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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of the STREAM trial was to evaluate the effect of simulation training on process times in acute stroke care. METHODS: The multicenter prospective interventional STREAM trial was conducted between 10/2017 and 04/2019 at seven tertiary care neurocenters in Germany with a pre- and post-interventional observation phase. We recorded patient characteristics, acute stroke care process times, stroke team composition and simulation experience for consecutive direct-to-center patients receiving i.v. thrombolysis (IVT) and/or endovascular therapy (EVT). The intervention consisted of a composite intervention centered around stroke-specific in situ simulation training. Primary outcome measure was the 'door-to-needle' time (DTN) for IVT. Secondary outcome measures included process times of EVT and measures taken to streamline the preexisting treatment algorithm. RESULTS: The effect of the STREAM intervention on the process times of all acute stroke operations was neutral. However, secondary analyses showed a DTN reduction of 5 min from 38 min pre (interquartile range [IQR] 25 - 43 min) to 33 min (IQR 23 - 39 min), p = 0.03) post intervention achieved by simulation-experienced stroke teams. Concerning EVT, we found significantly shorter door-to-groin times in patients who were treated by teams with simulation experience as compared to simulation-naive teams in the post interventional phase (-21 min, simulation-naive: 95 min, IQR 69 - 111 vs. simulation-experienced: 74 min, IQR 51 - 92, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: An intervention combining workflow refinement and simulation-based stroke team training has the potential to improve process times in acute stroke care.

2.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(7): 938-958, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143285

RESUMO

This expert opinion paper on cardiac imaging after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) includes a statement of the "Heart and Brain" consortium of the German Cardiac Society and the German Stroke Society. The Stroke Unit-Commission of the German Stroke Society and the German Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET) endorsed this paper. Cardiac imaging is a key component of etiological work-up after stroke. Enhanced echocardiographic tools, constantly improving cardiac computer tomography (CT) as well as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offer comprehensive non- or less-invasive cardiac evaluation at the expense of increased costs and/or radiation exposure. Certain imaging findings usually lead to a change in medical secondary stroke prevention or may influence medical treatment. However, there is no proof from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that the choice of the imaging method influences the prognosis of stroke patients. Summarizing present knowledge, the German Heart and Brain consortium proposes an interdisciplinary, staged standard diagnostic scheme for the detection of risk factors of cardio-embolic stroke. This expert opinion paper aims to give practical advice to physicians who are involved in stroke care. In line with the nature of an expert opinion paper, labeling of classes of recommendations is not provided, since many statements are based on expert opinion, reported case series, and clinical experience.

3.
Europace ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136917

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death, even on anticoagulation. It is controversial, which conditions-including concomitant diseases and AF itself-contribute to this mortality. To further clarify these questions, major determinants of long-term mortality and their contribution to death were quantified in an unselected cohort of AF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We established a large nationwide registry comprising 8833 AF-patients with a median follow-up of 6.5 years (45 345 patient-years) and central adjudication of adverse events. Baseline characteristics of the patients were evaluated as predictors of mortality using Cox regression and C-indices for determination of predictive power. Annualized mortality was highest in the first year (6.2%) and remained high thereafter (5.2% in men and 5.5% in women). Thirty-eight percent of all deaths were cardiovascular, mainly due to heart failure or sudden death. Sex-specific age was the strongest predictor of mortality, followed by concomitant cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular conditions. These factors accounted for 25% of the total mortality beyond age and sex and for 84% of the mortality differences between AF types. Thus, the electrical phenotype of the disease at baseline contributed only marginally to prediction of mortality. CONCLUSION: Mortality is high in AF patients and arises primarily from heart failure, peripheral artery disease, chronic obstructive lung disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus, which, therefore, should be targeted to lower mortality. Parameters related to the electrical manifestation of AF did not have an independent impact on long-term mortality in our representative cohort.

5.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(6): 426-436, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring improves detection of covert atrial fibrillation in stroke survivors but the effect on secondary prevention is unknown. We aimed to assess the effect of systematic ECG monitoring of patients in hospital on the rate of oral anticoagulant use after 12 months. METHODS: In this investigator-initiated, randomised, open-label, parallel-group multicentre study with masked endpoint adjudication, we recruited patients aged at least 18 years with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack without known atrial fibrillation in 38 certified stroke units in Germany. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to usual diagnostic procedures for atrial fibrillation detection (control group) or additional Holter-ECG recording for up to 7 days in hospital (intervention group). Patients were stratified by centre using a random permuted block design. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients on oral anticoagulants at 12 months after the index event in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary outcomes included the number of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation in hospital and the composite of recurrent stroke, major bleeding, myocardial infarction, or death after 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02204267, and is completed and closed for participants. FINDINGS: Between Dec 9, 2014, and Sept 11, 2017, 3465 patients were randomly assigned, 1735 (50·1%) to the intervention group and 1730 (49·9%) to the control group. Oral anticoagulation status was available in 2920 (84·3%) patients at 12 months (1484 [50·8%] in the intervention group and 1436 [49·2%] in the control group). For the primary outcome, at 12 months, 203 (13·7%) of 1484 patients in the intervention group versus 169 (11·8%) of 1436 in the control group were on oral anticoagulants (odds ratio [OR] 1·2 [95% CI 0·9-1·5]; p=0·13). Atrial fibrillation was newly detected in patients in hospital in 97 (5·8%) of 1714 in the intervention group versus 68 (4·0%) of 1717 in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·4 [95% CI 1·0-2·0]; p=0·024). The composite of cardiovascular outcomes and death did not differ between patients randomly assigned to the intervention group versus the control group at 24 months (232 [13·5%] of 1714 vs 249 [14·5%] of 1717; HR 0·9 [0·8-1·1]; p=0·43). Skin reactions due to study ECG electrodes were reported in 56 (3·3%) patients in the intervention group. All-cause death occured in 73 (4·3%) patients in the intervention group and in 103 (6·0%) patients in the control group (OR 0·7 [0·5-0·9]). INTERPRETATION: Systematic core centrally reviewed ECG monitoring is feasible and increases the detection rate of atrial fibrillation in unselected patients hospitalised with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack, if added to usual diagnostic care in certified German stroke units. However, we found no effect of systematic ECG monitoring on the rate of oral anticoagulant use after 12 months and further efforts are needed to improve secondary stroke prevention. FUNDING: Bayer Vital. TRANSLATION: For the German translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
7.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(4): 420-428, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774614

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Door-to-CT scan time (DCT) and door-to-needle time (DNT) are important process measures in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients undergoing intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We examined the impact of a telemedical prenotification by emergency medical service (EMS) (called the "Stroke Angel" program) on DCT and DNT and IVT rate compared to standard of care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two prospective observational studies including AIS patients admitted via EMS from 2011 to 2013 (cohort I; n = 496) and from January 1, 2015 to May 31, 2018 (cohort II; n = 349) were conducted. After cohort I, the 4-Item Stroke Scale and a digital thrombolysis protocol were added. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: In cohort I, DCT was lower in the intervention group (13 vs. 26 min using standard of care; p < 0.001), but no significant difference in median DNT (35 vs. 39 min; p = 0.24) was observed. In cohort II, a reduction of DCT (8 vs. 15 min; p < 0.001) and DNT (25 vs. 29 min p = 0.003) was observed in the intervention group. Compared to standard of care, the likelihood of DCT ≤10 min or DNT ≤20 min in the intervention group was 2.7 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.7; 95% CI: 2.1-3.5) and 1.8 (aOR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-2.9), respectively. In cohort II, IVT rate was higher (aOR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.9) in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: Although the positive effects of Stroke Angel in AIS provided a rationale for implementation in routine care, larger studies of practice implementation will be needed. Using Stroke Angel in the prehospital management of AIS impacts on important process measures of IVT delivery.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Telemedicina , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Enfermagem em Emergência , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Alemanha , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurologistas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3267-3278, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on telemedical care have not been described on a national level. Thus, we investigated the medical stroke treatment situation before, during, and after the first lockdown in Germany. METHODS: In this nationwide, multicenter study, data from 14 telemedical networks including 31 network centers and 155 spoke hospitals covering large parts of Germany were analyzed regarding patients' characteristics, stroke type/severity, and acute stroke treatment. A survey focusing on potential shortcomings of in-hospital and (telemedical) stroke care during the pandemic was conducted. RESULTS: Between January 2018 and June 2020, 67,033 telemedical consultations and 38,895 telemedical stroke consultations were conducted. A significant decline of telemedical (p < 0.001) and telemedical stroke consultations (p < 0.001) during the lockdown in March/April 2020 and a reciprocal increase after relaxation of COVID-19 measures in May/June 2020 were observed. Compared to 2018-2019, neither stroke patients' age (p = 0.38), gender (p = 0.44), nor severity of ischemic stroke (p = 0.32) differed in March/April 2020. Whereas the proportion of ischemic stroke patients for whom endovascular treatment (14.3% vs. 14.6%; p = 0.85) was recommended remained stable, there was a nonsignificant trend toward a lower proportion of recommendation of intravenous thrombolysis during the lockdown (19.0% vs. 22.1%; p = 0.052). Despite the majority of participating network centers treating patients with COVID-19, there were no relevant shortcomings reported regarding in-hospital stroke treatment or telemedical stroke care. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedical stroke care in Germany was able to provide full service despite the COVID-19 pandemic, but telemedical consultations declined abruptly during the lockdown period and normalized after relaxation of COVID-19 measures in Germany.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Consulta Remota , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
10.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 1117-1129, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350167

RESUMO

AIMS: Ischaemic stroke (IS) might induce alterations of cardiac function. Prospective data on frequency of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure (HF) after IS are lacking. We assessed prevalence and determinants of diastolic dysfunction (DD), systolic dysfunction (SD), and HF in patients with acute IS. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Stroke-Induced Cardiac FAILure in mice and men (SICFAIL) study is a prospective, hospital-based cohort study. Patients with IS underwent a comprehensive assessment of cardiac function in the acute phase (median 4 days after IS) including clinical examination, standardized transthoracic echocardiography by expert sonographers, and determination of blood-based biomarkers. Information on demographics, lifestyle, risk factors, symptoms suggestive of HF, and medical history was collected by a standardized personal interview. Applying current guidelines, cardiac dysfunction was classified based on echocardiographic criteria into SD (left ventricular ejection fraction < 52% in men or <54% in women) and DD (≥3 signs of DD in patients without SD). Clinically overt HF was classified into HF with reduced, mid-range, or preserved ejection fraction. Between January 2014 and February 2017, 696 IS patients were enrolled. Of them, patients with sufficient echocardiographic data on SD were included in the analyses {n = 644 patients [median age 71 years (interquartile range 60-78), 61.5% male]}. In these patients, full assessment of DD was feasible in 549 patients without SD (94%). Prevalence of cardiac dysfunction and HF was as follows: SD 9.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6-12.2%]; DD in patients without SD 23.3% (95% CI 20.0-27.0%); and clinically overt HF 5.4% (95% CI 3.9-7.5%) with subcategories of HF with preserved ejection fraction 4.35%, HF with mid-range ejection fraction 0.31%, and HF with reduced ejection fraction 0.78%. In multivariable analysis, SD and fulfilment of HF criteria were associated with history of coronary heart disease [SD: odds ratio (OR) 3.87, 95% CI 1.93-7.75, P = 0.0001; HF: OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.04-5.05, P = 0.0406] and high-sensitive troponin T at baseline (SD: OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.31-2.42, P = 0.0003; HF: OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.17-2.33, P = 0.004); DD was associated with older age (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.11, P < 0.0001) and treated hypertension vs. no hypertension (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.23-6.54, P = 0.0405). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the study population exhibited subclinical and clinical cardiac dysfunction. SICFAIL provides reliable data on prevalence and determinants of SD, DD, and clinically overt HF in patients with acute IS according to current guidelines, enabling further clarification of its aetiological and prognostic role.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Insuficiência Cardíaca , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036337

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke caused by thromboembolic occlusion of large cerebral arteries, such as the internal carotid (ICA) and/or the middle cerebral artery (MCA), is treated by mechanical thrombectomy (MT). MT allows salvage of the vessel-occluding thrombemboli, which most frequently originate from the left atrium or the left ventricle of the heart or from sites of plaque rupture within large arteries above the heart. Clot composition may influence the efficacy of (intravenous) thrombolysis and MT, respectively. We analyzed 37 human thrombemboli obtained from acute ischemic stroke patients during MT with special emphasis on histological staining of neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). We found neutrophils as the main cellular component of cerebral thrombemboli but encountered considerable morphological heterogeneity. Neutrophils accumulated in the border region of fibrin-rich structures indicating possible interaction of neutrophils with distinct structural thrombembolus components. Web-like NETs were found in 35 of 37 thrombemboli in varying amounts. NETs were almost exclusively found within fibrin-rich areas. Importantly, stroke etiology, age and present oral anticoagulation was associated with morphological patterns and the amount of neutrophils. Correlation of histological data and imaging data revealed that relative Hounsfield units of cerebral thrombemboli positively correlated with the amount of red blood cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that neutrophils and NETs are substantial constituents of cerebral thrombemboli and contribute to their structural complexity.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Tromboembolia/complicações , Idoso , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Heart ; 106(24): 1919-1926, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in quality of life (QoL), cognition and functional status according to arrhythmia recurrence after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. METHODS: We compared QoL, cognition and functional status in patients with recurrent atrial tachycardia (AT)/AF versus those without recurrent AT/AF in the AXAFA-AFNET 5 clinical trial. We also sought to identify factors associated with improvement in QoL and functional status following AF ablation by overall change scores with and without analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). RESULTS: Among 518 patients who underwent AF ablation, 154 (29.7%) experienced recurrent AT/AF at 3 months. Patients with recurrent AT/AF had higher mean CHA2DS2-VASc scores (2.8 vs 2.3, p<0.001) and more persistent forms of AF (51 vs 39%, p=0.012). Median changes in the SF-12 physical (3 (25th, 75th: -1, 8) vs 1 (-5, 8), p=0.026) and mental scores (2 (-3, 9) vs 0 (-4, 5), p=0.004), EQ-5D (0 (0,2) vs 0 (-0.1, 0.1), p=0.027) and Karnofsky functional status scores (10 (0, 10) vs 0 (0, 10), p=0.001) were more favourable in patients without recurrent AT/AF. In the overall cohort, the proportion with at least mild cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment <26) declined from 30.3% (n=157) at baseline to 21.8% (n=113) at follow-up. ANCOVA identified greater improvement in Karnofsky functional status (p<0.001) but not SF-12 physical (p=0.238) or mental scores (p=0.065) in those without recurrent AT/AF compared with patients with recurrent AT/AF. CONCLUSIONS: Patients without recurrent AT/AF appear to experience greater improvement in functional status but similar QoL as those with recurrent AT/AF after AF ablation.

13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105266, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992191

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulation (OAC) substantially reduces stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) at risk for stroke. Whether non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants (NOACs) improve OAC use in stroke prevention requires investigation. METHODS: To investigate temporal trends of OAC use in patients with known AF pre-stroke, we retrospectively analyzed records of 6,803 stroke patients admitted in 2003-2004 (n=1,496), 2008-2010 (n=1,638) or 2013-2015 (n=3,669) to the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Adjusted regression models were used to identify factors associated with OAC use. RESULTS: Of 1,209 AF patients (mean age 79 years, 55.9% female) with given indication for OAC according to the CHADS2/CHA2DS2-VASc score, 484 (40.0%) were anticoagulated prior to the index stroke, 458 (37.9%) received antiplatelets and 236 (19.5%) had no antithrombotic medication. Compared to 2003-2004 and 2008-2010, there was a higher rate of pre-admission OAC in 2013-2015 (28.2% vs. 49.6%, p<0.001). After adjustment for possible confounders, factors associated with OAC pre-admission were young age (OR 0.74 per decade [95%CI 0.64-0.85]), previous stroke/TIA (OR 1.29 [95%CI 1.00-1.67]), absence of heart failure (OR 0.63 [95%CI 0.47-0.85]) and admission in 2013-2015 (OR 2.45 [95%CI 1.91-3.15]). Prescription of OAC at hospital discharge increased from 2003-2010 compared to 2013-2015 (45.2% vs. 69.5%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of temporal trends and despite given indication, more than half of all patients with known AF were not anticoagulated prior to the index stroke. In the NOAC era, there was an increase in OAC intake pre-stroke and a higher rate of OAC prescription at hospital discharge in stroke survivors with known AF.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Prevenção Secundária/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2572-2580, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667736

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is frequent in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Assessment of cardiac function in AIS patients using cardiovascular MRI (CMR) may help to detect HF. We report the rate of systolic and diastolic dysfunction in a cohort of patients with AIS using CMR and compare cine real-time (CRT) sequences with the reference of segmented cine steady-state free precession sequences. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with AIS without known atrial fibrillation were prospectively enrolled in the HEart and BRain Interfaces in Acute Ischemic Stroke (HEBRAS) study (NCT02142413) and underwent CMR at 3 Tesla within 7 days after AIS. Validity of CRT sequences was determined in 50 patients. A total of 229 patients were included in the analysis (mean age 66 years; 35% women; HF 2%). Evaluation of cardiac function was successful in 172 (75%) patients. Median time from stroke onset to CMR was 82 h (interquartile range 56-111) and 54 h (interquartile range 31-78) from cerebral MRI to CMR. Systolic dysfunction was observed in 43 (25%) and diastolic dysfunction in 102 (59%) patients. Diagnostic yield was similar using CRT or segmented cine imaging (no significant difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, myocardial mass, time to peak filling rate, and peak filling rate ratio E/A). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was high (κ = 0.78-1.0 for all modalities). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular MRI at 3 Tesla is an appropriate method for the evaluation of cardiac function in a selected cohort of patients with AIS. Systolic and diastolic dysfunction is frequent in these patients. CRT imaging allows reliable assessment of systolic and diastolic function.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
15.
Europace ; 22(9): 1337-1344, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725107

RESUMO

AIMS: Freedom from atrial fibrillation (AF) at 1 year can be achieved in 50-70% of patients undergoing catheter ablation. Recurrent AF early after ablation most commonly terminates spontaneously without further interventional treatment but is associated with later recurrent AF. The aim of this investigation is to identify clinical and procedural factors associated with recurrence of AF early after ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed data for recurrence of AF within the first 3 months after catheter ablation from the randomized controlled AXAFA-AFNET 5 trial, which demonstrated that continuous anticoagulation with apixaban is as safe and as effective compared to vitamin K antagonists in 678 patients undergoing first AF ablation. The primary outcome of first recurrent AF within 90 days was observed in 163 (28%) patients, in which 78 (48%) patients experienced an event within the first 14 days post-ablation. After multivariable adjustment, a history of stroke/transient ischaemic attack [hazard ratio (HR) 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-2.6; P = 0.11], coronary artery disease (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.20-2.86; P = 0.005), cardioversion during ablation (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.26-2.49; P = 0.001), and an age:sex interaction for older women (HR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.01; P = 0.04) were associated with recurrent AF. The P-wave duration at follow-up was significantly longer for patients with AF recurrence (129 ± 31 ms vs. 122 ± 22 ms in patients without AF, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Half of all early AF recurrences within the first 3 months post-ablation occurred within the first 14 days post-ablation. Vascular disease and cardioversion during the procedure are strong predictors of recurrent AF. P-wave duration at follow-up was longer in patients with recurrent AF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02227550.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 884-891, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163672

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have an increased risk of ischaemic stroke. We aimed to identify the incidence rate and factors associated with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in CHF patients as well as the impact of non-invasive telemedical care (NITC) on acute stroke/TIA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed baseline characteristics of 2248 CHF patients enrolled to the prospective multicentre Telemedical Interventional Monitoring in Heart Failure study (TIM-HF) and Telemedical Interventional Management in Heart Failure II study (TIM-HF2), randomizing New York Heart Association (NYHA) II/III patients 1:1 to NITC or standard of care. Hospitalizations due to acute ischaemic stroke or TIA during a follow-up of 12 months were analysed. Old age, hyperlipidaemia, lower body mass index, and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) were independently associated with present cerebrovascular disease on enrolment. The stroke/TIA rate was 1.5 per 100 patients-years within 12 months after randomization (n = 32, 1.4%). Rate of stroke/TIA within 12 months was in the intervention group similar compared with the control group (50.0% vs. 49.8%; P = 0.98) despite that the rate of newly detected atrial fibrillation (AF) was higher in the intervention group (14.1% vs. 1.6%; P < 0.001). A history of PAOD (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.2; P = 0.02) and the highest tertile (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.1-8.3) of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) on enrolment were associated with stroke/TIA during follow-up. In patients who suffered acute stroke or TIA during follow-up, echocardiography was part of the diagnostic workup in only 56% after hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: Annual rate of ischaemic stroke/TIA in NYHA II/III patients is low but higher in those with elevated NT-proBNP levels and history of PAOD at baseline. NITC showed no impact on the stroke rate during 1 year follow-up despite a significantly higher rate of newly detected AF. Irrespective of known CHF, echocardiography was often missing during in-hospital diagnostic workup after acute stroke/TIA.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
17.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 104, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine improves the quality of acute stroke care in rural regions with limited access to specialized stroke care. We report the first 2 years' experience of implementing a comprehensive telemedical stroke network comprising all levels of stroke care in a defined region. METHODS: The TRANSIT-Stroke network covers a mainly rural region in north-western Bavaria (Germany). All hospitals providing acute stroke care in this region participate in TRANSIT-Stroke, including four hospitals with a supra-regional certified stroke unit (SU) care (level III), three of those providing teleconsultation to two hospitals with a regional certified SU (level II) and five hospitals without specialized SU care (level I). For a two-year-period (01/2015 to 12/2016), data of eight of these hospitals were available; 13 evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) related to processes during hospitalisation were evaluated quarterly and compared according to predefined target values between level-I- and level-II/III-hospitals. RESULTS: Overall, 7881 patients were included (mean age 74.6 years ±12.8; 48.4% female). In level-II/III-hospitals adherence of all QIs to predefined targets was high ab initio. In level-I-hospitals, three patterns of QI-development were observed: a) high adherence ab initio (31%), mainly in secondary stroke prevention; b) improvement over time (44%), predominantly related to stroke specific diagnosis and in-hospital organization; c) no clear time trends (25%). Overall, 10 out of 13 QIs reached predefined target values of quality of care at the end of the observation period. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the comprehensive TRANSIT-Stroke network resulted in an improvement of quality of care in level-I-hospitals.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Telemedicina/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural
19.
J Clin Neurosci ; 73: 168-172, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992513

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with cognitive decline and dementia irrespective of AF-related ischemic stroke. We investigated whether AF burden after ablation in patients with symptomatic paroxysmal AF has an impact on cognitive function. After enrolment to the prospective MACPAF study, study patients received an insertable loop recorder (ILR) and underwent serial neurological/cognitive assessment. To compare cognitive function, the delta of baseline and six months test results (Δpre/post) and a score to assess overall cognitive performance were computed. Thirty patients (median age 65 years (IQR 57-69), 40% female) were divided into groups according to median AF burden (<0.5% vs. ≥0.5%) after ablation. Overall cognitive performance did not differ in patients with an AF burden < 0.5% (median 120% [IQR 100-150]) vs. ≥0.5% (median 120% [IQR 100-160]) within six months after ablation (p = 0.74). Comparing Δpre/post, patients with an AF burden ≥ 0.5% showed significantly better results in the digit-span backwards test (median + 1 [IQR 0 - +2 points]) compared to patients with an AF burden < 0.5% (median 0 [IQR -1-+1]) six months after ablation (p = 0.03). In patients with an AF burden < 0.5%, there was a statistical trend towards better results in the RAVLT test (median + 3 [IQR 0-+4]; p = 0.08) and the ROC test (median + 3 [IQR -1-+5; p = 0.07) compared to patients with an AF burden ≥ 0.5% (median -1 [IQR -3-+2] words and median -1 [IQR -5-+2] points, respectively). Therefore, AF burden had no significant impact on cognitive performance within six months after ablation. Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT01061931.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Cognição , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(2): 104515, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients present with unknown time of symptom onset (UTO). In these situations, wake-up MRI protocols can guide treatment decisions: patients with DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) but no fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesion were shown to benefit from IVT (intravenous thrombolysis). However, initial MRI of some stroke patients is DWI negative, leaving it unclear whether this subgroup profits from IVT. Therefore, we aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of IVT in wake-up AIS patients with or without a DWI lesion in initial imaging. METHODS: We performed a case-control study. All AIS patients with UTO who underwent wake-up MRI and were treated with IVT at a German University Hospital from 2013 to 2017 were included. Patients without (DWI-) were compared to patients with DWI lesion (DWI+) regarding clinico-radiological characteristics, adverse events, and outcome at discharge. Likely stroke mimics were excluded. RESULTS: Eleven DWI- and 32 DWI+ patients were included. There were no statistically significant differences regarding functional scores, age, sex, door-to-needle time, bleeding complications, and death. DWI+ patients more frequently had anterior circulation stroke (P = .049) and higher modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at discharge (P = .048). Solely in the DWI+ group 3 bleeding complications (2 asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformations, 1 muscle hematoma) and 3 deaths occurred (P = .29). A favourable outcome (mRS≤ 2) was achieved in 82% of the DWI- and in 58% of the DWI+ group (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that IVT may be used in DWI- patients with UTO with acute neurological symptoms very likely to be related to AIS.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
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