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Hum Vaccin ; 7(5): 539-48, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21422814


INTRODUCTION: Systemic safety surveillance is an essential component of vaccination programmes to elucidate the full safety profile of a vaccine and to detect previously unrecognized adverse reactions that might be related to new vaccines. This article summarizes the spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADR) from approximately 12 million administered doses of the pandemic MF59-adjuvanted H1N1v vaccine (Focetria®, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics) from the mass vaccination programmes in Europe. METHODS: All ADR reports from October 2009 to March 2010 were included in the analyses and classified according to Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities. Adverse events of special interest were compared with pooled spontaneous case reports for seasonal influenza vaccines, and signal detection analyses were performed. RESULTS: In the reporting period we received a total of 5315 pandemic vaccine ADR reports, of which 19.9% were serious. The reporting rate was higher after H1N1 pandemic vaccines, i.e. 44.3 cases/100.000 doses, than for seasonal influenza vaccines covering the same time period, i.e. 1.7 cases/100.000 doses. The majority of reports included expected local and systemic postvaccination reactions. Rates for adverse events of special interest, for example, Guillain-Barré syndrome, anaphylaxis, and convulsions showed no signs of disproportionality between the pandemic and the seasonal vaccines. There were 36 deaths reported after use of the pandemic vaccine; however, no evidence for a causal relationship with the vaccine was found. CONCLUSION: The analyses of the spontaneously reported adverse events support the good safety profile of the MF59-adjuvanted H1N1v pandemic influenza vaccine.

Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Polissorbatos/efeitos adversos , Esqualeno/efeitos adversos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissorbatos/administração & dosagem , Esqualeno/administração & dosagem , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
Thromb Haemost ; 98(4): 790-7, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17938803


Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) are widely administered for emergency oral anticoagulation reversal and for coagulation defects in liver disease. Pharmacokinetic data may help to optimize treatment. The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of a PCC (Beriplex P/N) containing coagulation factors II (FII), VII (FVII), IX (FIX) and X (FX) and anticoagulant proteins C and S. Fifteen healthy volunteers received a single rapid 50 IU/kg infusion of PCC and underwent frequent blood sampling until 144 hours (h) after infusion. Coagulation factors and anticoagulant protein pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by non-linear regression. The mean infusion rate of PCC was 7.9 ml/min, equivalent to 196.4 IU/min. By the earliest post-infusion sampling point at 5 minutes (min), plasma FIX concentration increased by a median of 73%. Median increases in FII, FVII and FX at 5 min were 122%, 62% and 158%, respectively. Proteins C and S also increased rapidly. The median terminal half-life of FIX was 16.7 h, FII 59.7 h, FVII 4.2 h and FX 30.7 h. The median in-vivo recovery of FIX was 1.57 %/IU/kg and that of the other three coagulation factors > 2 %/IU/kg. Plasma concentration of thrombogenicity marker D-dimer did not increase, and there was no clinical evidence of thrombosis. Through up to 12 weeks follow-up there were no laboratory findings indicating PCC-related viral exposure. Rapid PCC infusion produced prompt sustained increases in coagulation factors and anticoagulant proteins with no clinical evidence of thrombosis or viral transmission.

Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/farmacocinética , Fator IX/farmacocinética , Fator VII/farmacocinética , Fator X/farmacocinética , Protrombina/biossíntese , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/química , Humanos , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Protrombina/farmacocinética , Análise de Regressão , Trombose , Fatores de Tempo
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 18(6): 565-70, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17762533


The present prospective study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) for emergency reversal of oral anticoagulation with phenprocoumon, a long-acting coumarin. Patients were eligible for study entry if they required emergency reversal of phenprocoumon anticoagulation because they needed invasive surgical or diagnostic procedures or were actively bleeding. Patients received one or more infusions of pasteurized nanofiltered PCC (Beriplex P/N). Primary study endpoints were changes in International Normalized Ratio, Quick value, factors II, VII, IX and X, and protein C 10, 30 and 60 min following PCC infusion. Eight adult patients were enrolled, seven requiring urgent invasive procedures and one experiencing intracranial bleeding. In the first infusion, patients received a median 3600 IU PCC at median infusion rate 17.0 ml/min. Mean (SD) baseline International Normalized Ratio was 3.4 (1.2). The International Normalized Ratio 10 min after PCC infusion declined to 1.3 or less in seven of eight patients and to 1.4 in one patient. After PCC infusion, the Quick value increased by a mean of 57% [confidence interval (CI), 45-69%], circulating factor II concentration by 85% (CI, 68-103%), factor VII by 51% (CI, 40-62%), factor IX by 61% (CI, 47-76%), factor X by 115% (CI, 95-135%) and protein C by 100% (CI, 82-117%). Clinical effectiveness of PCC treatment was rated 'very good' in seven patients and 'satisfactory' in one. No thromboembolic or other adverse events occurred. PCC treatment rapidly, effectively and safely reversed phenprocoumon anticoagulation in patients undergoing urgent invasive procedures or actively bleeding.

Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Femprocumona/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/sangue , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Femprocumona/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios
Transfus Apher Sci ; 32(3): 247-53, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15919240


The efficacy and tolerability of a pasteurised human fibrinogen concentrate were assessed in an open, multi-centre, non-controlled retrospective study in patients with congenital fibrinogen deficiency. Haemostatic efficacy was assessed by laboratory investigation and clinical observation. The study included 12 patients (afibrinogenaemia, n = 8; hypofibrinogenaemia, n = 3; dysfibrinogenaemia combined with hypofibrinogenaemia, n = 1). Fibrinogen substitution was indicated: to stop an ongoing bleed; as prophylaxis before surgery; or for routine prophylaxis to prevent spontaneous bleeding. In total, 151 fibrinogen infusions were recorded. The median single dosage was 63.5mg/kg body weight for bleeding events or surgery and 76.9 mg/kg for prophylaxis. The median total dose per event for bleeding events or surgery was 105.6 mg/kg. Fibrinogen was administered in 26 bleeding episodes; 11 surgical operations; and 89 prophylactic infusions, of which 86 were received by one patient. The median response (n = 8) was 1.5 mg/dl per substituted mg of fibrinogen per kg body weight (0.8-2.3). The median in vivo recovery (n = 8) was 59.8% (32.5-93.9). Clinical efficacy was very good in all events with the exception of one surgical procedure, where it was moderate. No intercurrent bleeding occurred during prophylaxis. All but one infusion was well tolerated; the patient, who was administered 86 prophylactic infusions, experienced an anaphylactic reaction after the 56th infusion. In addition, one patient developed deep vein thrombosis and non-fatal pulmonary embolism with treatment for osteosynthesis after collum femoris fracture. Fibrinogen substitution could not be excluded as a contributing factor in this high-risk patient. Substitution with pasteurised human fibrinogen concentrate in patients with congenital fibrinogen deficiencies is efficient and generally well tolerated.

Afibrinogenemia/terapia , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Fibrinogênio/administração & dosagem , Preservação Biológica , Afibrinogenemia/congênito , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
Transfus Apher Sci ; 32(3): 239-46, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15919241


The main pharmacokinetic characteristics of a plasma-derived, pasteurised fibrinogen concentrate were assessed in an open, multicentre, non-controlled study in five patients with congenital afibrinogenaemia or severe congenital hypofibrinogenaemia. Plasma samples were assayed for fibrinogen content in laboratories of the participating clinical centres (CCs) and additionally in a central laboratory at Aventis Behring (ABL). The values of the pharmacokinetic variables, using the fibrinogen determination at ABL, yielded a somewhat shorter terminal half-life compared with that determined at the CCs, with median (range) values of 2.7 days (2.5-3.7 days) versus 3.6 days (3.0-5.3 days), respectively. Fibrinogen clearance rate was clearly lower at the ABL with values of 0.91 ml/h/kg (0.84-1.22 ml/h/kg) compared with 1.65 ml/h/kg (0.82-2.55 ml/h/kg) at the CCs. The distribution volume at steady state (V-ss) of 89 ml/kg (81-116 ml/kg) was also smaller at the ABL than at the CCs (101 ml/kg [84-139 ml/kg]). Response, in vivo recovery and area under the curve did not differ noticeably between the laboratories. The normalisation or near normalisation of pre-infusion pathological coagulation tests indicated a good haemostatic efficacy of the tested fibrinogen concentrate, which was also generally well tolerated and not associated with any serious adverse reactions.

Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Fibrinogênio/farmacocinética , Preservação Biológica , Adulto , Afibrinogenemia/terapia , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(1): 15-20, 2003 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12544689


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous infusions of an improved prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) formulation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-two adults with haemostatic defects due to severe liver disease (Quick's test 50%), which required rapid haemostasis because of bleeding or before urgent surgery or invasive intervention. Laboratory follow-up, including the response and in-vivo recovery of the substituted coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X and protein C took place before, then 10 min, 30 min and 60 min after PCC substitution. Clinical efficacy (avoidance or cessation of bleeding) was assessed using a scale ranging from 'very good' to 'none'. RESULTS: Patients received a median PCC dose of 25.7 IU/kg. The response of factor IX and protein C was 1.2-1.4 (IU/dl)/(IU/kg), the in-vivo recovery was 49.7-57.4%, and the Quick's test increased from 39% to a maximum of 65%. Levels of activation markers of the coagulation system factor VIIa, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 and thrombin antithrombin complex (TAT) increased, but without evidence of any thromboembolic events. Clinical efficacy was judged as 'very good' in 76% of patients after the first (n = 21) treatment. There were no changes in serological status regarding transmission of HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. No PCC-related adverse reactions occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The infusion of pasteurized, nanometre-filtered PCC is an effective, well-tolerated method of correcting prothrombin complex deficiency in patients with severe liver disease with haemorrhage, or before an urgent surgical or invasive diagnostic intervention.

Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas Hemostáticas , Hepatopatias/complicações , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Coagulação Sanguínea , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/metabolismo , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemofiltração/métodos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Hepatopatias/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Viremia/diagnóstico , Inativação de Vírus