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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163672

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have an increased risk of ischaemic stroke. We aimed to identify the incidence rate and factors associated with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in CHF patients as well as the impact of non-invasive telemedical care (NITC) on acute stroke/TIA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed baseline characteristics of 2248 CHF patients enrolled to the prospective multicentre Telemedical Interventional Monitoring in Heart Failure study (TIM-HF) and Telemedical Interventional Management in Heart Failure II study (TIM-HF2), randomizing New York Heart Association (NYHA) II/III patients 1:1 to NITC or standard of care. Hospitalizations due to acute ischaemic stroke or TIA during a follow-up of 12 months were analysed. Old age, hyperlipidaemia, lower body mass index, and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) were independently associated with present cerebrovascular disease on enrolment. The stroke/TIA rate was 1.5 per 100 patients-years within 12 months after randomization (n = 32, 1.4%). Rate of stroke/TIA within 12 months was in the intervention group similar compared with the control group (50.0% vs. 49.8%; P = 0.98) despite that the rate of newly detected atrial fibrillation (AF) was higher in the intervention group (14.1% vs. 1.6%; P < 0.001). A history of PAOD (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.2; P = 0.02) and the highest tertile (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.1-8.3) of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) on enrolment were associated with stroke/TIA during follow-up. In patients who suffered acute stroke or TIA during follow-up, echocardiography was part of the diagnostic workup in only 56% after hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: Annual rate of ischaemic stroke/TIA in NYHA II/III patients is low but higher in those with elevated NT-proBNP levels and history of PAOD at baseline. NITC showed no impact on the stroke rate during 1 year follow-up despite a significantly higher rate of newly detected AF. Irrespective of known CHF, echocardiography was often missing during in-hospital diagnostic workup after acute stroke/TIA.

2.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 104, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine improves the quality of acute stroke care in rural regions with limited access to specialized stroke care. We report the first 2 years' experience of implementing a comprehensive telemedical stroke network comprising all levels of stroke care in a defined region. METHODS: The TRANSIT-Stroke network covers a mainly rural region in north-western Bavaria (Germany). All hospitals providing acute stroke care in this region participate in TRANSIT-Stroke, including four hospitals with a supra-regional certified stroke unit (SU) care (level III), three of those providing teleconsultation to two hospitals with a regional certified SU (level II) and five hospitals without specialized SU care (level I). For a two-year-period (01/2015 to 12/2016), data of eight of these hospitals were available; 13 evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) related to processes during hospitalisation were evaluated quarterly and compared according to predefined target values between level-I- and level-II/III-hospitals. RESULTS: Overall, 7881 patients were included (mean age 74.6 years ±12.8; 48.4% female). In level-II/III-hospitals adherence of all QIs to predefined targets was high ab initio. In level-I-hospitals, three patterns of QI-development were observed: a) high adherence ab initio (31%), mainly in secondary stroke prevention; b) improvement over time (44%), predominantly related to stroke specific diagnosis and in-hospital organization; c) no clear time trends (25%). Overall, 10 out of 13 QIs reached predefined target values of quality of care at the end of the observation period. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the comprehensive TRANSIT-Stroke network resulted in an improvement of quality of care in level-I-hospitals.

4.
J Clin Neurosci ; 73: 168-172, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992513

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with cognitive decline and dementia irrespective of AF-related ischemic stroke. We investigated whether AF burden after ablation in patients with symptomatic paroxysmal AF has an impact on cognitive function. After enrolment to the prospective MACPAF study, study patients received an insertable loop recorder (ILR) and underwent serial neurological/cognitive assessment. To compare cognitive function, the delta of baseline and six months test results (Δpre/post) and a score to assess overall cognitive performance were computed. Thirty patients (median age 65 years (IQR 57-69), 40% female) were divided into groups according to median AF burden (<0.5% vs. ≥0.5%) after ablation. Overall cognitive performance did not differ in patients with an AF burden < 0.5% (median 120% [IQR 100-150]) vs. ≥0.5% (median 120% [IQR 100-160]) within six months after ablation (p = 0.74). Comparing Δpre/post, patients with an AF burden ≥ 0.5% showed significantly better results in the digit-span backwards test (median + 1 [IQR 0 - +2 points]) compared to patients with an AF burden < 0.5% (median 0 [IQR -1-+1]) six months after ablation (p = 0.03). In patients with an AF burden < 0.5%, there was a statistical trend towards better results in the RAVLT test (median + 3 [IQR 0-+4]; p = 0.08) and the ROC test (median + 3 [IQR -1-+5; p = 0.07) compared to patients with an AF burden ≥ 0.5% (median -1 [IQR -3-+2] words and median -1 [IQR -5-+2] points, respectively). Therefore, AF burden had no significant impact on cognitive performance within six months after ablation. Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT01061931.

6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(2): 104515, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients present with unknown time of symptom onset (UTO). In these situations, wake-up MRI protocols can guide treatment decisions: patients with DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) but no fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesion were shown to benefit from IVT (intravenous thrombolysis). However, initial MRI of some stroke patients is DWI negative, leaving it unclear whether this subgroup profits from IVT. Therefore, we aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of IVT in wake-up AIS patients with or without a DWI lesion in initial imaging. METHODS: We performed a case-control study. All AIS patients with UTO who underwent wake-up MRI and were treated with IVT at a German University Hospital from 2013 to 2017 were included. Patients without (DWI-) were compared to patients with DWI lesion (DWI+) regarding clinico-radiological characteristics, adverse events, and outcome at discharge. Likely stroke mimics were excluded. RESULTS: Eleven DWI- and 32 DWI+ patients were included. There were no statistically significant differences regarding functional scores, age, sex, door-to-needle time, bleeding complications, and death. DWI+ patients more frequently had anterior circulation stroke (P = .049) and higher modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at discharge (P = .048). Solely in the DWI+ group 3 bleeding complications (2 asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformations, 1 muscle hematoma) and 3 deaths occurred (P = .29). A favourable outcome (mRS≤ 2) was achieved in 82% of the DWI- and in 58% of the DWI+ group (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that IVT may be used in DWI- patients with UTO with acute neurological symptoms very likely to be related to AIS.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Circulation ; 140(22): 1834-1850, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765261

RESUMO

Cardiac thromboembolism attributed to atrial fibrillation (AF) is responsible for up to one-third of ischemic strokes. Stroke may be the first manifestation of previously undetected AF. Given the efficacy of oral anticoagulants in preventing AF-related ischemic strokes, strategies of searching for AF after a stroke using ECG monitoring followed by oral anticoagulation (OAC) treatment have been proposed to prevent recurrent cardioembolic strokes. This white paper by experts from the AF-SCREEN International Collaboration summarizes existing evidence and knowledge gaps on searching for AF after a stroke by using ECG monitoring. New AF can be detected by routine plus intensive ECG monitoring in approximately one-quarter of patients with ischemic stroke. It may be causal, a bystander, or neurogenically induced by the stroke. AF after a stroke is a risk factor for thromboembolism and a strong marker for atrial myopathy. After acute ischemic stroke, patients should undergo 72 hours of electrocardiographic monitoring to detect AF. The diagnosis requires an ECG of sufficient quality for confirmation by a health professional with ECG rhythm expertise. AF detection rate is a function of monitoring duration and quality of analysis, AF episode definition, interval from stroke to monitoring commencement, and patient characteristics including old age, certain ECG alterations, and stroke type. Markers of atrial myopathy (eg, imaging, atrial ectopy, natriuretic peptides) may increase AF yield from monitoring and could be used to guide patient selection for more intensive/prolonged poststroke ECG monitoring. Atrial myopathy without detected AF is not currently sufficient to initiate OAC. The concept of embolic stroke of unknown source is not proven to identify patients who have had a stroke benefitting from empiric OAC treatment. However, some embolic stroke of unknown source subgroups (eg, advanced age, atrial enlargement) might benefit more from non-vitamin K-dependent OAC therapy than aspirin. Fulfilling embolic stroke of unknown source criteria is an indication neither for empiric non-vitamin K-dependent OAC treatment nor for withholding prolonged ECG monitoring for AF. Clinically diagnosed AF after a stroke or a transient ischemic attack is associated with significantly increased risk of recurrent stroke or systemic embolism, in particular, with additional stroke risk factors, and requires OAC rather than antiplatelet therapy. The minimum subclinical AF duration required on ECG monitoring poststroke/transient ischemic attack to recommend OAC therapy is debated.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 40(46): 3793-3799c, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755940

RESUMO

Recent innovations have the potential to improve rhythm control therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Controlled trials provide new evidence on the effectiveness and safety of rhythm control therapy, particularly in patients with AF and heart failure. This review summarizes evidence supporting the use of rhythm control therapy in patients with AF for different outcomes, discusses implications for indications, and highlights remaining clinical gaps in evidence. Rhythm control therapy improves symptoms and quality of life in patients with symptomatic AF and can be safely delivered in elderly patients with comorbidities (mean age 70 years, 3-7% complications at 1 year). Atrial fibrillation ablation maintains sinus rhythm more effectively than antiarrhythmic drug therapy, but recurrent AF remains common, highlighting the need for better patient selection (precision medicine). Antiarrhythmic drugs remain effective after AF ablation, underpinning the synergistic mechanisms of action of AF ablation and antiarrhythmic drugs. Atrial fibrillation ablation appears to improve left ventricular function in a subset of patients with AF and heart failure. Data on the prognostic effect of rhythm control therapy are heterogeneous without a clear signal for either benefit or harm. Rhythm control therapy has acceptable safety and improves quality of life in patients with symptomatic AF, including in elderly populations with stroke risk factors. There is a clinical need to better stratify patients for rhythm control therapy. Further studies are needed to determine whether rhythm control therapy, and particularly AF ablation, improves left ventricular function and reduces AF-related complications.

9.
JAMA ; 322(14): 1392-1403, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593272

RESUMO

Importance: The association of surgical hematoma evacuation with clinical outcomes in patients with cerebellar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been established. Objective: To determine the association of surgical hematoma evacuation with clinical outcomes in cerebellar ICH. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of 4 observational ICH studies incorporating 6580 patients treated at 64 hospitals across the United States and Germany (2006-2015). Exposure: Surgical hematoma evacuation vs conservative treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was functional disability evaluated by the modified Rankin Scale ([mRS] score range: 0, no functional deficit to 6, death) at 3 months; favorable (mRS, 0-3) vs unfavorable (mRS, 4-6). Secondary outcomes included survival at 3 months and at 12 months. Analyses included propensity score matching and covariate adjustment, and predicted probabilities were used to identify treatment-related cutoff values for cerebellar ICH. Results: Among 578 patients with cerebellar ICH, propensity score-matched groups included 152 patients with surgical hematoma evacuation vs 152 patients with conservative treatment (age, 68.9 vs 69.2 years; men, 55.9% vs 51.3%; prior anticoagulation, 60.5% vs 63.8%; and median ICH volume, 20.5 cm3 vs 18.8 cm3). After adjustment, surgical hematoma evacuation vs conservative treatment was not significantly associated with likelihood of better functional disability at 3 months (30.9% vs 35.5%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.94 [95% CI, 0.81 to 1.09], P = .43; adjusted risk difference [ARD], -3.7% [95% CI, -8.7% to 1.2%]) but was significantly associated with greater probability of survival at 3 months (78.3% vs 61.2%; AOR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.07 to 1.45], P = .005; ARD, 18.5% [95% CI, 13.8% to 23.2%]) and at 12 months (71.7% vs 57.2%; AOR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.42], P = .02; ARD, 17.0% [95% CI, 11.5% to 22.6%]). A volume range of 12 to 15 cm3 was identified; below this level, surgical hematoma evacuation was associated with lower likelihood of favorable functional outcome (volume ≤12 cm3, 30.6% vs 62.3% [P = .003]; ARD, -34.7% [-38.8% to -30.6%]; P value for interaction, .01), and above, it was associated with greater likelihood of survival (volume ≥15 cm3, 74.5% vs 45.1% [P < .001]; ARD, 28.2% [95% CI, 24.6% to 31.8%]; P value for interaction, .02). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with cerebellar ICH, surgical hematoma evacuation, compared with conservative treatment, was not associated with improved functional outcome. Given the null primary outcome, investigation is necessary to establish whether there are differing associations based on hematoma volume.


Assuntos
Doenças Cerebelares/cirurgia , Hemorragia Cerebral/cirurgia , Tratamento Conservador , Hematoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Doenças Cerebelares/terapia , Cerebelo/cirurgia , Hemorragia Cerebral/terapia , Feminino , Hematoma/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Front Neurol ; 10: 969, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572288

RESUMO

Introduction: Acute stroke care delivered by interdisciplinary teams is time-sensitive. Simulation-based team training is a promising tool to improve team performance in medical operations. It has the potential to improve process times, team communication, patient safety, and staff satisfaction. We aim to assess whether a multi-level approach consisting of a stringent workflow revision based on peer-to-peer review and 2-3 one-day in situ simulation trainings can improve acute stroke care processing times in high volume neurocenters within a 6 months period. Methods and Analysis: The trial is being carried out in a pre-test-post-test design at 7 tertiary care university hospital neurocenters in Germany. The intervention is directed at the interdisciplinary multiprofessional stroke teams. Before and after the intervention, process times of all direct-to-center stroke patients receiving IV thrombolysis (IVT) and/or endovascular therapy (EVT) will be recorded. The primary outcome measure will be the "door-to-needle" time of all consecutive stroke patients directly admitted to the neurocenters who receive IVT. Secondary outcome measures will be intervention-related process times of the fraction of patients undergoing EVT and effects on team communication, perceived patient safety, and staff satisfaction via a staff questionnaire. Interventions: We are applying a multi-level intervention in cooperation with three "STREAM multipliers" from each center. First step is a central meeting of the multipliers at the sponsor's institution with the purposes of algorithm review in a peer-to-peer process that is recorded in a protocol and an introduction to the principles of simulation training and debriefing as well as crew resource management and team communication. Thereafter, the multipliers cooperate with the stroke team trainers from the sponsor's institution to plan and execute 2-3 one-day simulation courses in situ in the emergency department and CT room of the trial centers whereupon they receive teaching materials to perpetuate the trainings. Clinical Trial Registration: STREAM is a registered trial at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03228251.

11.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 195: 105473, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541731

RESUMO

Marathon running is a physical and psychological stressor. We aimed to characterize the response of nine steroid hormones, which include estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, to marathon running and their association with performance. Blood samples of sixty men (age: 49.3 ± 5.9 years) who participated in the Berlin marathon were collected within 3 days before, within 30 min and within 58 h after the end of the marathon. The nine steroid hormones in serum were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The responses of nine steroid hormones to marathon running were characterized. Aldosterone (fold change: 8.5), progesterone (fold change: 6.6), and cortisol (fold change: 3.7) showed significant increases within 30 min after the marathon (all p < 0.0001). Estradiol but not testosterone increased in the male runners. Marathon running time was significantly related to aldosterone increase (beta=-0.238, p = 0.008) and progesterone increase (beta=-0.192, p = 0.036) in addition to body mass index, self-reported training distance, and age. Serum progesterone correlated with aldosterone and cortisol (r = 0.81 and r = 0.92, respectively, p < 0.001). Progesterone, as a precursor hormone, is increased after the completion of marathon running in association with the increase of aldosterone and cortisol. These findings reveal a contribution of progesterone during the response to the psycho-physical stress of marathon running in males.


Assuntos
Corrida , Esteroides/sangue , Adulto , Atletas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(13): 856-862, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505701

RESUMO

Several studies report neurological complications such as brain injury induced by ischemia or edema following exhaustive endurance sport. We aimed to detect the frequency of acute brain lesions after a marathon race. In the prospective observational Berlin Beat of Running study, 110 experienced endurance athletes underwent 3-Tesla brain MRI exams 2-3 days prior and within 2 days after a marathon run. MRI results were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group of 68 non-athletes, including the "Age-Related White Matter Changes" (ARWMC) scale to assess white matter lesions (WML) in the brain. 108 athletes (median age 48 years, 24% female, 8% with hypertension; 0% with diabetes) completed the race. No athlete reported neurological deficits, but a single acute ischemic lesion was detected in diffusion-weighted MRI after the race in one athlete. No other acute brain lesions compared to prior MRI were found. An ARWMC score ≥4 was found in 15% of athletes and 12% of non-athletic controls (p=0.7). Chronic ischemic lesions were not found in athletes but in four controls (6%) (p=0.02). In conclusion, acute ischemic brain lesions may be found in endurance runners. Every seventh endurance athlete and every ninth control showed evidence for substantial white matter lesions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Berlim/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Neurocrit Care ; 31(2): 231-244, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Prognostication is a routine part of the delivery of neurocritical care for most patients with acute neurocritical illnesses. Numerous prognostic models exist for many different conditions. However, there are concerns about significant gaps in knowledge regarding optimal methods of prognostication. METHODS: As part of the Arbeitstagung NeuroIntensivMedizin meeting in February 2018 in Würzburg, Germany, a joint session on prognostication was held between the German NeuroIntensive Care Society and the Neurocritical Care Society. The purpose of this session was to provide presentations and open discussion regarding existing prognostic models for eight common neurocritical care conditions (aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, acute ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, traumatic spinal cord injury, status epilepticus, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and global cerebral ischemia from cardiac arrest). The goal was to develop a qualitative gap analysis regarding prognostication that could help inform a future framework for clinical studies and guidelines. RESULTS: Prognostic models exist for all of the conditions presented. However, there are significant gaps in prognostication in each condition. Furthermore, several themes emerged that crossed across several or all diseases presented. Specifically, the self-fulfilling prophecy, lack of accounting for medical comorbidities, and absence of integration of in-hospital care parameters were identified as major gaps in most prognostic models. CONCLUSIONS: Prognostication in neurocritical care is important, and current prognostic models are limited. This gap analysis provides a summary assessment of issues that could be addressed in future studies and evidence-based guidelines in order to improve the process of prognostication.

15.
Europace ; 21(11): 1621-1632, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397475

RESUMO

AIMS: The Berlin Atrial Fibrillation Registry was designed to analyse oral anticoagulation (OAC) prescription in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and acute ischaemic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: This investigator-initiated prospective multicentre registry enrolled patients at all 16 stroke units located in Berlin, Germany. The ongoing telephone follow-up is conducted centrally and will cover 5 years per patient. Within 2014 and 2016, 1080 patients gave written informed consent and 1048 patients were available for analysis. Median age was 77 years [interquartile range (IQR) 72-83], 503 (48%) patients were female, and 254 (24%) had a transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Overall, 470 (62%) out of 757 patients with known AF and a (pre-stroke) CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 1 were anticoagulated at the time of stroke. At hospital discharge, 847 (81.3%) of 1042 patients were anticoagulated. Thereof 710 (68.1%) received a non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulant (NOAC) and 137 (13.1%) a vitamin K antagonist (VKA). Pre-stroke intake of a NOAC [odds ratio (OR) 15.6 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI 1.97-122)] or VKA [OR 0.04 (95% CI 0.02-0.09)], an index TIA [OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.34-0.94)] rather than stroke, heart failure [OR 0.49 (95% CI 0.26-0.93)], and endovascular thrombectomy at hospital admission [OR 12.9 (95% CI 1.59-104)] were associated with NOAC prescription at discharge. Patients' age or AF type had no impact on OAC or NOAC use, respectively. CONCLUSION: About 60% of all registry patients with known AF received OAC at the time of stroke or TIA. At hospital discharge, more than 80% of AF patients were anticoagulated and about 80% of those were prescribed a NOAC.

16.
Front Neurol ; 10: 480, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156532

RESUMO

Objective: To test the hypothesis that olfactory (OF) and gustatory function (GF) is disturbed in patients with autoimmune encephalitides (AE). Methods: The orthonasal OF was tested in 32 patients with AE and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) with the standardized Threshold Discrimination Identification (TDI) score. This validated olfactory testing method yields individual scores for olfactory threshold (T), odor discrimination (D), and identification (I), along with a composite TDI score. The GF was determined by the Taste Strip Test (TST). Results: Overall, 24/32 (75%) of patients with AE, but none of 32 HC (p < 0.001) had olfactory dysfunction in TDI testing. The results of the threshold, discrimination and identification subtests were significantly reduced in patients with AE compared to HC (all p < 0.001). Assessed by TST, 5/19 (26.3%) of patients with AE, but none of 19 HC presented a significant limitation in GF (p < 0.001). The TDI score was correlated with the subjective estimation of the olfactory capacity on a visual analog scale (VAS; rs = 0.475, p = 0.008). Neither age, sex, modified Rankin Scale nor disease duration were associated with the composite TDI score. Conclusions: This is the first study investigating OF and GF in AE patients. According to unblinded assessment, patients with AE have a reduced olfactory and gustatory capacity compared to HC, suggesting that olfactory and gustatory dysfunction are hitherto unrecognized symptoms in AE. Further studies with larger number of AE patients would be of interest to verify our results.

17.
Front Neurol ; 10: 368, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040816

RESUMO

Background: According to current guidelines, stroke patients treated with rt-PA should undergo brain imaging to exclude intracerebral bleeding 24 h after thrombolysis, before the start of medical secondary prevention. However, the usefulness of routine follow-up imaging with regard to changes in therapeutic management in patients without neurological deterioration is unclear. We hypothesized that follow up brain imaging solely to exclude bleeding in patients who clinically improved after rt-PA application may not be necessary. Methods: Retrospective single-center analysis including stroke patients treated with rt-PA. Records were reviewed for hemorrhagic transformation one day after systemic thrombolysis and brain imaging-based changes in therapeutic management. Twenty-four hour after thrombolysis patients were divided into four groups: (1) increased NIHSS score; (2) unchanged NIHSS score; (3) improved NIHSS score and; (4) NIHSS score = 0. Results: Out of 188 patients (mean age 73 years, 100 female) receiving rt-PA, 32 (17%) had imaging-proven hemorrhagic transformation including 11 (6%) patients with parenchymal hemorrhage. Patients in group (1, 2) more often had hypertension (p = 0.015) and more often had parenchymal hemorrhage (9 vs. 4%; p < 0.206) compared to group (3, 4) and imaging-based changes in therapeutic management were more frequent (19% vs. 6%; p = 0.007). Patients of group (3, 4) had no changes in therapeutic management in 94% of the cases. Patients in group (4) had no hemorrhagic transformation in routine follow-up brain imaging. Conclusions: Frequency of hemorrhagic transformation in Routine follow-up brain imaging and consecutive changes in therapeutic management were different depending on clinical course measured by NHISS score.

18.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 9(1): 19-24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated high-sensitive cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) can be found in more than 50% of the patients with acute ischemic stroke. The observational TRoponin ELevation in Acute ischemic Stroke (TRELAS) study revealed that about 25% of all stroke patients with elevated troponin had a coronary angiography-detected culprit lesion affording immediate intervention, and about 50% of all patients did not have any obstructive coronary artery disease. Given the risk of procedure-related complications, the identification of stroke patients in urgent need of invasive coronary angiography is desirable. METHODS: TRELAS patients were prospectively enrolled into this sub-study. In addition to conventional coronary angiography, a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T was performed during the in-hospital stay after acute ischemic stroke to compare the diagnostic value of both imaging modalities. RESULTS: Nine stroke patients (median age 73 years [range 58-87]; four females; median NIH Stroke Severity score on admission 4 [range 0-6] with elevated hs-cTnT [median 74 ng/L, interquartile range 41-247] on admission) completed cardiac MRI and underwent coronary angiography. The absence of MRI-detected wall motion abnormalities and/or late gadolinium enhancement in 5 stroke patients corresponded with the exclusion of culprit lesions or significant coronary artery disease by coronary angiography. Four patients had abnormal MRI findings, whereof 2 showed evidence of myocardial infarction and in whom coronary angiography demonstrated a >70% stenosis of a coronary artery. CONCLUSIONS: The TRELAS sub-study indicates that noninvasive cardiac MRI may provide helpful information to identify stroke patients with or without acute coronary syndrome. Our findings might help to select stroke patients in urgent need of coronary angiography.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Estenose Coronária/sangue , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Regulação para Cima
19.
Stroke ; 50(6): 1392-1402, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092170

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Given inconclusive studies, it is debated whether clinical and imaging characteristics, as well as functional outcome, differ among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) related to vitamin K antagonists (VKA) versus non-vitamin K antagonist (NOAC)-related ICH. Notably, clinical characteristics according to different NOAC agents and dosages are not established. Methods- Multicenter observational cohort study integrating individual patient data of 1328 patients with oral anticoagulation-associated ICH, including 190 NOAC-related ICH patients, recruited from 2011 to 2015 at 19 tertiary centers across Germany. Imaging, clinical characteristics, and 3-months modified Rankin Scale (mRS) outcomes were compared in NOAC- versus VKA-related ICH patients. Propensity score matching was conducted to adjust for clinically relevant differences in baseline parameters. Subgroup analyses were performed regarding NOAC agent, dosing and present clinically relevant anticoagulatory activity (last intake <12h/24h or NOAC level >30 ng/mL). Results- Despite older age in NOAC patients, there were no relevant differences in clinical and hematoma characteristics between NOAC- and VKA-related ICH regarding baseline hematoma volume (median [interquartile range]: NOAC, 14.7 [5.1-42.3] mL versus VKA, 16.4 [5.8-40.6] mL; P=0.33), rate of hematoma expansion (NOAC, 49/146 [33.6%] versus VKA, 235/688 [34.2%]; P=0.89), and the proportion of patients with unfavorable outcome at 3 months (mRS, 4-6: NOAC 126/179 [70.4%] versus VKA 473/682 [69.4%]; P=0.79). Subgroup analyses revealed that NOAC patients with clinically relevant anticoagulatory effect had higher rates of intraventricular hemorrhage (n/N [%]: present 52/109 [47.7%] versus absent 9/35 [25.7%]; P=0.022) and hematoma expansion (present 35/90 [38.9%] versus absent 5/30 [16.7%]; P=0.040), whereas type of NOAC agent or different NOAC-dosing regimens did not result in relevant differences in imaging characteristics or outcome. Conclusions- If effectively anticoagulated, there are no differences in hematoma characteristics and functional outcome among patients with NOAC- or VKA-related ICH. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT03093233.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(7): 764-773, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958508

RESUMO

Importance: The NAVIGATE ESUS randomized clinical trial found that 15 mg of rivaroxaban per day does not reduce stroke compared with aspirin in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS); however, it substantially reduces stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Objective: To analyze whether rivaroxaban is associated with a reduction of recurrent stroke among patients with ESUS who have an increased risk of AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were stratified by predictors of AF, including left atrial diameter, frequency of premature atrial contractions, and HAVOC score, a validated scheme using clinical features. Treatment interactions with these predictors were assessed. Participants were enrolled between December 2014 and September 2017, and analysis began March 2018. Intervention: Rivaroxaban treatment vs aspirin. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk of ischemic stroke. Results: Among 7112 patients with a mean (SD) age of 67 (9.8) years, the mean (SD) HAVOC score was 2.6 (1.8), the mean (SD) left atrial diameter was 3.8 (1.4) cm (n = 4022), and the median (interquartile range) daily frequency of premature atrial contractions was 48 (13-222). Detection of AF during follow-up increased for each tertile of HAVOC score: 2.3% (score, 0-2), 3.0% (score, 3), and 5.8% (score, >3); however, neither tertiles of the HAVOC score nor premature atrial contractions frequency impacted the association of rivaroxaban with recurrent ischemic stroke (P for interaction = .67 and .96, respectively). Atrial fibrillation annual incidence increased for each tertile of left atrial diameter (2.0%, 3.6%, and 5.2%) and for each tertile of premature atrial contractions frequency (1.3%, 2.9%, and 7.0%). Among the predefined subgroup of patients with a left atrial diameter of more than 4.6 cm (9% of overall population), the risk of ischemic stroke was lower among the rivaroxaban group (1.7% per year) compared with the aspirin group (6.5% per year) (hazard ratio, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.07-0.94; P for interaction = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: The HAVOC score, left atrial diameter, and premature atrial contraction frequency predicted subsequent clinical AF. Rivaroxaban was associated with a reduced risk of recurrent stroke among patients with ESUS and moderate or severe left atrial enlargement; however, this needs to be independently confirmed before influencing clinical practice.

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