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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2320: 151-160, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302656

RESUMO

Human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology paves the way for next-generation drug-safety assessment. In particular, human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, which exhibit electrical activity, are useful as a human cell model for assessing QT-interval prolongation and the risk of the lethal arrhythmia Torsade de Pointes (TdP). In addition to proarrhythmia assay, contractile behavior has received increased attention in drug development. In this study, we developed a novel high-throughput in vitro assay system using motion vectors to evaluate the contractile activity of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes as a physiologically relevant human platform. The methods presented here highlight the use of commercially available iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, iCell cardiomyocytes, for contractility evaluation recorded by the motion vector system.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/terapia , Torsades de Pointes/terapia
2.
J Physiol Sci ; 71(1): 17, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078262

RESUMO

We studied the impact of mechanically regulated, expiratory negative airway pressure (ENAP) ventilation on pulmonary and systemic circulation including its mechanisms and potential applications. Microminipigs weighing about 10 kg were anesthetized (n = 5). First, hemodynamic variables were evaluated without and with ENAP to approximately -16 cmH2O. ENAP significantly increased heart rate and cardiac output, but decreased right atrial, pulmonary arterial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures. Second, the evaluation was repeated following pharmacological adrenergic blockade, modestly blunting ENAP effects. Third, fluvoxamine (10 mg/kg) was intravenously administered to intentionally induce cardiovascular collapse in the presence of adrenergic blockade. ENAP was started when systolic pressure was < 40 mmHg in the animals assigned to ENAP treatment-group. Fluvoxamine induced cardiovascular collapse within 4 out of 5 animals. ENAP increased systolic pressure to > 50 mmHg (n = 2): both animals fully recovered without neurological deficit, whereas without ENAP both animals died of cardiac arrest (n = 2). ENAP may become an innovative treatment for drug-induced cardiovascular collapse.

3.
Circ J ; 85(10): 1885-1891, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effects of rapid electrical defibrillation and ß-blockade on coronary ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remain unknown.Methods and Results:After induction of VF by 30 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion, animals were treated with defibrillation alone (Group A, n=13), 2 min of open-chest cardiac massage followed by defibrillation (Group B, n=11), or the same therapy to Group B with propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.) treatment before ischemia/reperfusion (Group C, n=11). If return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was not attained, each therapy was repeated ≤3 times (Set-1). When ROSC was not obtained within Set-1, cardiac massage was applied to all animals followed by defibrillation, which was repeated ≤3 times (Set-2). ROSC after Set-1 was 8% in Group A, 82% in Group B and 82% in Group C, whereas that after Set-2 was 62% in Group A, 100% in Group B and 82% in Group C. Each animal with ROSC in Groups A (n=8) and B (n=11) showed sinus rhythm, whereas those in Group C (n=9) had sinus rhythm (n=5), atrial fibrillation (n=1), accelerated idioventricular rhythm (n=2) and atrioventricular block (n=1). Post ROSC heart rate and mean arterial pressure were significantly lower in Group C. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac massage increased the likelihood of ROSC vs. rapid defibrillation, but ß-blocker pretreatment may worsen hemodynamics and electrical stability after ROSC.

4.
Heart Vessels ; 36(7): 1088-1097, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763729

RESUMO

To characterize in vivo anti-atrial fibrillatory potential and pharmacological safety profile of ranolazine having INa,L plus IKr inhibitory actions in comparison with those of clinically available anti-atrial fibrillatory drugs; namely, dronedarone, amiodarone, bepridil and dl-sotalol in our previous studies, ranolazine dihydrochloride in sub-therapeutic (0.3 mg/kg) and supra-therapeutic (3 mg/kg) doses was intravenously infused over 10 min to the halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 5). The low dose increased the heart rate, cardiac output and atrioventricular conduction velocity possibly via vasodilator action-induced, reflex-mediated increase of adrenergic tone. Meanwhile, the high dose decreased the heart rate, ventricular contraction, cardiac output and mean blood pressure, indicating that drug-induced direct actions may exceed the reflex-mediated compensation. In addition, it prolonged the atrial and ventricular effective refractory periods, of which potency and selectivity for the former were less great compared with those of the clinically-available drugs. Moreover, it did not alter the ventricular early repolarization period in vivo, but prolonged the late repolarization with minimal risk for re-entrant arrhythmias. These in vivo findings of ranolazine suggest that INa,L suppression may attenuate IKr inhibition-associated prolongation of early repolarization in the presence of reflex-mediated increase of adrenergic tone. Thus, ranolazine alone may be less promising as an anti-atrial fibrillatory drug, but its potential risk for inducing torsade de pointes will be small. These information can be used as a guide to predict the utility and adverse effects of anti-atrial fibrillatory drugs having multi-channel modulatory action.

5.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 145(3): 268-272, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602507

RESUMO

We assessed concentration-dependent effects of halothane or isoflurane inhalation on the electrocardiographic and hemodynamic variables using a cross-over design in intact beagle dogs (n = 4). Elevation of inhaled halothane from 1.0% to 2.0% or isoflurane from 1.5% to 2.5% decreased the mean blood pressure and prolonged the QRS width without significantly altering the heart rate, PR interval or QT interval. However, the observed changes disappeared after regressions of both anesthetic conditions to their initial settings. These results indicate that hypotension-induced, reflex-mediated increase of sympathetic tone may have counterbalanced the direct negative chronotropic, dromotropic and repolarization slowing effects of the anesthetics.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/farmacologia , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Halotano/administração & dosagem , Halotano/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(6): 1103-1112, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427928

RESUMO

Poyendarone, a deuterated analogue of dronedarone, is expected to reduce the onset of cardiovascular adverse events of dronedarone, including congestive heart failure and excessive QT-interval prolongation. Since information is still lacking on the anti-atrial fibrillatory property of poyendarone, we assessed it along with effects on the inter-atrial conduction time (IACT) and atrial effective refractory period (AERP) using the canine paroxysmal atrial fibrillation model. Poyendarone hydrochloride (n = 4) and dronedarone hydrochloride (n = 4) in intravenous doses of 0.3 and 3 mg/kg/30 s were cumulatively administered. Poyendarone hardly altered sinoatrial rate, but dronedarone decreased it in a dose-related manner, whereas both drugs slightly but significantly reduced idioventricular rate. Poyendarone shortened duration of burst pacing-induced atrial fibrillation, whereas such abbreviation was not observed by dronedarone. Poyendarone and dronedarone similarly prolonged IACT in a frequency-dependent manner, indicating that their INa inhibitory actions may be similar. The high dose of poyendarone prolonged AERP in a reverse frequency-dependent manner, extent of which at basic pacing cycle lengths of 300 and 400 ms was comparable to that of dronedarone. However, the extent at a basic pacing cycle length of 200 ms was tended to be greater in poyendarone than in dronedarone, suggesting greater IKs inhibitory action of poyendarone. The deuteration of dronedarone attenuated the inhibition of sinus automaticity and prolonged the AERP with keeping the blood pressure and ventricular rate stable. Thus, poyendarone may have both more potent anti-atrial fibrillatory action and wider cardiovascular safety margin than dronedarone.

7.
Heart Vessels ; 36(3): 424-429, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136260

RESUMO

Lamotrigine has been used for patients with epilepsy and/or bipolar disorder, overdose of which induced the hypotension, elevation of the atrial pacing threshold, cardiac conduction delay, wide complex tachycardia, cardiac arrest and Brugada-like electrocardiographic pattern. To clarify how lamotrigine induces those cardiovascular adverse events, we simultaneously assessed its cardiohemodynamic and electrophysiological effects using the halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 4). Lamotrigine was intravenously administered in doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg/10 min under the monitoring of cardiovascular variables, possibly providing subtherapeutic to supratherapeutic plasma concentrations. The low or middle dose of lamotrigine did not alter any of the variables. The high dose significantly delayed the intra-atrial and intra-ventricular conductions in addition to the prolongation of ventricular effective refractory period, whereas no significant change was detected in the other variables. Lamotrigine by itself has relatively wide safety margin for cardiohemodynamics, indicating that clinically reported hypotension may not be induced through its direct action on the resistance arterioles or capacitance venules. The electrophysiological effects suggested that lamotrigine can inhibit Na+ channel in the in situ hearts. This finding may partly explain the onset mechanism of lamotrigine-associated cardiac adverse events in the clinical cases. In addition, elevation of J wave was induced in half of the animals, suggesting that lamotrigine may have some potential to unmask Brugada electrocardiographic genotype in susceptible patients.

8.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 21(3): 206-215, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074476

RESUMO

While vanoxerine (GBR-12909) is a synaptosomal dopamine uptake inhibitor, it also suppresses IKr, INa and ICa,L in vitro. Based on these profiles on ionic currents, vanoxerine has been developed as a candidate compound for treating atrial fibrillation. To investigate electropharmacological profiles, vanoxerine dihydrochloride was intravenously administered at 0.03 and 0.3 mg/kg to halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 4), possibly providing subtherapeutic and therapeutic concentrations, respectively. The low dose increased the heart rate and cardiac output, whereas it prolonged the ventricular refractoriness. The high dose decreased the heart rate but increased the total peripheral vascular resistance, whereas it delayed the ventricular repolarization and increased the atrial refractoriness in addition to further enhancing the ventricular refractoriness. The extent of increase in the refractoriness in the atrium was 0.8 times of that in the ventricle. The high dose also prolonged the early and late repolarization periods of the ventricle as well as the terminal repolarization period. Meanwhile, no significant change was detected in the mean blood pressure, ventricular contraction, preload to the left ventricle, or the intra-atrial, intra-ventricular or atrioventricular conductions. The high dose can be considered to inhibit IKr, but it may not suppress INa or ICa in the in situ heart, partly explaining its poor atrial selectivity for increasing refractoriness. The prolongation of early repolarization period may reflect enhancement of net inward current, providing potential risk for intracellular Ca2+ overload. Thus, vanoxerine may provide both trigger and substrate toward torsade de pointes, which would make the drug less promising as an anti-atrial fibrillatory drug.

9.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(4): 581-589, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064166

RESUMO

Donepezil, an inhibitor for acetylcholinesterase used for patients with Alzheimer's disease, has been shown to inhibit IKr, occasionally inducing torsade de pointes. In order to analyze the causal relationship between donepezil treatment and onset of lethal arrhythmias, we initially assessed electropharmacological effects of donepezil hydrochloride of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg, i.v. over 10 min using the halothane-anesthetized intact dogs (n = 4), possibly providing subtherapeutic to supratherapeutic plasma concentrations. Although the low or middle dose did not exert any effect, the high dose transiently increased the ventricular refractoriness along with modest prolongation of the late repolarization period, indicating potential IKr inhibitory action in vivo. Moreover, the high dose induced the positive chronotropic, inotropic, and dromotropic actions along with the pressor effect and prolongation of early repolarization period, suggesting sympathicotonic condition in the central nervous system. Next, we examined proarrhythmic effects of donepezil hydrochloride of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.v. over 10 min using the conscious chronic atrioventricular block dogs (n = 4). Although the low dose hardly affected the cardiovascular variables, the high dose increased the atrial and ventricular rate without significantly altering the repolarization period, possibly reflecting sympathicotonic condition. Importantly, the high dose induced non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in half of the animals. Thus, donepezil by itself did not induce torsade de pointes in vivo, which suggests that donepezil-induced sympathicotonic condition may induce Ca2+ overload, triggering the ventricular arrhythmias, but might indirectly attenuate its IKr inhibitory action, preventing excessive repolarization delay.

10.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 145(1): 16-22, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357775

RESUMO

We compared dl-sotalol-induced electrocardiographic responses in intact dogs using a repeated-measures design among 1% halothane anesthesia, 1.5% isoflurane anesthesia with nitrous oxide (N2O), and conscious state to clarify influences of the anesthetics (n = 4). Basal PR interval was longer in halothane than either in isoflurane with N2O or in conscious state, reflecting sympathetic nerve suppression for the atrioventricular node by halothane. Both anesthetics exhibited longer basal QRS width than conscious state, suggesting their ventricular INa inhibition. Also, both anesthetics showed longer basal QT interval, QTcF and Tpeak-Tend than conscious state, indicating their ventricular IKr inhibition. Meanwhile, dl-sotalol prolonged PR interval similarly in isoflurane with N2O and in conscious state, which was less great in halothane, suggesting further sympathetic nerve suppression for the atrioventricular node might be limited in halothane. dl-Sotalol prolonged QT interval and QTcF >3 times greater in either of the anesthetics than in conscious state; moreover, dl-sotalol prolonged Tpeak-Tend similarly in both anesthetics, but hardly altered it in conscious state; indicating isoflurane with N2O as well as halothane may have reduced the repolarization reserve to increase the sensitivity of ventricle toward IKr suppression. Thus, isoflurane with nitrous oxide could be useful for in vivo IKr assay like halothane.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Estado de Consciência/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Halotano , Isoflurano , Óxido Nitroso , Sotalol/farmacologia , Animais , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Cães , Halotano/farmacologia , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Masculino , Óxido Nitroso/farmacologia
11.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 542562, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015053

RESUMO

Contractility of the human heart increases as its beating rate is elevated, so-called positive force-frequency relationship; however, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have been reported to exert a negative force-frequency relationship. We tested the hypothesis that the regulation of motion directions by electrical pacing and/or oxygen supply may improve the electro-mechanical properties of hiPSC-CMs monolayers. To better evaluate the spatial and temporal relationship between electrical excitation and contractile motion, we simultaneously observed the field potential and motion vector of hiPSC-CMs sheets. Under spontaneous contraction, although an electrical excitation originating from a region propagated unidirectionally over the cell sheet, contraction wave started from multiple sites, and relaxation wave was initiated from a geometric center of hiPSC-CMs sheet. During electrical pacing, contraction and relaxation waves were propagated from the stimulated site. Interestingly, the maximum contraction speed was more increased when the hiPSC-CMs sheet was stimulated at an area relaxation initiated under spontaneous condition. Furthermore, motion vector analysis demonstrated that "positive contraction velocity-frequency relationship" in contraction and "frequency-dependent enhancement of relaxation" were produced in the cell sheet by optimizing the direction and order of the contractile motion with pacing at the relaxation-initiating area. A close analysis of motion vectors along with field potential recording demonstrated that relaxation process consists of fast and slow phases, and suggest that intracellular Ca2+ dynamics may be closely related to functions of Ca2+-ATPase pump and Na+-Ca2+ exchangers. Namely, the slow relaxation phase occurred after the second peak of field potential, suggesting that the slow phase may be associated with extrusion of Ca2+ by Na+-Ca2+ exchangers during repolarization. Increase of oxygen concentration from 20 to 95% as well as ß-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol accelerated the fast relaxation, suggesting that it could depend on Ca2+ uptake via Ca2+-ATPase during the depolarization phase. The ratio of maximum contraction speed to field potential duration was increased by the ß-adrenergic stimulation, indicating the elevated contraction efficiency per Ca2+-influx. Thus, these findings revealed potential ability of conventional monolayers of hiPSC-CMs, which will help apply them to translational study filling the gap between physiological as well as pharmacological studies and clinical practice.

12.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 144(3): 123-128, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921393

RESUMO

We assessed the torsadogenic effects of a novel remyelinating drug clemastine for multiple sclerosis using an in vivo proarrhythmia model of acute atrioventricular block rabbit, since the drug has been demonstrated to suppress the human ether-á-go-go related gene (hERG) K+ channels. Bradycardia was induced by atrioventricular node ablation in isoflurane-anesthetized New Zealand White rabbits (n = 5), and the ventricle was electrically driven at 60 beats/min throughout the experiment, except when extrasystoles appeared. Intravenous administration of clinically relevant dose of 0.03 mg/kg of clemastine and 10-times higher dose of 0.3 mg/kg hardly affected the QT interval or duration of the monophasic action potential (MAP) of the ventricle. Additional administration of clemastine at 3 mg/kg significantly increased the QT interval, MAP duration and the short-term variability of repolarization. Meanwhile, the premature ventricular contractions with R on T phenomenon were observed in 3 out of 5 animals, and torsades de pointes arrhythmias were detected in 1 out of 5 animals. These results suggest that the torsadogenic potential of clemastine is obviously observed in the acute atrioventricular block rabbit, which will not appear within the prescribed dose for multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Clemastina/administração & dosagem , Clemastina/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do QT Longo/induzido quimicamente , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Torsades de Pointes/induzido quimicamente , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Bradicardia/fisiopatologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Canal de Potássio ERG1/antagonistas & inibidores , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Infusões Intravenosas , Coelhos
13.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 143(4): 330-332, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499094

RESUMO

We assessed torsadogenic action of risperidone, which can potently inhibit IKr as well as α1-adrenoceptor. A toxic dose of 3 mg/kg of risperidone was intravenously administered over 10 min to chronic atrioventricular block dogs without anesthesia with monitoring Holter electrocardiogram (n = 4). Risperidone increased atrial/ventricular rate for 1-12 h/1-6 h and prolonged QTcF at 6 h after its administration, whereas it did not increase short-term variability of repolarization or induced torsade de pointes. These results suggest that α1-adrenoceptor blockade-dependent, hypotension-induced, reflex-mediated increase of sympathetic tone by risperidone might play a role in protecting the heart from IKr inhibition-associated torsade de pointes.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular , Risperidona/administração & dosagem , Torsades de Pointes/etiologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1 , Animais , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Hipotensão , Infusões Intravenosas , Reflexo , Risperidona/efeitos adversos
14.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 143(4): 272-280, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499095

RESUMO

We analyzed the effects of intravenously as well as orally administered moxifloxacin on the pharmacokinetic and electrocardiographic variables along with its torsadogenic action using the chronic atrioventricular block cynomolgus monkeys with a cross-over design. Initially, moxifloxacin was intravenously administered in doses of 60 mg/kg/2 h, 60 mg/kg/1 h and 105 mg/kg/1.75 h with an interval of >1 week (n = 3), which provided Cmax of 19.7, 25.4 and 37.8 µg/mL, and induced torsade de pointes in 1, 0 and 3 out of 3 animals, respectively. Next, moxifloxacin was orally administered in doses of 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg with an interval of >1 week (n = 6), which provided Cmax of 1.8, 4.2 and 8.9 µg/mL, and induced torsade de pointes in 0, 0 and 2 out of 6 animals, respectively. A close analysis of pharmacokinetic and electrocardiographic variables indicates that torsade de pointes was induced in animals that had experienced larger systemic exposure of moxifloxacin and/or greater peak QTcF, although Cmax by itself did not necessarily reflect the incidence of torsade de pointes when its administration route was different. These findings may provide a basic guide how to use moxifloxacin in safe for patients with labile repolarization process.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Moxifloxacina/administração & dosagem , Moxifloxacina/efeitos adversos , Torsades de Pointes/induzido quimicamente , Administração Oral , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Eletrocardiografia , Infusões Intravenosas , Macaca fascicularis , Moxifloxacina/farmacocinética , Moxifloxacina/farmacologia
15.
Heart Vessels ; 35(9): 1316-1322, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346771

RESUMO

AVE0118, an inhibitor of IKur, Ito and IK,ACh, was in the drug pipeline for atrial fibrillation. To investigate the limitation of AVE0118 as an anti-atrial fibrillatory drug, we studied its electropharmacological effects particularly focusing on the anti-atrial fibrillatory action as reverse translational research. We adopted the chronic atrioventricular block beagle dogs (n = 4), having a pathophysiology of bradycardia-associated, volume overload-induced chronic heart failure, in which the atrial fibrillation was induced by 10 s of burst pacing on atrial septum. AVE0118 in doses of 0.24 and 1.2 mg/kg, i.v. over 10 min hardly altered electrophysiological variables. Meanwhile, AVE0118 in a dose of 6 mg/kg, i.v. over 10 min delayed the inter-atrial conduction in a frequency-dependent manner and prolonged the atrial effective refractory period in a reverse frequency-dependent manner, whereas it did not significantly alter the duration of atrial fibrillation or its cycle length. The increment of atrial effective refractory period was 3.3 times greater compared with that of ventricular one at a basic cycle length of 400 ms. Torsade de pointes was not induced during the experimental period. Thus, AVE0118 may possess a favorable cardiac safety pharmacological profile, but its weak anti-atrial fibrillatory effect would indicate the limitation of atrial repolarization-delaying agents for suppressing atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Átrios do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Período Refratário Eletrofisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Remodelamento Atrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/complicações , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/metabolismo , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 20(4): 419-426, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193875

RESUMO

Given limited information regarding the pathophysiology underlying aciclovir-associated, clinically observed cardiovascular adverse events including chest pain, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitation, arrhythmia, hypertension and hypotension, we investigated its electropharmacological effects using the halothane-anesthetized beagle dogs. Aciclovir in doses of 2 and 20 mg/kg was sequentially infused over 10 min with an interval of 20 min (n = 4), which would achieve sub-therapeutic to supra-therapeutic levels of plasma concentrations. Aciclovir decreased the total peripheral vascular resistance along with the blood pressure in a dose-related manner, which increased the heart rate, ventricular contraction and atrioventricular nodal conduction speed probably via a reflex-mediated increase of sympathetic tone. No significant change was detected in the intra-atrial or intra-ventricular conduction, indicating that aciclovir may not inhibit atrial or ventricular INa. Aciclovir prolonged the repolarization period in a dose-related as well as in a reverse frequency-dependent manners, indicating that aciclovir may inhibit IKr, which was supported by the Tpeak - Tend prolongation. Aciclovir transiently prolonged the J - Tpeakc possibly through a reflex-mediated increase of sympathetic tone, indicating an increase of net inward current in the early repolarization phase. Thus, aciclovir may directly inhibit IKr, and also have the potential to indirectly induce Ca2+ overload leading to early afterdepolarization. These in vivo electropharmacological profile of aciclovir would partly explain the onset mechanism of clinical adverse events.


Assuntos
Aciclovir/toxicidade , Antivirais/toxicidade , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Anestesia por Inalação , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Halotano , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 143(1): 56-59, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144028

RESUMO

Since microminipig is becoming attractive model for various cardiac electropharmacological applications, which may meet consideration of 3Rs. We characterized microminipigs by analyzing how multi-ionic channel inhibitor bepridil may affect their in situ hearts in comparison with dogs. Bepridil in doses of 0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg were intravenously administered over 10 min under halothane anesthesia (n = 4). Microminipigs may be less sensitive for ICaT inhibition of bepridil, whereas they are more responsive to INa, IKr and IKs suppression than dogs. This information would help predict cardiovascular effects of a drug in patients with the remodeled hearts having similar electrophysiological profile to microminipigs.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório , Bepridil/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Porco Miniatura , Animais , Bepridil/administração & dosagem , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Infusões Intravenosas , Suínos
18.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 142(4): 172-175, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982331

RESUMO

It has been difficult to experimentally reproduce synergistic effects of ketoconazole on terfenadine-induced torsade de pointes. We assessed proarrhythmic effects of terfenadine (30 mg/kg, p.o.) with/without ketoconazole (100 mg/kg, p.o.) pretreatment using the chronic atrioventricular block cynomolgus monkeys with repeated-measured design (n = 4). Terfenadine with ketoconazole pretreatment repeatedly induced non-sustained torsade de pointes in each animal, although terfenadine alone did not induce it at all. Thus, the chronic atrioventricular block cynomolgus monkeys can be used for studying drug interaction-associated torsade de pointes, providing a non-clinical strategy to circumvent untoward drug interactions in patients specially under polypharmacy.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Cetoconazol/efeitos adversos , Terfenadina/efeitos adversos , Torsades de Pointes/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Doença Crônica , Cetoconazol/administração & dosagem , Macaca fascicularis , Polimedicação , Terfenadina/administração & dosagem
19.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 20(4): 339-350, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898152

RESUMO

Since deuterium replacement has a potential to modulate pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and toxicity, we developed deuterated dronedarone; poyendarone, and assessed its cardiovascular effects. Poyendarone hydrochloride in doses of 0.3 and 3 mg/kg over 30 s was intravenously administered to the halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 4), which provided peak plasma concentrations of 108 ± 10 and 1120 ± 285 ng/mL, respectively. The 0.3 mg/kg shortened the ventricular repolarization period. The 3 mg/kg transiently increased the heart rate at 5 min but decreased at 45 min, and elevated the total peripheral vascular resistance and left ventricular preload, whereas it reduced the mean blood pressure at 5 min, left ventricular contractility and cardiac output. The transient tachycardic action is considered to be induced by the hypotension-induced, reflex-mediated increase of sympathetic tone. The 3 mg/kg delayed both intra-atrial and intra-ventricular conductions, indicating Na+ channel inhibitory action. Moreover, the 3 mg/kg transiently shortened the ventricular repolarization period at 5 min. No significant change was detected in the late repolarization by poyendarone, indicating it might not hardly significantly alter rapidly activating delayed-rectifier K+ current (IKr). Poyendarone prolonged the atrial effective refractory period greater than the ventricular parameter. When compared with dronedarone, poyendarone showed similar pharmacokinetics of dronedarone, but reduced ß-adrenoceptor blocking activity as well as the cardio-suppressive effect. Poyendarone failed to inhibit IKr and showed higher atrial selectivity in prolonging the effective refractory period of atrium versus ventricle. Thus, the deuteration may be an effective way to improve the cardiovascular profile of dronedarone. Poyendarone is a promising anti-atrial fibrillatory drug candidate.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Antiarrítmicos/administração & dosagem , Deutério , Dronedarona/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/farmacocinética , Canais de Potássio de Retificação Tardia/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Potássio de Retificação Tardia/metabolismo , Cães , Dronedarona/análogos & derivados , Dronedarona/farmacocinética , Feminino , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/metabolismo , Período Refratário Eletrofisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 20(1): 58-70, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280457

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are known to clinically induce various types of cardiovascular adverse events; however, it is still difficult to predict them at preclinical stage. In order to explore how to better predict such drug-induced cardiovascular adverse events, we tried to develop a new protocol by assessing acute electrophysiological, cardiohemodynamic, and cytotoxic effects of dasatinib in vivo and in vitro. Dasatinib at 0.03 and 0.3 mg/kg was intravenously administered to the halothane-anesthetized dogs for 10 min with an interval of 20 min between the dosing (n = 4). Meanwhile, that at 0.1, 0.3, and 1 µM was cumulatively applied to the human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) (n = 7). In the dogs, the low and high doses provided peak plasma concentrations of 40 ± 5 (0.08) and 615 ± 38 ng/mL (1.26 µM), respectively. The low dose decreased the heart rate, impaired the left ventricular mechanical function, and prolonged the ventricular effective refractory period. The high dose prolonged the repolarization period, induced hemorrhagic tendency, and increased plasma cardiac troponin I level in addition to enhancement of the changes observed after the low dose, whereas it neither affected the cardiac conduction nor induced ventricular arrhythmias. In the hiPSC-CMs, dasatinib prolonged the repolarization and refractory periods like in dogs, while it did not induce apoptotic or necrotic process, but that it increased the conduction speed. Clinically observed major cardiovascular adverse events of dasatinib were observed qualitatively by currently proposed assay protocol, which may become a useful guide for predicting the cardiotoxicity of new tyrosine kinase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Dasatinibe/toxicidade , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/toxicidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/induzido quimicamente , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Cardiotoxicidade , Células Cultivadas , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/efeitos adversos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Período Refratário Eletrofisiológico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
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