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1.
World J Urol ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radical cystectomy (RC) has a high morbidity and leads to a significant socio-economic burden. We aimed to investigate pre-, intra-, and post-operative variables to create a novel score predicting both post-operative clinical (complications) and economic (length of hospital stay) outcome after RC. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated clinical and histopathological data of 317 patients after RC. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify variables associated with post-operative clinical (30-day morbidity according to Clavien-Dindo complications) and economic (length of hospital stay) outcome. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, a high number of intraoperative transfusions (T) of packed red blood cells predicted major complications (odds ratio [OR] 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-2.58, p = 0.017), preoperative potassium (P) level predicted three or more complications (OR for high preoperative potassium 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.98, p = 0.037), and high drain (D) loss on post-operative day 1 predicted a longer hospital stay ≥ 22 days (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.04-2.35, p = 0.003). The PT2D-Score was able to predict three or more complications (area under the curve: 0.70, 95% CI 0.61-0.78, p < 0.001) and a hospital stay of ≥ 22 days in patients after radical cystectomy (area under the curve: 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.72, p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: The novel PT2D-Score combines preoperative potassium level, intraoperative blood transfusion, and post-operative drain loss to predict both clinical (30-day morbidity) and economic (length of hospital stay) outcome for patients undergoing RC. After validation in a larger cohort, the novel PT2D-Score might serve as an additional criterion to identify patients for intensified monitoring after RC.

2.
Urologe A ; 59(1): 65-71, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741004

RESUMO

Due to a safety alert issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 for transvaginal mesh implants to treat female prolapse as a result of numerous reports of complications such as infection, chronic pain, dyspareunia, vaginal erosion, shrinkage and erosion into other organs nearly all industrial products have been withdrawn from the market in the meantime. The United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand extended warnings and prohibitions even on the implantation of midurethral slings (TVT, TOT). In view of these current international controversies regarding the use of implanted materials for the treatment of stress incontinence and prolapse and the lack of clear guidelines for the use of biomaterials, the opinion of the Working Group on Urological Functional Diagnostics and Female Urology should provide clarity. The Opinion is based on the SCENIHR Report of the "European Commission's Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks", the "Consensus Statement of the European Urology Association and the European Urogynaecological Association on the Use of Implanted Materials for Treating Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Stress Urinary Incontinence" and in compliance with relevant EAU and national guidelines and the opinion of the Association for Urogynaecology and Plastic Pelvic Floor Reconstruction (AGUB eV). In addition, recommendations are given for the future handling of implants of slings and meshes for the treatment of stress incontinence and prolapse from a urologic viewpoint.


Assuntos
Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/cirurgia , Slings Suburetrais/efeitos adversos , Telas Cirúrgicas/efeitos adversos , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/instrumentação , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos
3.
Andrology ; 7(4): 408-414, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is one the most common solid tumors in men between the age of 15 and 35 with an overall incidence rate of 1-1.5 %. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated different incidence patterns in western civilized countries with overall rising incidence trends. OBJECTIVE: To analyze differences in regional tumor incidence rates for TGCT and perform a trend analysis for TGCT between 2003 and 2014 in Germany. MATERIAL AND METHODS: TGCT cases in Germany which were diagnosed between 2003 and 2014 were provided by the Robert-Koch-Institute, Berlin. For statistical analysis, cluster and spatial scan tests according to Kulldorff were used for cases with seminoma and non-seminoma. Results are presented in administrative districts and graphically illustrated. We performed a trend-analysis in order to evaluate age-adjusted incidence trends in Germany. Tests were two-sided with a level of significance of α=0.05. RESULTS: In total we included 35,066 patients. Overall, 22,634 cases had newly diagnosed seminoma and 12,432 were diagnosed as non-seminoma. Maximum incidence of seminoma and non-seminoma was observed for age-group 38-40 years and 26-28 years, respectively. No second peak for the incidences of seminoma and non-seminoma with respect to age were observed. Cluster analysis revealed areas with high and low incidence rates as well as slightly different spatial distribution in Germany between seminoma and nonseminoma. Furthermore, there was no significant increase in age-adjusted incidence rates over the reviewed time period in both cohorts. DISCUSSION: In this study differences in reginal tumor incidence rates for seminoma and non-seminoma are reported with both tumor entities revealing distinct clusters. Furthermore, tumor incidence trends for seminoma and nonseminoma between 2003 and 2014 were stable which might indicate the beginning of a plateau phase for TGCT incidence rates in Germany. CONCLUSION: In this analysis we were able to identify regions with significantly higher tumor incidence rates for both seminoma and non-seminoma which were specific for these two subtypes. Furthermore, trend analysis revealed a steady incidence rate for testicular cancer in Germany.

5.
World J Urol ; 37(7): 1415-1420, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341450

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze and compare preoperative patient characteristics and postoperative results in men with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) selected for an adjustable male sling system or an artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) in a large, contemporary, multi-institutional patient cohort. METHODS: 658 male patients who underwent implantation between 2010 and 2012 in 13 participating institutions were included in this study (n = 176 adjustable male sling; n = 482 AUS). Preoperative patient characteristics and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. For statistical analysis, the independent T test and Mann-Whitney U test were used. RESULTS: Patients undergoing adjustable male sling implantation were less likely to have a neurological disease (4.5% vs. 8.9%, p = 0.021), a history of urethral stricture (21.6% vs. 33.8%, p = 0.024) or a radiation therapy (22.7% vs. 29.9%, p = 0.020) compared to patients that underwent AUS implantation. Mean pad usage per day (6.87 vs. 5.82; p < 0.00) and the ratio of patients with a prior incontinence surgery were higher in patients selected for an AUS implantation (36.7% vs. 22.7%; p < 0.001). At maximum follow-up, patients that underwent an AUS implantation had a significantly lower mean pad usage during daytime (p < 0.001) and nighttime (p = 0.018). Furthermore, the patients' perception of their continence status was better with a subjective complete dry rate of 57.3% vs. 22.0% (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients selected for an AUS implantation showed a more complex prior history and pathogenesis of urinary incontinence as well as a more severe grade of SUI. Postoperative results reflect a better continence status after AUS implantation, favoring the AUS despite the more complicated patient cohort.


Assuntos
Slings Suburetrais , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/cirurgia , Esfíncter Urinário Artificial , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estreitamento Uretral/epidemiologia
7.
World J Urol ; 36(8): 1241-1246, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523948

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To measure the usage rate of social media (SoMe) resources in the prostate cancer community, we performed a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative assessment of SoMe activity on the topic of PCa on the four most frequented platforms. METHODS: We scanned the SoMe platforms Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram for "prostate cancer" as a cross-sectional analysis or during a defined time period. Sources were included if their communication centered on PCa by title and content. We assessed activity measurements for each SoMe source and classified the sources into six functional categories. RESULTS: We identified 99 PCa-related Facebook groups that amassed 31,262 members and 90 Facebook pages with 283,996 "likes". On YouTube, we found 536 PCa videos accounting for 43,966,634 views, 52,655 likes, 8597 dislikes, and 12,393 comments. During a 1-year time period, 32,537 users generated 110,971 tweets on #ProstateCancer on Twitter, providing over 544 million impressions. During a 1-month time period, 638 contributors posted 1081 posts on Instagram, generating over 22,000 likes and 4,748,159 impressions. Among six functional categories, general information/support dominated the SoMe landscape on all SoMe platforms. CONCLUSION: SoMe activity on the topic of PCa on the four most frequented platforms is high. Facebook groups, YouTube videos, and Twitter tweets are mainly used for giving general information on PCa and education. High SoMe utilization in the PCa community underlines its future role for communication of PCa.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Urologe A ; 57(3): 295-299, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487949

RESUMO

The incidence of small renal masses ≤4 cm is increasing due to the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging. The majority of these represent indolent forms, but the risk for developing metastases is reported in up to 6% of patients. Particularly in old and comorbid patients surgery might be harmful overtreatment. Thus, there is an increasing demand to establish oncologically safe active surveillance protocols. Radiographic or biopsy-based biological markers to appropriately designate candidates for active surveillance are currently the focus of research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Conduta Expectante , Biópsia , Comorbidade , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia
10.
Urologe A ; 57(3): 280-284, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several new treatment strategies have emerged in the treatment of small renal masses (<4 cm in diameter). Active surveillance and ablative techniques have been introduced but it remains unclear which patients will benefit the most from these new treatment options. A surgical approach remains standard of care. In recent decades, radical nephrectomy has been replaced by nephron-sparing surgery for the management of small renal masses. RESULTS: In addition to the open partial nephrectomy, which is considered the standard approach, the number of surgeries performed using minimally invasive techniques is increasing. Recent data show that there might be some benefits such as less blood loss. The disadvantages shown by laparoscopic partial nephrectomy such as prolonged warm ischemia, longer operation times, and postoperative renal impairment might be negligible for the robotic approach. Therefore, current guidelines allow these approaches in addition to open partial nephrectomy if sufficient surgical expertise is given.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Nefrectomia/métodos , Robótica , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Laparoscopia , Néfrons
11.
Urolithiasis ; 46(6): 587-593, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29356873

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to analyze clinical outcomes and costs of single-use flexible ureterorenoscopes in comparison with reusable flexible ureterorenoscopes in a tertiary referral center. Prospectively, 68 flexible ureterorenoscopies utilizing reusable (Flex-X2S, Flex-XC, Karl Storz) and 68 applying single-use flexible ureterorenoscopes (LithoVue, Boston Scientific) were collected. Clinical outcome parameters such as overall success rate, complication rates according to Clavien-Dindo, operation time and radiation exposure time were measured. Cost analysis was based on purchase costs and recurrent costs for repair and reprocessing divided by number of procedures. In each group 68 procedures were available for evaluation. In 91% of reusable and 88% of single-use ureterorenoscopies stone disease was treated with a mean stone burden of 101 ± 226 and 90 ± 244 mm2 and lower pole involvement in 47 and 41%, respectively (p > 0.05). Comparing clinical outcomes of reusable vs. single-use instruments revealed no significant difference for overall success rates (81 vs. 87%), stone-free rates (82 vs. 85%), operation time (76.2 ± 46.8 vs. 76.8 ± 40.2 min), radiation exposure time (3.83 ± 3.15 vs. 3.93 ± 4.43 min) and complication rates (7 vs. 17%) (p > 0.05). A wide range of repair and purchase costs resulted in total to $1212-$1743 per procedure for reusable ureterorenoscopy whereas price of single-use ureterorenoscopy was $1300-$3180 per procedure. The current work provided evidence for equal clinical effectiveness of reusable and single-use flexible ureterorenoscopes. Partially overlapping ranges of costs for single-use and reusable scopes stress the importance to precisely know the expenses and caseload when negotiating purchase prices, repair prices and warranty conditions.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Ureteroscópios/efeitos adversos , Ureteroscopia/instrumentação , Cálculos Urinários/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Equipamentos Descartáveis/economia , Falha de Equipamento/economia , Falha de Equipamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Reutilização de Equipamento/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureteroscópios/economia , Ureteroscopia/economia
12.
World J Urol ; 35(12): 1891-1897, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836063

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Because the prognostic impact of the clinical and pathological features on cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma (papRCC) is still controversial, we want to assess the impact of clinicopathological features, including Fuhrman grade and age, on survival in surgically treated papRCC patients in a large multi-institutional series. METHODS: We established a comprehensive multi-institutional database of surgically treated papRCC patients. Histopathological data collected from 2189 patients with papRCC after radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing surgery were pooled from 18 centres in Europe and North America. OS and CSS probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable competing risks analyses were used to assess the impact of Fuhrman grade (FG1-FG4) and age groups (<50 years, 50-75 years, >75 years) on cancer-specific mortality (CSM). RESULTS: CSS and OS rates for patients were 89 and 81% at 3 years, 86 and 75% at 5 years and 78 and 41% at 10 years after surgery, respectively. CSM differed significantly between FG 3 (hazard ratio [HR] 4.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.17-8.22; p < 0.001) and FG 4 (HR 8.93, 95% CI 4.25-18.79; p < 0.001) in comparison to FG 1. CSM was significantly worse in patients aged >75 (HR 2.85, 95% CI 2.06-3.95; p < 0.001) compared to <50 years. CONCLUSIONS: FG is a strong prognostic factor for CSS in papRCC patients. In addition, patients older than 75 have worse CSM than patients younger than 50 years. These findings should be considered for clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Nefrectomia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Nefrectomia/métodos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/efeitos adversos , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 49(9): 1537-1544, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28646483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the learning curve of a novice in MRI/TRUS software fusion biopsy and to compare his results with the expert standard at our institution. METHODS: Overall 126 MRI/TRUS fusion-guided transrectal biopsies were performed using an electromagnetic tracking ultrasonography platform. The learning progress of the novice was evaluated comparing his initial 42 procedures (group A) with his following 42 (group B). The institution's expert standard (group C), which was compared to the novice's groups, was defined by the expert's experience of 42 MRI/TRUS fusion biopsies. Primary learning curve parameters were targeted biopsy detection quotient and biopsy time. RESULTS: Overall detection of prostate cancer was 64% (27/42), 62% (26/42) and 62% (26/42) in groups A, B and C, respectively. The median target biopsy detection quotient significantly increased (p = 0.04) in group B (0.75, interquartile range (IQR) 0.25-1.0) compared to group A. (0.33, IQR 0.2-0.5). Group C revealed a median detection quotient of 0.5 (IQR 0.25-0.76) that did not differ significantly from the novice's groups (p = 0.2). Median biopsy time was significantly higher in group A (45 min, IQR 33-50 min) compared to groups B (25 min, IQR 23-29 min) and C (24 min, IQR 16-46 min) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the individual learning curve of a novice in MRI/TRUS fusion biopsy and demonstrated significant learning progress regarding targeted biopsy detection quotient and biopsy time.


Assuntos
Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Curva de Aprendizado , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Competência Clínica , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Reto , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Urologe A ; 55(10): 1291-1296, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27637181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is a widespread disease. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the evaluation and management of patients with suspected urolithiasis. Furthermore, modern imaging methods may provide information on stone location, size, fragility and composition aiding the urologist to determine the appropriate treatment modality. PURPOSE: Based on the current literature and guidelines, this review reports on the various new and established diagnostic imaging modalities. RESULTS: Ultrasound should always be the initial imaging modality. Following ultrasound, noncontrast CT-principally using a low-dose protocol-is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of patients with acute flank pain and suspected urolithiasis. New imaging modalities like dual energy CT, Uro Dyna CT and digital tomosynthesis are currently under investigation but not yet part of daily clinical practice. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to detect obstruction caused by urinary stones but is not a first-line imaging modality.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Ultrassonografia/normas , Urolitíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional/normas , Doses de Radiação , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Proteção Radiológica/normas , Radiologia/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Urologia/normas
16.
Urologe A ; 55(5): 645-7, 2016 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27119961

RESUMO

Emphysematous cystitis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Generally elderly women with diabetes mellitus are affected. Diagnosis is made radiologically using plain abdominal X­ray or computed tomography. The therapy includes urine drainage, antibiotic treatment and hyperglycaemic control to avoid progress of the infection and the development of complications. In the current report we present a case of a 79-year-old woman with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and an incidental diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis.


Assuntos
Cistite/diagnóstico , Cistite/terapia , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Enfisema/diagnóstico , Enfisema/terapia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Cefuroxima/uso terapêutico , Complicações do Diabetes/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Infecções por Escherichia coli/terapia , Feminino , Hidratação , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Cateterismo Urinário
17.
World J Urol ; 34(5): 717-24, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26358036

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Passive removal of stone fragments in the irrigation stream is one of the characteristics in continuous-flow PCNL instruments. So far the physical principle of this so-called vacuum cleaner effect has not been fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to empirically prove the existence of the vacuum cleaner effect and to develop a physical hypothesis and generate a mathematical model for this phenomenon. METHODS: In an empiric approach, common low-pressure PCNL instruments and conventional PCNL sheaths were tested using an in vitro model. Flow characteristics were visualized by coloring of irrigation fluid. Influence of irrigation pressure, sheath diameter, sheath design, nephroscope design and position of the nephroscope was assessed. Experiments were digitally recorded for further slow-motion analysis to deduce a physical model. RESULTS: In each tested nephroscope design, we could observe the vacuum cleaner effect. Increase in irrigation pressure and reduction in cross section of sheath sustained the effect. Slow-motion analysis of colored flow revealed a synergism of two effects causing suction and transportation of the stone. For the first time, our model showed a flow reversal in the sheath as an integral part of the origin of the stone transportation during vacuum cleaner effect. The application of Bernoulli's equation provided the explanation of these effects and confirmed our experimental results. CONCLUSIONS: We widen the understanding of PCNL with a conclusive physical model, which explains fluid mechanics of the vacuum cleaner effect.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Nefrostomia Percutânea/instrumentação , Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Hidrodinâmica , Vácuo
18.
Urologe A ; 55(4): 499-505, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26459574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urodynamic studies are utilised for identification and follow-up of functional disorders of the lower urinary tract. Provocation tests are used to determine disorders which could not be revealed in standard cystometry. The ice water test is a simple test to identify neurogenic bladder dysfunction and to screen the integrity of the upper motor neuron in neurogenic bladder dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: Development and significance of the ice water test is presented in this review against the background of physiology and pathophysiology of the lower urinary tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed in April 2015. No language or time limitation was applied. The following key words and Medical Subject Heading terms were used to identify relevant studies: "ice water test", "bladder cooling reflex", "micturition" and "neuronal control". Review articles and bibliographies of other relevant studies identified were hand searched to find additional studies. RESULTS: The ice water test is performed by rapid instillation of 4-8 °C cold fluid into the urinary bladder. Hereby, afferent C fibers are activated by cold receptors in the bladder leading to the bladder cooling reflex. It is a spinal reflex which causes an involuntarily contraction of the urinary bladder. The test is normally positive in young infants during the first 4 years of life and become negative with maturation of the central nervous system afterwards by inhibition of the reflex. The damage of the upper motor neuron causes the recurrence of the reflex in the adulthood and indicates spinal and cerebral lesions. DISCUSSION: The ice water test is utilised to identify lesions of the upper motor neuron. However, in the case of detrusor acontractility the test will always be negative and can not be utilized to distinguish between neurogenic or muscular causes. Furthermore, the test is also positive in a small percentage of cases of non-neurogenic diseases, e.g. in prostate-related bladder outlet obstruction or idiopathic overactive bladder. Although no clear explanation exists, a positive ice water test could be the first sign of an otherwise asymptomatic neurological disease. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the simple procedure, the ice water test is a reliable possibility to identify neurologic bladder hyperactivity subsequent to standard cystometry.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Reflexo , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/diagnóstico , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Urinários/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Micção , Transtornos Urinários/etiologia , Transtornos Urinários/fisiopatologia
19.
Urologe A ; 54(5): 735-46; quiz 747-8, 2015 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25987339

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents the sixth-leading cancer-specific cause of death worldwide. This is mainly caused by metastatic or locally advanced RCC. Approximately 25-30% of patients present with metastasis during the initial diagnosis. Furthermore, 20-30% of patients develop metastatic disease following initial curative surgery. Metastatic RCC is characterized by a poor prognosis with a median overall survival of less than 2 years. Today, targeted therapies such as VEGF receptor inhibitors and antagonists as well as mTOR inhibitors represent the standard of care in metastatic RCC. Conventional chemotherapies or cytokine-based medications have been abandoned due to inferior clinical efficacy compared with targeted therapies. In Germany, sunitinib, pazopanib, temsirolimus, and bevacizumab have been approved for first-line treatment and sorafenib, axitinib, and everolimus for second-line treatment. Prognostic models, assessing individual risk profiles, have been developed in the last 15 years, which are crucial for the design of trials, patient counseling, and initiation of goal-directed therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , /métodos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Urologe A ; 54(4): 567-74; quiz 575-6, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25758236

RESUMO

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom complex which is present in approximately 17% of the European population. It is observed in the presence or absence of incontinence (wet or dry) and is associated with a high degree of psychological stress as well as high costs for the healthcare system. Myogenic, urothelial and neurogenic factors lead to frequently unknown changes of muscular, neural and connective tissue. For the definition, etiology and diagnostics of the disease the previous continuing medical education (CME) article "Diagnosis of overactive bladder (OAB)" should be consulted. In recent years some improvements have been made in OAB-related research, in terms of pathophysiological models and new pharmacological approaches with the development of new therapeutic agents. Besides classical substances, recently approved agents are increasingly being used for the therapy of OAB. Furthermore, non-pharmaceutical approaches and surgical techniques still play an important role in the therapy of OAB.


Assuntos
Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/diagnóstico , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/terapia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos
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