation tool to assess (graduate) healthcare professionals' counselling style and address if, and how, counselling evolves as a result of professional training.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Encaminhamento e Consulta
5.
J Adolesc ; 84: 200-212, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002659

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While research has shown convincingly that psychologically controlling parenting increases the risk for internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents, little is known about how adolescents cope with such parenting. This study examined the role of two non-autonomous ways of coping (i.e., compulsive compliance and oppositional defiance) and one more autonomous way of coping (i.e., negotiation) in the associations between psychologically controlling parenting and internalizing and externalizing problems. METHOD: Two-wave data from a larger longitudinal study with Belgian adolescents (N = 198; 51% female; mean age = 14.89 years, range = 13-17 years) were analyzed using multilevel modeling. RESULTS: The results showed that oppositional defiance exacerbated associations between psychologically controlling parenting and externalizing problems at the between-person level of analysis. Both compulsive compliance and negotiation exacerbated the association with internalizing problems at the within-person level. In addition to these moderating effects, both oppositional defiance and negotiation played a partly mediating role in associations between psychologically controlling parenting and externalizing problems and oppositional defiance partly mediated associations between psychologically controlling parenting and internalizing problems at the between-person level. CONLUSION: Overall, results suggest that oppositional defiance and compulsive compliance are rather dysfunctional coping responses and that negotiation is a mixed blessing. Directions for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Negativismo , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Sports Med ; 50(11): 2001-2049, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Actual and perceived motor competence are important correlates of various health-related behaviors. As such, numerous studies have examined the association between both constructs in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: The first aim of this review and meta-analysis was to systematically examine, analyze and summarize the scientific evidence on the relationship between actual and perceived motor competence (and by extension more general physical self-perception) in children, adolescents and young adults with typical and atypical development. The second aim was to examine several a priori determined potential moderators (i.e., age, sex, and developmental status of study participants, as well as level of alignment between measurement instruments) of the relationship between actual motor competence and perceived motor competence/physical self-perception. DESIGN: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement and was registered with PROSPERO on August 21st 2017. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of five electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, PsycINFO and EMBASE) with no date restrictions was conducted. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Eligibility criteria included (1) a study sample of youth aged 3-24 years, (2) an assessment of actual motor competence and perceived motor competence/physical self-perception, and (3) a report of the association between both, using a cross-sectional, longitudinal, or experimental design. Only original articles published in peer-reviewed journals with at least the title and abstract in English were considered. ANALYSES: Meta-analyses were conducted by type of actual motor competence (i.e., overall motor competence, locomotor, object control, stability/balance and sport-specific competence) through univariate and multivariable random-effects meta-regression and clustered random-effects meta-regression models. RESULTS: Of the 1643 articles screened, 87 were included for the qualitative review, while 69 remained for the final meta-analyses. All included studies had some risk of bias with only 15% meeting five of the six examined criteria. Significant (p < 0.001) pooled effects were found for overall motor competence (N = 54; r = 0.25; 95% CI [0.20, 0.29]), locomotor (N = 45; r = 0.19; 95% CI [0.13, 0.25]), object control (N = 50; r = 0.22; 95% CI [0.17, 0.27]), stability/balance (N = 8; r = 0.21; 95% CI [0.12, 0.30]), and sport-specific competence (N = 8; r = 0.46; 95% CI [0.28, 0.61]). None of the hypothesized moderators significantly influenced the relationship between actual motor competence and perceived motor competence/physical self-perception. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of the association between actual motor competence and perceived motor competence/physical self-perception in youth is low to moderate, with current data demonstrating that the strength of association does not differ by age, sex, developmental status, or alignment between measurement instruments. However, this review highlights the lack of clarity on the relationship between actual motor competence and perceived motor competence/physical self-perception. Future research should address issues surrounding the design of studies and measurement of actual motor competence and perceived motor competence/physical self-perception as well as explore other potential confounding variables (i.e., product- versus process-oriented assessments, race, culture) that might affect the relationship between these two constructs.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Esportes , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632300

RESUMO

Background: The development of childhood motor competence demonstrates a high degree of inter-individual variation. Some children's competence levels increase whilst others' competence levels remain unchanged or even decrease over time. However, few studies have examined this developmental change in motor competence across childhood and little is known on influencing factors. Aim: Using latent growth curve modeling (LGCM), the present longitudinal study aimed to investigate children's change in motor competence across a 2-year timespan and to examine the potential influence of baseline weight status and physical fitness on their trajectory of change in motor competence. Methods: 558 children (52.5% boys) aged between 6 and 9 years participated in this study. Baseline measurements included weight status, motor competence (i.e., Körperkoördinationstest für Kinder; KTK) and physical fitness (i.e., sit and reach, standing long jump and the 20 m shuttle run test). Motor competence assessment took place three times across a 2-year timespan. LGCM was conducted to examine change in motor competence over time. Results: The analyses showed a positive linear change in motor competence across 2 years (ß = 28.48, p < 0.001) with significant variability in children's individual trajectories (p < 0.001). Girls made less progress than boys (ß = -2.12, p = 0.01). Children who were older at baseline demonstrated less change in motor competence (ß = -0.33, p < 0.001). Weight status at baseline was negatively associated with change in motor competence over time (ß = -1.418, p = 0.002). None of the physical fitness components, measured at baseline, were significantly associated with change in motor competence over time. Conclusion and Implications: This longitudinal study reveals that weight status significantly influences children's motor competence trajectories whilst physical fitness demonstrated no significant influence on motor competence trajectories. Future studies should further explore children's differential trajectories over time and potential factors influencing that change.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398923

RESUMO

Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), prior research has demonstrated that physical education (PE) teachers may have different reasons to engage in teaching. Although some person-centered studies have identified varied motivational profiles in PE teachers, none of these studies have included the three forms of motivation (i.e., autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation). This study aims to identify teachers' motivational profiles, using the three forms of motivation. Moreover, differences between the obtained profiles in terms of job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion were examined. A sample of 107 primary school PE teachers participated. Four distinct motivational profiles were identified: "relatively amotivated," "somewhat motivated," "autonomous-controlled motivated," and "relatively autonomously motivated." Results showed that the predominantly autonomously motivated PE teachers reported the most adaptive pattern of outcomes. Although PE teachers from the "relatively autonomously motivated" group did not differ in terms of job satisfaction when compared to those in the "autonomous-controlled motivated" group, the former displayed lower values of emotional exhaustion. These findings support SDT in that more motivation is not necessarily better if this additional motivation comes from controlled reasons. These results could raise awareness among school stakeholders about the importance of increasing PE teachers' autonomous motivation.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Motivação , Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento/organização & administração , Angústia Psicológica , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha
9.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 89(1): 22-40, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that well-established classroom rules prevent problem behaviour, while also supporting students' achievement gains. Yet, there might be considerable variability in students' underlying motives to comply or refrain from complying with classroom rules, with some students adhering to them because they fully accept them as their own, and others feeling compelled by external or internal demands to do so or even defying the rules altogether. AIMS: Grounded in self-determination theory, this study aimed to examine whether students' reasons for following (i.e., internalization) and for refraining from following (i.e., defiance) classroom rules differentially and uniquely predict student outcomes, including feelings of resentment, acting out, cheating, and truancy. SAMPLE: A total of 1006 students (46.7% boys; M = 14.18 years ± 1.73) out of 56 different secondary school classes participated in the study. METHODS: Students were invited to fill out an online survey about experiences with their head teacher. RESULTS: For three out of four outcomes, identified regulation and external regulation to follow classroom rules were found to be, respectively, negatively and positively related, whereas a null relationship with introjected rule following was found. Controlled non-rule following was most strongly predictive of maladaptive functioning, as indexed by more feelings of resentment, acting out, cheating, and truancy. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas students' ownership of rules is critical to prevent classroom misbehaviour, their pressured non-adherence is a risk factor.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
J Sch Health ; 88(8): 576-582, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant proportions of young people experience body dissatisfaction, which has implications for psychological and physical well-being. Lesson content and perceived competence may be important variables for the experience of body dissatisfaction, yet these have been underexplored in physical education. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to identify the relationships between body dissatisfaction and perceptions of competence, and to explore whether body dissatisfaction depends on lesson content. METHODS: A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was completed by 446 (210 boys, 236 girls) 13- to 14-year-old pupils from 37 physical education classes. The questionnaire assessed body dissatisfaction and perceived competence in physical education. Lesson content was also recorded. Twenty-nine of the classes were engaged in team activities, eg, ball games. Eight classes were engaged in individual activities, eg, fitness. RESULTS: Multilevel analysis identified a significant negative association between body dissatisfaction and perceptions of competence in physical education. Lesson content did not significantly predict variations in body dissatisfaction scores. CONCLUSIONS: Teachers should focus on enhancing pupils' perceptions of competence in physical education to support the development of body satisfaction.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Sci Med Sport ; 21(1): 58-62, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28595871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the existence of a threshold level (proficiency barrier) of actual motor competence (MC) below which a child is not likely to attain 60min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: Actual MC was assessed in 326 children (48.5% boys; age=9.50±1.24years) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2; MVPA was measured with ActiGraph GT3X+accelerometers. Perceived MC, included as a potential mediating variable, was assessed with the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Binary logistic (mediation) regression analyses controlling for sex and a chi-squared test were used to gain insight into the relationship between (the levels of) actual MC and the percentage of children meeting the MVPA guideline. RESULTS: Actual MC significantly predicted the percentage of children meeting the guideline (B=.03, SE=.01, p<.001), even when controlling for sex. Perceived MC did not mediate this relationship. Children with high actual MC (65-100 percentile) were 2.46 (p=.003) times more likely to meet the guideline than children with low actual MC (0-27 percentile). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates the potential impact of low MC on children's MVPA levels and suggests evidence for the existence of a proficiency barrier for meeting MVPA guidelines. Almost 90% of the children whose actual MC is below the 'average' threshold do not meet the MVPA guideline. As more children with higher levels of actual MC meet the guideline than their less competent peers, it is crucial to provide opportunities to sufficiently develop children's actual MC.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Destreza Motora , Actigrafia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem
12.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 39(1): 67-80, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253062

RESUMO

Grounded in self-determination theory, this experimental study examined whether the valence (i.e., positive vs. negative) and style (i.e., autonomy-supportive vs. controlling) of normative feedback impact the self-talk, motivational experiences (i.e., psychological need satisfaction and enjoyment), and behavioral functioning (i.e., perseverance and performance) of tennis players (N = 120; Mage = 24.50 ± 9.86 years). Positive feedback and an autonomy-supportive style positively influenced players' enjoyment and perseverance, with psychological need satisfaction and self-talk playing an intervening role. While positive feedback yielded its beneficial effect via greater competence satisfaction and decreased negative self-talk, the beneficial impact of an autonomy-supportive communication style was explained via greater autonomy satisfaction.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Motivação , Satisfação Pessoal , Tênis/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Prazer , Adulto Jovem
13.
Hum Mov Sci ; 50: 1-9, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27620643

RESUMO

The present study used a person-centred approach to examine whether different profiles based on actual and perceived motor competence exist in elementary school children. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to explore how children with different motor competence-based profiles might differ in their autonomous motivation for sports and global self-worth. Validated questionnaires were administered to 161 children (40% boys; age=8.82±0.66years) to assess their perceived motor competence, global self-worth, and motivation for sports. Actual motor competence was measured with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Cluster analyses identified four motor competence-based profiles: two groups were characterized by corresponding levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., low-low and high-high) and two groups were characterized by divergent levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., high-low and low-high). Children in the low-low and high-low group displayed significantly lower levels of autonomous motivation for sports and lower levels of global self-worth than children in the low-high and high-high group. These findings emphasize that fostering children's perceived motor competence might be crucial to improve their motivation for sports and their global self-worth. Teachers and instructors involved in physical education and youth sports should thus focus on both actual and perceived motor competence.


Assuntos
Cultura , Motivação , Destreza Motora , Autoimagem , Esportes/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164600, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27736964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive associations between motor competence and physical activity have been identified by means of variable-centered analyses. To expand the understanding of these associations, this study used a person-centered approach to investigate whether different combinations (i.e., profiles) of actual and perceived motor competence exist (aim 1); and to examine differences in physical activity levels (aim 2) and weight status (aim 3) among children with different motor competence-based profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children's (N = 361; 180 boys = 50%; Mage = 9.50±1.24yrs) actual motor competence was measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and their perceived motor competence via the Self Perception Profile for Children. We assessed physical activity via accelerometers; height through stadiometers, and weight through scales. Cluster analyses (aim 1) and MANCOVAs (aim 2 & 3) were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The analysis generated two predictable groups: one group displaying relatively high levels of both actual (M TGMD-2 percentile = 42.54, SD = 2.33) and perceived motor competence (M = 3.42, SD = .37; high-high), and one group with relatively low levels of both (M percentile = 9.71, SD = 3.21; M PMC = 2.52, SD = .35; low-low). One additional group was also identified as having relatively low levels of actual motor competence (M percentile = 4.22, SD = 2.85) but relatively high levels of perceived motor competence (M = 3.52, SD = .30; low-high). The high-high group demonstrated higher daily physical activity (M = 48.39±2.03) and lower BMI (M = 18.13±.43) than the low-low group (MMVPA = 37.93±2.01; MBMI = 20.22±.42). The low-high group had similar physical activity-levels as the low-low group (M = 36.21±2.18) and did not significantly differ in BMI (M = 19.49±.46) from the other two groups. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of high actual and perceived motor competence is related to higher physical activity and lower weight status. It is thus recommended to expand health interventions in children with components that foster the development of both actual and perceived motor competence. Health professionals should furthermore pay sufficient attention to endorsing children's actual and perceived motor competence.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Psicologia da Criança , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Sports Sci ; 34(21): 2027-37, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26928601

RESUMO

The present study identified adolescents' motor competence (MC)-based profiles (e.g., high actual and low perceived MC), and accordingly investigated differences in motivation for physical education (PE), physical activity (PA) levels, and sports participation between profiles by using regression analyses. Actual MC was measured with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Adolescents (n = 215; 66.0% boys; mean age = 13.64 ± .58 years) completed validated questionnaires to assess perceived MC, motivation for PE, PA-levels, and sports participation. Actual and perceived MC were only moderately correlated and cluster analyses identified four groups. Two groups of overestimators (low - overestimation, average - overestimation) were identified (51%), who particularly displayed better motivation for PE when compared to their peers who accurately estimated themselves (low - accurate, average - accurate). Moreover, adolescents with low actual MC, but high perceived MC were significantly more active than adolescents with low actual MC who accurately estimated themselves. Results pointed in the same direction for organised sports participation. Underestimators were not found in the current sample, which is positive as underestimation might negatively influence adolescents' motivation to achieve and persist in PA and sports. In conclusion, results emphasise that developing perceived MC, especially among adolescents with low levels of actual MC, seems crucial to stimulate motivation for PE, and engagement in PA and sports.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Motivação , Destreza Motora , Educação Física e Treinamento , Esportes , Adolescente , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Esportes/psicologia
16.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 16(7): 868-76, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26848872

RESUMO

Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Educação Física e Treinamento/organização & administração , Educação Física e Treinamento/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Psychol Belg ; 56(3): 288-310, 2016 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479441

RESUMO

In a sample of long distance runners, we examined the role of type of intrapersonal achievement goals (i.e., approach versus avoidance) and type of underlying reasons (i.e., autonomous and controlled), assessed prior to the race, as predictors of both pre-race (e.g., race appraisals) and post-race (e.g., flow experience) outcomes. Of 221 (62.4% males) runners, 111 reported pursuing an intrapersonal-approach goal (i.e., doing better than before) as their dominant or preferred achievement goal for the race, while 86 prioritized intrapersonal-avoidance goals (i.e., avoiding to perform worse than before). Regression and path analyses showed that the type of achievement goals predicted none of the outcomes except for running time, with approach goals predicting better performance when compared to avoidance goals. Path analyses revealed that autonomous reasons underlying intrapersonal goal pursuit related positively to pre-race challenge appraisals, performance and, via need satisfaction, to flow experience. Interestingly, controlled reasons positively related to pre-race threat appraisals and positively predicted both positive and negative self-talk, with both yielding opposing relations with flow. These findings complement past research on the intersection between the Achievement Goal Approach and Self-Determination Theory and highlight the value of studying the reasons underlying intrapersonal achievement goals.

18.
J Sports Sci ; 34(12): 1107-15, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26419187

RESUMO

Physical education (PE) teachers have a physically demanding job, putting them at a considerable risk for musculoskeletal injuries. To structurally develop tailored injury prevention programmes for PE teachers, a clear understanding of the extent, characteristics and underlying factors of their musculoskeletal injuries compared to referents is necessary. Therefore, the current study prospectively followed 103 PE teachers and 58 non-PE teachers, who registered musculoskeletal injuries and time of exposure to sports participation during one school year. Pearson χ(2)-tests and independent samples t-tests determined significant differences between PE and non-PE teachers regarding demographics and variables possibly related to injury occurrence. PE teachers had 1.23 and non-PE teachers 0.78 injuries/teacher/school year. This difference was significantly different after adjustment for hours spent weekly on intracurricular teaching during the career and for injury history during the preceding six months (P = 0.009; OR = 0.511; 95% CI = 0.308-0.846). PE teachers' most affected body parts were the knee and the back. PE teachers had a more extensive injury history (P < 0.001), a higher work- (P < 0.001) and sport index (P < 0.001), practiced more sports (P < 0.002) and taught more extracurricular sports (P = 0.001). Future injury prevention programmes should take account for the great injury history and heavy physical load in PE teachers.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento , Professores Escolares , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/lesões , Feminino , Humanos , Ligamentos/lesões , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esportes , Traumatismos dos Tendões/epidemiologia
19.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 37(4): 353-66, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26442767

RESUMO

Starting from self-determination theory, we explored whether student engagement/disengagement relates to teachers' need support and whether this relationship is moderated by teachers' causality orientations. A sample of 2004 students situated in 127 classes taught by 33 physical education teachers participated in the study. Both teachers and students reported on students' (dis)engagement, allowing investigation of the proposed relationships both at the student and teacher level. Most of the variance in need support was at the student level, but there was also between-teacher and between-class variance in need support. Engagement related to more need support, but only at the student level. In total, few moderation effects were found. Teachers with a relatively low controlled orientation were more need supportive when perceiving their students as emotionally and behaviorally engaged. By making teachers aware of these dynamics, automatic responses to student engagement can be better thought out. Recommendations for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Docentes , Relações Interpessoais , Educação Física e Treinamento , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/normas , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 15(5): 357-66, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25143133

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Flemish Sports Compass (FSC), a non-sport-specific generic testing battery. It was hypothesised that a set of 22 tests would have sufficient discriminant power to allocate athletes to their own sport based on a unique combination of test scores. First, discriminant analyses were applied to the 22 tests of anthropometry, physical fitness and motor coordination in 141 boys under age 18 (16.1 ± 0.8 years) and post age at peak height velocity (maturity offset = 2.674 ± 0.926) from Flemish Top Sport Academies for badminton, basketball, gymnastics, handball, judo, soccer, table tennis, triathlon and volleyball. Second, nine sequential discriminant analyses were used to assess the ability of a set of relevant performance characteristics classifying participants and non-participants for the respective sports. Discriminant analyses resulted in a 96.4% correct classification of all participants for the nine different sports. When focusing on relevant performance characteristics, 80.1% to 97.2% of the total test sample was classified correctly within their respective disciplines. The discriminating characteristics were briefly the following: flexibility in gymnastics, explosive lower-limb strength in badminton and volleyball, speed and agility in badminton, judo, soccer and volleyball, upper-body strength in badminton, basketball and gymnastics, cardiorespiratory endurance in triathletes, dribbling skills in handball, basketball and soccer and overhead-throwing skills in badminton and volleyball. The generic talent characteristics of the FSC enable the distinction of adolescent boys according to their particular sport. Implications for talent programmes are discussed.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino
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