Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 12 de 12
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 10772-10778, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629525

RESUMO

Colostrum plays an important role in initiating the development of the intestinal barrier in newborn mammals. Given its bioactivity, there is much interest in the potential use of bovine colostrum to improve human gastrointestinal health throughout the life span. There is evidence that bovine colostrum is effective at improving small intestinal barrier integrity and some indication that it may alter colonic motility. However, for colostrum to be used as a product to improve intestinal health, it needs to be bioactive after processing. The aim of this study was to determine whether industrial processing of bovine colostrum affects its ability to improve small intestinal barrier integrity or alter distal colon motility. Three colostrum sample types were compared; raw whole colostrum powder (WCP), raw skim colostrum powder (SCP), and industrially produced colostrum milk protein concentrate (CMPC). To determine whether these colostrum powders had different effects on small intestinal barrier integrity, their effects on the transepithelial electrical resistance across an in vitro intestinal epithelial layer (Caco-2 cells) were measured, both with and without a challenge from the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α. These results showed that CMPC enhanced transepithelial electrical resistance across unchallenged epithelial cell layers, whereas the raw colostrum samples, WCP and SCP, did not have an effect. The colostrum samples were also compared to determine how they affect contractility in the distal colon isolated from the rat. Skim colostrum powder was the only sample to act directly on colonic tissue to modulate motility, increasing the amplitude of contractions. The results show that bovine colostrum is able to improve small intestinal barrier integrity and alter colon motility, and they implicate different components. The barrier integrity enhancement was apparent only in the industrial CMPC, which may have been due to the increase in protein concentration or the release of small peptides as a result of processing. The ability to alter colon motility was present in SCP but absent in WCP, again implying that an increase in protein concentration is responsible for the effect. However, this effect was not apparent for the industrially processed CMPC, suggesting denaturation or degradation of the active component. The beneficial effect of colostrum on small intestinal barrier integrity was present after processing, confirming that it is feasible to industrially produce an active product for gut health.


Assuntos
Colostro , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Leite/farmacologia , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Bovinos , Humanos , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190839, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304106

RESUMO

Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation is essential for absorbing nutrients and preventing pathogens and toxins from entering the body. Compared to breast-fed infants, formula-fed infants are more susceptible to barrier dysfunction-associated illnesses. In infant formula dairy lipids are usually replaced with plant lipids. We hypothesised that dairy complex lipids improve in vitro intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. We tested milkfat high in conjugated linoleic acid, beta serum (SureStart™Lipid100), beta serum concentrate (BSC) and a ganglioside-rich fraction (G600). Using Caco-2 cells as a model of the human small intestinal epithelium, we analysed the effects of the ingredients on trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), mannitol flux, and tight junction protein co-localisation. BSC induced a dose-dependent improvement in TEER across unchallenged cell layers, maintained the co-localisation of tight junction proteins in TNFα-challenged cells with increased permeability, and mitigated the TEER-reducing effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). G600 also increased TEER across healthy and LPS-challenged cells, but it did not alter the co-location of tight junction proteins in TNFα-challenged cells. SureStart™Lipid100 had similar TEER-increasing effects to BSC when added at twice the concentration (similar lipid concentration). Ultimately, this research aims to contribute to the development of infant formulas supplemented with dairy complex lipids that support infant intestinal barrier maturation.


Assuntos
Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/fisiologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
Nutrients ; 9(12)2017 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236034

RESUMO

Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is accentuated with hydrolysates, similar to soy. Adult male rats (18 months old) were fed native whey or casein, hydrolyzed whey (WPH) or casein (CPH), hydrolyzed blend (HB; 60% whey:40% casein), or hydrolyzed soy for 14 days then treated with loperamide, prucalopride, or vehicle-control for 7 days. X-ray imaging tracked bead-transit for: gastric emptying (GE; 4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine (LI) transit (12 h). GE for whey was 33 ± 12% faster than that for either casein or CPH. SI transit was decreased by 37 ± 9% for casein and 24 ± 6% for whey compared with hydrolyzed soy, and persisted for casein at 12 h. Although CPH and WPH did not alter transit compared with their respective intact counterparts, fecal output was increased by WPH. Slowed transit by casein was reversed by prucalopride (9-h), but not loperamide. However, rapid GE and slower SI transit for the HB compared with intact forms were inhibited by loperamide. The expected slower GI transit for casein relative to soy provided a comparative benchmark, and opioid receptor involvement was corroborated. Our findings provide new evidence that whey slowed SI transit compared with soy, independent of GE. Increased GI transit from stomach to colon for the HB compared with casein suggests that including hydrolyzed milk proteins in foods may benefit those with slowed intestinal transit.


Assuntos
Caseínas/farmacologia , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Animais , Hidrólise , Intestino Grosso/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Grosso/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 100(2): 886-891, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27939537

RESUMO

Bovine lactoferrin is an important milk protein with many health-promoting properties, including improving intestinal barrier integrity. Dysfunction of this barrier, commonly referred to as "leaky gut," has been linked to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. With some processing techniques, lactoferrin isolated from milk collected at the start of the milking season (early lactation) may have lower purity than that isolated from milk collected during the rest of the milking season (mid-lactation) and could result in differences in bioactivity based on the stage of lactation. We compared reversed-phase HPLC chromatographs of early-lactation and mid-lactation preparations and found that both had large chromatograph peaks at the time predicted for lactoferrin. The notable difference between the 2 chromatographs was a much larger peak in the early-lactation lactoferrin sample that was determined to be angiogenin. Angiogenin was first identified due to its ability to induce new blood vessel formation, but is now known to be involved in numerous physiological processes. Then, we compared the effects of early-lactation and mid-lactation lactoferrin preparations in 2 bioassays: trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a measure of intestinal barrier integrity, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine secretion, a measure of immune-stimulatory properties. We found that early-lactation lactoferrin increased TEER across Caco-2 cell layers compared with control from 10 to 48 h, mid-lactation lactoferrin did not alter TEER. We also found that early-lactation lactoferrin reduced the amount of IL-8 produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (compared with those treated with control medium) to a greater extent than mid-lactation lactoferrin. A pro-inflammatory chemokine, IL-8 is also known to decrease barrier function. These results suggest that the decrease in IL-8 production in the presence of early-lactation lactoferrin may be the mechanism by which it increases TEER. The anti-inflammatory effect of early-lactation lactoferrin may be related to the presence of angiogenin, which is known to suppress inflammatory responses. This work indicates that products rich in angiogenin may have intestinal health benefits, and further work to investigate this is warranted.


Assuntos
Células CACO-2 , Lactoferrina , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química
5.
Nutrients ; 8(12)2016 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27983629

RESUMO

Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response.


Assuntos
Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Leite/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Animais , Caseínas , Bovinos , Queijo , Colo/fisiologia , Hidrólise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
mSystems ; 1(6)2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27921083

RESUMO

To investigate the impact of probiotic supplementation of infant formula on immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, and metabolism, five individually housed infant rhesus monkeys exclusively fed standard infant formula supplemented with probiotics (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019) from birth until 3 months of age were compared with five standard formula-fed and five breast-fed monkeys. Anthropometric measurements, serum insulin, immune parameters, fecal microbiota, and metabolic profiles of serum, urine, and feces were evaluated. Consumption of B. lactis-supplemented formula reduced microbial diversity, restructured the fecal microbial community, and altered the fecal metabolome at the last two time points, in addition to increasing short-chain fatty acids in serum and urine. Circulating CCL22 was lower and threonine, branched-chain amino acids, urea, and allantoin, as well as dimethylglycine in serum and urine, were increased in the group supplemented with B. lactis compared with the standard formula-fed group. These results support a role of probiotics as effectors of gut microbial activity regulating amino acid utilization and nitrogen cycling. Future risk-benefit analyses are still needed to consolidate the existing knowledge on the long-term consequences of probiotic administration during infancy. IMPORTANCE Probiotics are becoming increasingly popular due to their perceived effects on health, despite a lack of mechanistic information on how they impart these benefits. Infant formula and complementary foods are common targets for supplementation with probiotics. However, different probiotic strains have different properties, and there is a lack of data on long-term health effects on the consumer. Given the increasing interest in supplementation with probiotics and the fact that the gastrointestinal tracts of infants are still immature, we sought to determine whether consumption of infant formula containing the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 for 3 months starting at birth would impact gut microbial colonization, as well as infant immunity and metabolism, when compared with consumption of formula alone.

7.
J Proteome Res ; 12(6): 2833-45, 2013 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23651394

RESUMO

Epidemiological research has indicated a relationship between infant formula feeding and increased risk of chronic diseases later in life including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The present study used an infant rhesus monkey model to compare the comprehensive metabolic implications of formula- and breast-feeding practices using NMR spectroscopy to characterize metabolite fingerprints from urine and serum, in combination with anthropometric measurements, fecal microbial profiling, and cytokine measurements. Here we show that formula-fed infants are larger than their breast-fed counterparts and have a different gut microbiome that includes higher levels of bacteria from the Ruminococcus genus and lower levels of bacteria from the Lactobacillus genus. In addition, formula-fed infants have higher serum insulin coupled with higher amino acid levels, while amino acid degradation products were higher in breast-fed infants. Increases in serum and urine galactose and urine galactitol were observed in the second month of life in formula-fed infants, along with higher levels of TNFα, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-4, and other cytokines and growth factors at week 4. These results demonstrate that metabolic and gut microbiome development of formula-fed infants is different from breast-fed infants and that the choice of infant feeding may hold future health consequences.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/sangue , Fórmulas Infantis/metabolismo , Macaca mulatta/sangue , Metabolômica , Microbiota , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/urina , Alimentação Artificial , Aleitamento Materno , Citocinas/sangue , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Galactitol/urina , Galactose/urina , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/administração & dosagem , Insulina/sangue , Lactobacillus/imunologia , Macaca mulatta/imunologia , Macaca mulatta/urina , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ruminococcus/imunologia
8.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 56(4): 355-63, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23201704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rhesus macaque monkeys are widely used as models for human physiology and behavior. They are particularly suited for studies on infant nutrition and metabolism; however, few studies have directly compared their metabolic or microbiological phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to compare the metabolomic profiles and microbiome of milk from human and rhesus mothers, and the metabolomic profiles of urine and serum from human and rhesus infants to establish the value of this model for human nutrition research. METHODS: Milk samples were collected from rhesus and human mothers at similar stages of lactation. Urine and serum samples were collected from breast-fed rhesus and human infants. H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were acquired for all samples and metabolites were identified and quantified using targeted profiling techniques. The microbial community structure of milk was examined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: An identical set of metabolites was identified in the urine and serum profiles from human and rhesus infants. In urine, 65% of the metabolites were present at similar concentrations, whereas ~40% were similar in serum. The gross composition of human and rhesus milk was comparable, including the overall microbial community at both the phylum and order level; however, some oligosaccharides found in human milk were not present in monkey milk. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of the milk microbiome and urine, serum, and milk metabolome of rhesus macaques and humans has revealed substantial similarities that provide unique biological information highlighting the significance of rhesus macaques as a model for infant nutrition and developmental research.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Macaca mulatta/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Animais , Sangue/metabolismo , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Macaca mulatta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Macaca mulatta/microbiologia , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Leite/metabolismo , Leite/microbiologia , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Tipagem Molecular , Especificidade da Espécie , Urina/química
9.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 86(3): 277-88, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18268518

RESUMO

Bovine lactoferrin (bLf), an iron-containing natural defence protein found in bodily secretions, has been reported to inhibit carcinogenesis and the growth of tumours. Here, we investigated whether natural bLf and iron-saturated forms of bLf differ in their ability to augment cancer chemotherapy. bLf was supplemented into the diet of C57BL/6 mice that were subsequently challenged subcutaneously with tumour cells, and treated by chemotherapy. Chemotherapy eradicated large (0.6 cm diameter) EL-4 lymphomas in mice that had been fed iron-saturated bLf (here designated Lf(+)) for 6 weeks prior to chemotherapy, but surprisingly not in mice that were fed lesser iron-saturated forms of bLf, including apo-bLf (4% iron saturated), natural bLf (approximately 15% iron saturated) and 50% iron-saturated bLf. Lf(+)-fed mice bearing either EL-4, Lewis lung carcinoma or B16 melanoma tumours completely rejected their tumours within 3 weeks following a single injection of either paclitaxel, doxorubicin, epirubicin or fluorouracil, whereas mice fed the control diet were resistant to chemotherapy. Lf(+) had to be fed to mice for more than 2 weeks prior to chemotherapy to be wholly effective in eradicating tumours from all mice, suggesting that it acts as a competence factor. It significantly reduced tumour vascularity and blood flow, and increased antitumour cytotoxicity, tumour apoptosis and the infiltration of tumours by leukocytes. Lf(+) bound to the intestinal epithelium and was preferentially taken up within Peyer's patches. It increased the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines within the intestine and tumour, including TNF, IFN-gamma, as well as nitric oxide that have been reported to sensitize tumours to chemotherapy. Importantly, it restored both red and white peripheral blood cell numbers depleted by chemotherapy, potentially fortifying the mice against cancer. In summary, bLf is a potent natural adjuvant and fortifying agent for augmenting cancer chemotherapy, but needs to be saturated with iron to be effective.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/tratamento farmacológico , Lactoferrina/administração & dosagem , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/irrigação sanguínea , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/dietoterapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/imunologia , Bovinos , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ferro/química , Lactoferrina/química , Lactoferrina/imunologia , Linfoma/dietoterapia , Linfoma/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/irrigação sanguínea , Melanoma Experimental/dietoterapia , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico
10.
J Nutr ; 135(11): 2651-6, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16251625

RESUMO

Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are multifunctional components of the immune defense system. In this study, murine APCs were used as biosensors to detect immunologically active components of bovine milk and colostrum. By measuring changes in cell surface protein markers [major histocompatibility complex II, cluster designation (CD)40, CD86] and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10) associated with APC activation, we identified a number of compounds that are immunoactive. The mouse macrophage cell line MH-S offered a simple and robust target for identification of immunoactives. The assay was shown to be adaptable for measuring immunoenhancing or immunosuppressive substances. Large-scale screening of milk extracts using this bioassay has the potential to identify substances that could be developed into nutraceuticals or pharmaceutical-grade immunotherapeutics.


Assuntos
Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Leite/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-2/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Antígenos CD40/análise , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Colostro/química , Meios de Cultura , Células Dendríticas , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/análise , Interleucina-10/análise , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
11.
Br J Nutr ; 94(2): 244-52, 2005 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16115359

RESUMO

Bovine milk has been shown to contain bioactive components with bone-protective properties. Earlier studies on bovine milk whey protein showed that it suppressed bone resorption in the female ovariectomised rat. A new osteotropic component was subsequently identified in the whey basic protein fraction, but bone bioactivity may also be associated with other whey fractions. In the present study, we investigated whether acidic protein fractions isolated from bovine milk whey could prevent bone loss in mature ovariectomised female rats. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomised (OVX) or left intact (sham). The OVX rats were randomised into four groups. One group remained the control (OVX), whereas three groups were fed various whey acidic protein fractions from milk whey as 3 g/kg diet for 4 months. Outcomes were bone mineral density, bone biomechanics and markers of bone turnover. Bone mineral density of the femurs indicated that one of the whey AF over time caused a recovery of bone lost from OVX. Plasma C-telopeptide of type I collagen decreased significantly in all groups except OVX control over time, indicating an anti-resorptive effect of whey acidic protein. Biomechanical data showed that the AF may affect bone architecture as elasticity was increased by one of the whey AF. The femurs of AF-supplemented rats all showed an increase in organic matter. This is the first report of an acidic whey protein fraction isolated from milk whey that may support the recovery of bone loss in vivo.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteínas do Leite/administração & dosagem , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Reabsorção Óssea/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Osteocalcina/análise , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Ovariectomia/métodos , Inibidores de Proteases/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Útero/fisiopatologia
12.
Endocrinology ; 145(9): 4366-74, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15166119

RESUMO

Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein present in epithelial secretions, such as milk, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. We found it to be present in fractions of milk protein that stimulated osteoblast growth, so we assessed its effects on bone cell function. Lactoferrin produced large, dose-related increases in thymidine incorporation in primary or cell line cultures of human or rat osteoblast-like cells, at physiological concentrations (1-100 microg/ml). Maximal stimulation was 5-fold above control. Lactoferrin also increased osteoblast differentiation and reduced osteoblast apoptosis by up to 50-70%. Similarly, lactoferrin stimulated proliferation of primary chondrocytes. Purified, recombinant, human, or bovine lactoferrins had similar potencies. In mouse bone marrow cultures, osteoclastogenesis was dose-dependently decreased and was completely arrested by lactoferrin, 100 microg/ml, associated with decreased expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand. In contrast, lactoferrin had no effect on bone resorption by isolated mature osteoclasts. Lactoferrin was administered over calvariae of adult mice for 5 d. New bone formation, assessed using fluorochrome labels, was increased 4-fold by a 4-mg dose of lactoferrin. Thus, lactoferrin has powerful anabolic, differentiating, and antiapoptotic effects on osteoblasts and inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Lactoferrin is a potential therapeutic target in bone disorders such as osteoporosis and is possibly an important physiological regulator of bone growth.


Assuntos
Lactoferrina/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/citologia , Cartilagem/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetinae , Humanos , Rim/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Leite/química , Leite Humano/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Crânio/citologia , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA