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1.
Blood ; 138(20): 1917-1927, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792573

RESUMO

Biomedical applications of deep learning algorithms rely on large expert annotated data sets. The classification of bone marrow (BM) cell cytomorphology, an important cornerstone of hematological diagnosis, is still done manually thousands of times every day because of a lack of data sets and trained models. We applied convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to a large data set of 171 374 microscopic cytological images taken from BM smears from 945 patients diagnosed with a variety of hematological diseases. The data set is the largest expert-annotated pool of BM cytology images available in the literature. It allows us to train high-quality classifiers of leukocyte cytomorphology that identify a wide range of diagnostically relevant cell species with high precision and recall. Our CNNs outcompete previous feature-based approaches and provide a proof-of-concept for the classification problem of single BM cells. This study is a step toward automated evaluation of BM cell morphology using state-of-the-art image-classification algorithms. The underlying data set represents an educational resource, as well as a reference for future artificial intelligence-based approaches to BM cytomorphology.

2.
Blood ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724563

RESUMO

Measurable residual disease (MRD) is an important biomarker in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that is used for prognostic, predictive, monitoring, and efficacy-response assessments. The European LeukemiaNet (ELN) MRD working party evaluates standardization and harmonization of MRD in an ongoing manner and has updated the 2018 ELN MRD recommendations based on significant developments in the field. New and revised recommendations were established during in-person and online meetings, and a two-stage Delphi poll was conducted to optimize consensus. All recommendations are graded by levels of evidence and agreement. Major changes include technical specifications for next generation sequencing (NGS)-based MRD testing and integrative assessments of MRD irrespective of technology. Other topics include use of MRD as a prognostic and surrogate endpoint for drug testing; selection of the technique, material, and appropriate time points for MRD assessment; and clinical implications of MRD assessment. In addition to technical recommendations for flow- and molecular- MRD analysis, we provide MRD thresholds and define MRD response, and detail how MRD results should be reported and combined if several techniques are used. MRD assessment in AML is complex and clinically relevant, and standardized approaches to application, interpretation, technical conduct, and reporting are of critical importance.

5.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768283

RESUMO

Decrease in DNA dioxygease activity generated by TET2 gene family is crucial in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The general down-regulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) argues for a role of DNA demethylation in MDS beyond TET2 mutations, which albeit frequent, do not convey any prognostic significance. We investigated TETs expression to identify factors which can modulate the impact of mutations and thus 5-hmC levels on clinical phenotypes and prognosis of MDS patients. DNA/RNA-sequencing and 5-hmC data were collected from 1,665 patients with MDS and 91 controls. Irrespective of mutations, a significant fraction of MDS patients exhibited lower TET2 expression, while 5-hmC levels were not uniformly decreased. In searching for factors explaining compensatory mechanisms, we discovered that TET3 was up-regulated in MDS and inversely correlated with TET2 expression in wild-type cases. While TET2 was reduced across all age-groups, TET3 levels were increased in a likely feedback mechanism induced by TET2 dysfunction. This inverse relationship of TET2 and TET3 expression also corresponded to the expression of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, involved in agonist/antagonist substrate metabolism. Importantly, elevated TET3 levels influenced the clinical phenotype of TET2-deficiency whereby the lack of compensation by TET3 (low TET3 expression) was associated with poor outcomes of TET2 mutant carriers.

6.
Patterns (N Y) ; 2(10): 100351, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693376

RESUMO

Multi-parameter flow cytometry (MFC) is a cornerstone in clinical decision making for leukemia and lymphoma. MFC data analysis requires manual gating of cell populations, which is time-consuming, subjective, and often limited to a two-dimensional space. In recent years, deep learning models have been successfully used to analyze data in high-dimensional space and are highly accurate. However, AI models used for disease classification with MFC data are limited to the panel they were trained on. Thus, a key challenge in deploying AI into routine diagnostics is the robustness and adaptability of such models. This study demonstrates how transfer learning can be applied to boost the performance of models with smaller datasets acquired with different MFC panels. We trained models for four additional datasets by transferring the features learned from our base model. Our workflow increased the model's overall performance and, more prominently, improved the learning rate for small training sizes.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5679, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584081

RESUMO

Chromosomal rearrangements are a frequent cause of oncogene deregulation in human malignancies. Overexpression of EVI1 is found in a subgroup of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with 3q26 chromosomal rearrangements, which is often therapy resistant. In AMLs harboring a t(3;8)(q26;q24), we observed the translocation of a MYC super-enhancer (MYC SE) to the EVI1 locus. We generated an in vitro model mimicking a patient-based t(3;8)(q26;q24) using CRISPR-Cas9 technology and demonstrated hyperactivation of EVI1 by the hijacked MYC SE. This MYC SE contains multiple enhancer modules, of which only one recruits transcription factors active in early hematopoiesis. This enhancer module is critical for EVI1 overexpression as well as enhancer-promoter interaction. Multiple CTCF binding regions in the MYC SE facilitate this enhancer-promoter interaction, which also involves a CTCF binding site upstream of the EVI1 promoter. We hypothesize that this CTCF site acts as an enhancer-docking site in t(3;8) AML. Genomic analyses of other 3q26-rearranged AML patient cells point to a common mechanism by which EVI1 uses this docking site to hijack enhancers active in early hematopoiesis.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Proteína do Locus do Complexo MDS1 e EVI1/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proto-Oncogenes/genética , Doença Aguda , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Rearranjo Gênico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Células K562 , Cariotipagem , Leucemia Mieloide/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide/patologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica , Translocação Genética
8.
Cell Stem Cell ; 28(11): 1966-1981.e6, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473945

RESUMO

DDX41 mutations are the most common germline alterations in adult myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). The majority of affected individuals harbor germline monoallelic frameshift DDX41 mutations and subsequently acquire somatic mutations in their other DDX41 allele, typically missense R525H. Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) with biallelic frameshift and R525H mutations undergo cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, causing bone marrow failure in mice. Mechanistically, DDX41 is essential for small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) processing, ribosome assembly, and protein synthesis. Although monoallelic DDX41 mutations do not affect hematopoiesis in young mice, a subset of aged mice develops features of MDS. Biallelic mutations in DDX41 are observed at a low frequency in non-dominant hematopoietic stem cell clones in bone marrow (BM) from individuals with MDS. Mice chimeric for monoallelic DDX41 mutant BM cells and a minor population of biallelic mutant BM cells develop hematopoietic defects at a younger age, suggesting that biallelic DDX41 mutant cells are disease modifying in the context of monoallelic DDX41 mutant BM.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Animais , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Células Germinativas , Hematopoese/genética , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética
9.
Blood Adv ; 5(21): 4426-4434, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570179

RESUMO

Acquired somatic mutations are crucial for the development of most cancers. We performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the mutational landscapes and their correlation with CHIP-related (clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential) mutations and patient age of 122 genes in 3096 cases of 28 different hematological malignancies. Differences were observed regarding (1) the median number of mutations (highest, median n = 4; lowest, n = 0); (2) specificity of certain mutations (high frequencies in atypical chronic myeloid leukemia [aCML; ASXL1, 86%], follicular lymphoma [FL; KMT2D, 87%; CREBBP, 73%], hairy cell lymphoma [BRAF, 100%], lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma [MYD88, 98%; CXCR4, 51%], myeloproliferative neoplasm [MPN; AK2, 68%]); (3) distribution of mutations (broad distribution within/across the myeloid/lymphoid lineage for TET2, ASXL1, DNMT3A, TP53, BCOR, and ETV6); (4) correlation of mutations with patient's age (correlated with older age across entities: TET2, DNMT3A, ASXL1, TP53, EZH2, BCOR, GATA2, and IDH2; younger age: KIT, POT1, RAD21, U2AF2, and WT1); (5) correlation of mutation number per patient with age. Moreover, we observed high frequencies of mutations in RUNX1, SRSF2, IDH2, NRAS, and EZH2 in cases comprising at least 1 DTA (DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1) mutation, whereas in cases without DTA mutations, TP53, KRAS, WT1, and SF3B1 were more frequent across entities, suggesting differences in pathophysiology. These results give further insight into the complex genetic landscape and the role of DTA mutations in hematological neoplasms and define mutation-driven entities (myelodysplastic syndrome/MPN overlap; secondary acute myeloid) in comparison with entities defined by chromosomal fusions (chronic myeloid leukemia; myeloid/lymphoid neoplasm with eosinophilia).

10.
Blood Adv ; 5(21): 4361-4369, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592765

RESUMO

The differential diagnosis of myeloid malignancies is challenging and subject to interobserver variability. We used clinical and next-generation sequencing (NGS) data to develop a machine learning model for the diagnosis of myeloid malignancies independent of bone marrow biopsy data based on a 3-institution, international cohort of patients. The model achieves high performance, with model interpretations indicating that it relies on factors similar to those used by clinicians. In addition, we describe associations between NGS findings and clinically important phenotypes and introduce the use of machine learning algorithms to elucidate clinicogenomic relationships.

11.
Blood ; 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343258

RESUMO

Nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) affect exon 12, but sporadically also exon 9 and 11, all causing changes at protein C-terminal end (loss of tryptophans and creation of a nuclear export signal-NES motif) that lead to aberrant cytoplasmic NPM1 (NPM1c+), detectable by immunohistochemistry. Combining immunohistochemistry and molecular analyses in 929 AML patients, we found non-exon 12 NPM1 mutations in 5/387 (1.3%) NPM1c+ cases. Besides mutations in exon 9 (n=1) and exon 11 (n=1), novel mutations in exon 5 were discovered (n=3). One more exon 5 mutation was identified in additional 141 AML patients selected for wild-type NPM1 exon 12. Furthermore, 3 NPM1 rearrangements (i.e. NPM1/RPP30, NPM1/SETBP1, NPM1/CCDC28A) were detected and characterized among 13,979 AML samples screened by cytogenetic/FISH and RNA sequencing. Functional studies demonstrated that in AML cases the new NPM1 proteins harboured an efficient extra NES, either newly created or already present in the fusion partner, ensuring its cytoplasmic accumulation. Our findings support NPM1 cytoplasmic relocation as critical for leukemogenesis and reinforce the role of immunohistochemistry in predicting any AML-associated NPM1 genetic lesions. Also, this study highlights the need for developing new specific assays for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of NPM1-mutated AML.

12.
Leukemia ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376804

RESUMO

In AML patients, recurrent mutations were shown to persist in remission, however, only some have a prognostic value and persistent mutations might therefore reflect a re-established premalignant state or truly active disease causing relapse. We aimed to dissect the nature of co-mutations in NPM1 mutated AML where the detection of NPM1 transcripts allows highly specific and sensitive detection of complete molecular remission (CMR). We analysed 150 consecutive patients who achieved CMR following intensive treatment by next generation sequencing on paired samples at diagnosis, CMR and relapse (38/150 patients). Patients with persistence or the acquisition of non-DTA (DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1) mutations at CMR (23/150 patients, 15%) have a significantly worse prognosis (EFS HR = 2.7, p = 0.003; OS HR = 3.6, p = 0.012). Based on clonal evolution analysis of diagnostic, CMR and relapse samples, we redefine pre-malignant mutations and include IDH1, IDH2 and SRSF2 with the DTA genes in this newly defined group. Only the persistence or acquisition of CHOP-like (clonal hematopoiesis of oncogenic potential) mutations was significantly associated with an inferior outcome (EFS HR = 4.5, p = 0.0002; OS HR = 5.5, p = 0.002). Moreover, the detection of CHOP-like mutations at relapse was detrimental (HR = 4.5, p = 0.01). We confirmed these findings in a second independent whole genome sequencing cohort.

13.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Typically, prognostic capability of gene expression profiling (GEP) is studied in the context of clinical trials, for which 50%-80% of patients are not eligible, possibly limiting the generalizability of findings to routine practice. Here, we evaluate GEP analysis outside clinical trials, aiming to improve clinical risk assessment of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. METHODS: A total of 155 bone marrow samples from MM patients were collected from which RNA was analyzed by microarray. Sixteen previously developed GEP-based markers were evaluated, combined with survival data, and studied using Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS: Gene expression profiling-based markers SKY92 and the PR-cluster were shown to be independent prognostic factors for survival, with hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval of 3.6 [2.0-6.8] (P < .001) and 5.8 [2.7-12.7] (P < .01) for overall survival (OS). A multivariate model proved only SKY92 and the PR-cluster to be independent prognostic factors compared to cytogenetic high-risk patients, the International Staging System (ISS), and revised ISS. A substantial number of high-risk individuals could be further identified when SKY92 was added to the cytogenetic, ISS, or R-ISS. In the cytogenetic standard-risk group, ISS I/II, and R-ISS I/II, 13%, 23%, and 23% of patients with adverse survivals were identified. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, this study confirmed the prognostic value of GEP markers outside clinical trials. Conventional prognostic models to define high-risk MM are improved by the incorporation of GEP markers.

14.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380369

RESUMO

MYC rearrangements (MYCr) occur in several B-cell neoplasms and impact disease progression and overall survival. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole transcriptome sequencing (WTS) to analyze and compare MYCr in different B-cell neoplasms. The MYCr features of cases with plasma cell myeloma (PCM) (n = 88) showed distinct characteristics compared to cases with mature B-cell lymphomas (n = 62, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and high grade lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (HGBL)): they were more complex and showed a wider variety of translocation partners and breakpoints. Additionally, unlike B-cell lymphomas, they showed no evidence of activation-induced deaminase (AID) involvement in the formation of MYCr with immunoglobolin heavy chain (IGH), indicating a different mechanism of origin. The different MYCr characteristics resulted in poor MYCr detection rates by fluorescence in situ hybridization of only 50% in PCM, compared to 94% in lymphoma.

15.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3254-3265, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448812

RESUMO

Splicing factor (SF) mutations are important contributors to the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies; however, their relevance in risk classification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) warrants further investigation. To gain more insight into the characteristics of patients with AML carrying SF mutations, we studied their association with clinical features, cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities, and clinical outcome in a large cohort of 1447 patients with AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. SF mutations were identified in 22% of patients and were associated with multiple unfavorable clinical features, such as older age, antecedent myeloid disorders, and adverse risk factors (mutations in RUNX1 and ASXL1). Furthermore, they had significantly shorter event-free and overall survival. Notably, in European LeukemiaNet (ELN) 2017 favorable- and intermediate-risk groups, SF3B1 mutations were indicative of relatively poor prognosis. In addition, patients carrying concomitant SF mutations and RUNX1 mutations had a particularly adverse prognosis. In patients without any of the 4 most common SF mutations, RUNX1 mutations were associated with relatively good outcome, which was comparable to that of intermediate-risk patients. In this study, we propose that SF mutations be considered for incorporation into prognostic classification systems. First, SF3B1 mutations could be considered an intermediate prognostic factor when co-occurring with favorable risk features and as an adverse prognostic factor for patients currently categorized as having intermediate risk, according to the ELN 2017 classification. Second, the prognostic value of the current adverse factor RUNX1 mutations seems to be limited to its co-occurrence with SF mutations.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Fatores de Risco
16.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 886, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the clinical and genetic characteristics, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a rather heterogeneous hematological neoplasm for which current standard diagnostics require various analyses encompassing morphology, immunophenotyping, cytogenetics, and molecular analysis of gene fusions and mutations. Hence, it would be desirable to rely on a technique and an analytical workflow that allows the simultaneous analysis and identification of all the genetic alterations in a single approach. Moreover, based on the results with standard methods, a significant amount of patients have no established abnormalities and hence, cannot further be stratified. METHODS: We performed WTS and WGS in 279 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients (B-cell: n = 211; T-cell: n = 68) to assess the accuracy of WTS, to detect relevant genetic markers, and to classify ALL patients. RESULTS: DNA and RNA-based genotyping was used to ensure correct WTS-WGS pairing. Gene expression analysis reliably assigned samples to the B Cell Precursor (BCP)-ALL or the T-ALL group. Subclassification of BCP-ALL samples was done progressively, assessing first the presence of chromosomal rearrangements by the means of fusion detection. Compared to the standard methods, 97% of the recurrent risk-stratifying fusions could be identified by WTS, assigning 76 samples to their respective entities. Additionally, read-through fusions (indicative of CDKN2A and RB1 gene deletions) were recurrently detected in the cohort along with 57 putative novel fusions, with yet untouched diagnostic potentials. Next, copy number variations were inferred from WTS data to identify relevant ploidy groups, classifying an additional of 31 samples. Lastly, gene expression profiling detected a BCR-ABL1-like signature in 27% of the remaining samples. CONCLUSION: As a single assay, WTS allowed a precise genetic classification for the majority of BCP-ALL patients, and is superior to conventional methods in the cases which lack entity defining genetic abnormalities.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Biologia Computacional , Análise Citogenética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Histocitoquímica/métodos , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439083

RESUMO

Despite substantial progress achieved in unraveling the genetics of AML in the past decade, its treatment outcome has not substantially improved. Therefore, it is important to better understand how genetic mutations translate to phenotypic features of AML cells to further improve response predictions and to find innovative therapeutic approaches. In this respect, aberrant splicing is a crucial contributor to the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. Thus far, altered splicing is well characterized in relation to splicing factor mutations in AML. However, splicing profiles associated with mutations in other genes remain largely unexplored. In this study, we explored differential splicing profiles associated with two of the most common aberrations in AML: FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations. Using RNA-sequencing data of a total of 382 primary AML samples, we found that the co-occurrence of FLT3-ITD and mutated NPM1 is associated with differential splicing of FAB-type specific gene sets. Despite the FAB-type specificity of particular gene sets, the primary functions perturbed by differential splicing in all three FAB types include cell cycle control and DNA damage response. Interestingly, we observed functional divergence between alternatively spliced and differentially expressed genes in FLT3-ITD+/NPM1+ samples in all analyzed FAB types, with differential expression affecting genes involved in hematopoietic differentiation. Altogether, these observations indicate that concomitant FLT3-ITD and mutated NPM1 are associated with the maturation state-specific differential splicing of genes with potential oncogenic relevance.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(33): 3737-3746, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406850

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have a survival that can range from months to decades. Prognostic systems that incorporate advanced analytics of clinical, pathologic, and molecular data have the potential to more accurately and dynamically predict survival in patients receiving various therapies. METHODS: A total of 1,471 MDS patients with comprehensively annotated clinical and molecular data were included in a training cohort and analyzed using machine learning techniques. A random survival algorithm was used to build a prognostic model, which was then validated in external cohorts. The accuracy of the proposed model, compared with other established models, was assessed using a concordance (c)index. RESULTS: The median age for the training cohort was 71 years. Commonly mutated genes included SF3B1, TET2, and ASXL1. The algorithm identified chromosomal karyotype, platelet, hemoglobin levels, bone marrow blast percentage, age, other clinical variables, seven discrete gene mutations, and mutation number as having prognostic impact on overall and leukemia-free survivals. The model was validated in an independent external cohort of 465 patients, a cohort of patients with MDS treated in a prospective clinical trial, a cohort of patients with paired samples at different time points during the disease course, and a cohort of patients who underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. CONCLUSION: A personalized prediction model on the basis of clinical and genomic data outperformed established prognostic models in MDS. The new model was dynamic, predicting survival and leukemia transformation probabilities at different time points that are unique for a given patient, and can upstage and downstage patients into more appropriate risk categories.

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