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1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(3): 198-216, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641648

RESUMO

How do Adolescents see their Parents? Prevalences, Predictors and Relationships in Longitudinal and Cross-Section Research The parent-child relationship has a significant influence on the psychological and social development of a young person in adolescence. The parental image from the perspective of the adolescent has rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to examine the parental images of adolescents in terms of family cohesion, conflicts and overprotection for differences between the paternal and the maternal images and between girls and boys. Furthermore, a cross-section examines the relationship between the parental images and psychological disorders, and, in a longitudinal 10-year study, whether the parental images can be predicted through risk factors in childhood. The sample includes 343 young people with an average age of 14 years, 46 % are girls. The parental images were recorded with the "Elternbildfragebogen" (Parental Image Questionnaire; EBF-KJ; Titze u. Lehmkuhl, 2010). Compared to fathers, mothers are assessed more positively in terms of their cohesion, but at the same time they also show more conflictual and higher overprotection behavior. Very few differences were found between girls and boys. There were consistently significant correlations between the parental images and internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, such that cohesion is a protective factor and conflicts and overprotection are risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Some aspects of the images of the mother and father can be significantly predicted by the parents' education and by psychological disorders in childhood. Future research should examine the influence of possible mediators and moderators.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Adolescente , Criança , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Prevalência
2.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 38, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems (MHP) in children and adolescents (CA) are common. This longitudinal study analyzed the prevalence, course, and persistence of MHP over 10 years from childhood into adolescence based on a sample from the Future Family project (N = 230). METHODS: At the pre-assessment point the children were on average 5 (SE = 1) and the mothers 35 (SE = 5) years old. Descriptive methods, Chi2-tests, binary logistic regression, and different analytical approaches (number chains, transition probability) were used. RESULTS: Approximately 24% of the CA suffered from borderline clinical or clinically relevant MHP. The largest proportion of the sample was stable healthy (70%), whereas 15% of the CA showed chronic mentally ill, 8% transient, 4% negative and 4% positive courses. The mental health of the mother proved to be a decisive predictor for chronic mentally ill courses. Short-term persistence rates ranged between 60 and 70% from one assessment point to the next one. On the other hand, long-term persistence rates (from childhood into adolescence) were lower (51-59%). CONCLUSION: One in seven children in this sample suffered from chronic MHP, while only one third of the CA in Germany with clinically relevant MHP take advantage of psychological or psychiatric care. Prevention programs should be considered as an effective and economic approach to reduce childhood suffering in Germany.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(8): 749-767, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245033

RESUMO

Resilience: A Longitudinal Study of Children with Risk Factors This study examines the development of children who have grown up with severe early childhood stress. A distinction was made between resilient and maladapted child developments. On the one hand, the aim was to identify longitudinal protective factors that can contribute to the development of resilience. On the other hand, we cross-sectionally examined in which psychological areas resilience manifests itself. The sample consists of 343 children who were examined first in early childhood (M = 4 years) and then ten years later in adolescence. 24 % of the children belonged to the risk group of which 14 % showed a resilient and 9 % a maladapted development. An active temperament, higher intelligence, and more self-control in early childhood proved to be protective factors with medium effect sizes. The proportion of resilience was increased among migrants. Cross-sectionally we found differences with small and medium effect sizes in addictive behavior (alcohol, tobacco and drug use), internet dependency, overweight, and school grades.

4.
Behav Res Ther ; 135: 103728, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive preparation plays a crucial role in CBT with exposure for panic disorder and agoraphobia. High emotional arousal while developing the exposure rationale might impair patients' cognitive capacities for processing information about treatment and impede therapeutic outcome. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether patients' vocally encoded emotional arousal, assessed by fundamental frequency (f0), during rationale development is associated with premature treatment dropout, insight into the rationale, and symptom reduction. METHODS: Patients' (N = 197, mean age 36.1 years, 79.2% female) f0 during rationale development was measured based on treatment videos from a randomized controlled trial of CBT for panic disorder and agoraphobia. Insight was rater assessed. Symptom severity was self- and rater assessed at the beginning and end of therapy. RESULTS: Higher f0 mean during rationale development was associated with lower probability of insight and less reduction in avoidance behavior. f0 was not associated with dropout. Insight was associated with lower probability of dropout and partially mediated the association between f0 and avoidance reduction. DISCUSSION: This study highlights the importance of emotional arousal during cognitive preparation for exposure. Therapists should ensure that patients are not too highly aroused while learning about the exposure rationale as an important step in treatment.

5.
Fam Process ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949416

RESUMO

Familial influences on children's cigarette smoking have been established, yet little is known about whether these influences in childhood relate to offspring's smoking behavior in adolescence. Drawing on prior work showing that children's emotional and behavioral problems (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) are influenced by both interparental and parent-child relationships, we examined whether children's emotional and behavioral problems would further predict their smoking behavior in adolescence. Two hundred and twenty-one families were followed from early childhood (Mage  = 4.05 years) to the 10-year follow-up. Interparental relationship adjustment and disagreement, dysfunctional parenting, and children's emotional and behavioral problems were reported by both mothers and fathers. Adolescents' self-reported cigarette smoking status was assessed along with other demographic variables. Using structural equation modeling, the hypothesis was only supported based on mothers' reports, suggesting that early couple relationship adjustment and parenting relate to children's emotional and behavioral problems, which associate with smoking behavior in adolescence. When the hypothesized model was tested with emotional and behavioral problems separately, only behavioral problems were related to adolescent smoking for both parents. Findings from this study support models of family environment and children's behavioral problems, providing evidence of the long-term links with adolescent cigarette smoking behaviors. Further family-focused research and preventive work, for instance, testing the combination of partner support and parent training, are needed.

6.
Fam Process ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974923

RESUMO

Relationship distress and divorce are major risk factors for the development or exacerbation of psychopathology and psychosocial impairments. Given that heightened negative emotions within couples' interactions may portend negative relationship outcomes, it is critical to understand how emotions unfold across a conversation and how partners may influence each other's immediate emotional experiences. This study examined whether these regulatory dynamics within one interaction predicted relationship satisfaction concurrently and 25 years later. Vocally-encoded emotional arousal (f0 ) was measured during couples' (N = 25 couples) conversations about a relationship issue. Across different analytical strategies, results demonstrate that one partner's f0 dynamics had immediate and long-term associations with the other partner's satisfaction. Partners were less satisfied if the other partner (a) expressed higher f0 overall and (b) escalated more in f0 across the conversation. Yet, partners were more satisfied when their f0 escalated across the conversation. Also, women specifically were more satisfied if their f0 remained elevated longer before regulating back to their emotional baseline. Thus, higher f0 was associated with higher satisfaction in the same partner, but associated with less satisfaction in the other partner-particularly when these emotions come from women. It may be that partners have to decide whether to prioritize expressing their emotions fully or limit expression in the service of their partner's happiness. These findings challenge us to think of ways to address this "win-lose" scenario so that couples can balance both partners' emotional needs and preserve relationship quality across the life span.

7.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 70(5): 173-181, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a stable and satisfactory relationship is an important aim in life, every third marriage is currently being divorced. Life satisfaction as well as the transition to parenthood seem to be significant factors. Therefore, the current longitudinal study examines the association between relationship quality, stability, life satisfaction of mothers and other family characteristics over a ten-year period. METHODS: Longitudinal data from N=249 mothers were analyzed in terms of partnership stability, quality, life satisfaction and other variables using regression analyses. RESULTS: Mother's satisfaction with life remained relatively stable over 10 years, while relationship quality decreased significantly over time. Especially the interindividual life satisfaction seemed to be a significant predictor for long-term partnership quality, mental health of mother and child, social status and critical life events. The initial relationship quality also appeared to be a significant predictor for the perceived life satisfaction and mothers' mental health. Only marginal correlations were found between life satisfaction and partnership stability. CONCLUSION: This study shows bidirectional associations between relationship quality and life satisfaction over the course of 10 years. Especially life satisfaction seemed to have an impact on diverse family factors. The findings should be used to develop new or existing prevention and intervention programs for partnership, whereas life satisfaction of the individual should be spotlighted.

8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 150, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123309

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder and the anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, disabling and moderately heritable. Depression and anxiety are also highly comorbid and have a strong genetic correlation (rg ≈ 1). Cognitive behavioural therapy is a leading evidence-based treatment but has variable outcomes. Currently, there are no strong predictors of outcome. Therapygenetics research aims to identify genetic predictors of prognosis following therapy. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of symptoms following cognitive behavioural therapy in adults with anxiety disorders (n = 972), adults with major depressive disorder (n = 832) and children with anxiety disorders (n = 920; meta-analysis n = 2724). We estimated the variance in therapy outcomes that could be explained by common genetic variants (h2SNP) and polygenic scoring was used to examine genetic associations between therapy outcomes and psychopathology, personality and learning. No single nucleotide polymorphisms were strongly associated with treatment outcomes. No significant estimate of h2SNP could be obtained, suggesting the heritability of therapy outcome is smaller than our analysis was powered to detect. Polygenic scoring failed to detect genetic overlap between therapy outcome and psychopathology, personality or learning. This study is the largest therapygenetics study to date. Results are consistent with previous, similarly powered genome-wide association studies of complex traits.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Humanos
9.
Fam Process ; 58(2): 463-477, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412301

RESUMO

Maladaptive emotional reactivity and dysfunctional communication during couple conflict are both destructive to couple functioning, and observational research has elucidated how conflict escalates. However, much of the evidence is based on measures that combine content (i.e., what was said) and the emotion with which it was said, which are then examined using sequential analyses. Despite the general presumptions about underlying emotional reactivity and escalation in negative emotions as part of relationship distress and deterioration, little empirical data are available that directly examine these continuous shifts in emotions. The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between relationship satisfaction and trajectories of change in vocally expressed emotional arousal during couple conflict in 62 couples who participated in a relationship education program. Contrary to expectations and patterns found in distressed couples, trajectories followed a U-shape rather than an inverted U-shape curve, with steeper and more persistent decreases in emotional arousal predicting more stable relationship satisfaction over time. In addition, there were within-couple effects. These results suggest that early signs for relationship deterioration may be less in the form of overt escalation as would be seen in distressed couples. Instead, couples who subsequently deteriorate more are less effective in calming emotional arousal. They also are less able to remain at lower emotional arousal. It is possible that the more pronounced escalation toward the end of the conversation in more at-risk couples is a precursor of the greater escalation patterns seen in distressed couples; this should be examined empirically. Limitations and implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Emoções , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Casamento/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Comunicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino
10.
Front Psychiatry ; 8: 266, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238312

RESUMO

Mothers and children of single or unstable relationships have higher rates of mental health problems than those in stable two-parent families. Despite results that mothers and children of conflictual two-parent families also show impairments, most studies do not consider relationship quality. Therefore, the present study combines relationship status and relationship quality to a "family type." The present study compares German mothers and children of two-parent families with high relationship quality to those from two-parent families with a low quality, single mothers, and unstable families. Data of n = 249 families from a 10-year follow-up longitudinal study show that mothers with a high relationship quality show the highest levels of mental health whereas all other groups show at least a 3.2 times higher probability of mental health symptoms. Children of mothers in unstable relationships show a 8.2 times higher probability to emotional or behavioral problems than children of mothers with high relationship quality. Therefore, not only relationship status but also relationship quality should be combined and this "family type" should be considered in future research.

11.
Prev Sci ; 18(4): 491-503, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389746

RESUMO

A previous article published in Prevention Science 3 years ago (Heinrichs et al. 2014) presented the results of a randomized controlled trial of the Triple P group program 4 years (FU4) after administration as a universal prevention approach in preschools. The present addendum resolves inconsistencies in outcome reporting (e.g., total scores of scales versus subscale scores) and provides information on measures that were additionally available to analyze further potential effects of the intervention. Effects in secondary outcome domains not reported in Heinrichs et al. (2014) are furthermore analyzed and reported. The original data analyses were varied using a different statistical model in this addendum. Re-analyses supported the original results, including changes in self-reported maternal and paternal positive parenting, in maternal dysfunctional parenting behavior as well as in maternal reports of child behavior. In addition, when analyzing the externalizing and internalizing dimensions, analysis revealed a statistically significant change in externalizing but not internalizing child symptoms. No significant intervention effects were found for secondary outcome domains. Considering important limitations in the study design [such as baseline differences at pre-assessment with mothers from intervention preschools reporting more child behavioral problems prior to introducing the intervention and predominantly non-significant effects from (a) fathers perspective, (b) teacher ratings at 1-year follow up (FU1), and (c) behavioral observations at FU1], we believe that this trial alone cannot be taken as sufficient evidence for a significant and meaningful change in child behavioral problems, which is the ultimate goal of child prevention programs. Therefore, future studies need to replicate and extend upon these results by including larger sample sizes and overcome the discussed limitations.


Assuntos
Pais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Criança , Seguimentos , Humanos
12.
J Fam Psychol ; 29(6): 807-17, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26192131

RESUMO

Identifying risk factors for divorce or separation is an important step in the prevention of negative individual outcomes and societal costs associated with relationship dissolution. Programs that aim to prevent relationship distress and dissolution typically focus on changing processes that occur during couple conflict, although the predictive ability of conflict-specific variables has not been examined in the context of other factors related to relationship dissolution. The authors examine whether emotional responding and communication during couple conflict predict relationship dissolution after controlling for overall relationship quality and individual well-being. Using nonparametric conditional survival trees, the study at hand simultaneously examined the predictive abilities of physiological (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, cortisol) and behavioral (fundamental frequency; f0) indices of emotional responding, as well as observationally coded positive and negative communication behavior, on long-term relationship stability after controlling for relationship satisfaction and symptoms of depression. One hundred thirty-six spouses were assessed after participating in a randomized clinical trial of a relationship distress prevention program as well as 11 years thereafter; 32.5% of the couples' relationships had dissolved by follow up. For men, the only significant predictor of relationship dissolution was cortisol change score (p = .012). For women, only f0 range was a significant predictor of relationship dissolution (p = .034). These findings highlight the importance of emotional responding during couple conflict for long-term relationship stability.


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Emoções , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Fam Psychol ; 29(5): 744-54, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26075737

RESUMO

Social support in couples often occurs during conversations and is an important predictor of positive outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Even though talking about cancer may be upsetting, vocally expressed emotional arousal and its association with social support have not been examined. The goal of this study was to examine the role of vocally encoded emotional arousal and social support behaviors in 129 German and American couples, assessed at baseline of clinical trials for women with breast cancer and their male partners. Range of fundamental frequency was used as a measure of expressed emotional arousal during videotaped interactions in which the women shared cancer-related concerns. Social support behaviors were assessed as specific social support behaviors at the talk-turn level (positive, neutral, and negative) and broader communication behaviors also relevant to social support at the global level (depth and articulation, caring, quality of communication) using the Social Support Interaction Coding System (Bradbury & Pasch, 1994). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Women displayed more positive, fewer neutral support-receiving behaviors, and greater depth and articulation if their own emotional arousal was higher. Women also displayed more neutral and (at the trend level) fewer positive support-receiving behaviors if their partners' emotional arousal was higher. Men's behaviors were not associated with their own or women's emotional arousal. Results indicate that it may be adaptive for women with cancer to openly experience their distress during social support conversations with their partners; high emotional arousal of the partners may interfere with this process.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Emoções , Apoio Social , Fala , Adulto , Comunicação , Empatia , Características da Família , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Gravação em Fita , Estados Unidos
14.
Prev Sci ; 16(6): 789-800, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25832886

RESUMO

The primary aim of family-based prevention programs is to promote children's health. Unfortunately, it is difficult to reach families with such evidence-based prevention programs (EBP). Therefore, implementing EBP on a population level could be a promising approach to reach more families, including those faced with socioeconomic challenges who are usually less likely to participate in randomized controlled trials (RCT). Is a population rollout appropriate to reach more and different families than those participating in RCT, especially those representative of the target population? We implemented three EBP in a city in an uncontrolled trial. The effects of this population rollout were tracked on the level of the participating families and on the level of all families living in the city. More than 3480 families (30 % of the population) with children up to 12 years of age participated based on practitioner report. Analyses indicate that a greater percentage of low socioeconomic-status families attended a program compared with a randomly surveyed sample from the city's general population. The sizes of the within-subject effect for parental strategies, child behavior problems, and children's quality of life for a subsample of n = 411 families were similar to those of other uncontrolled EBP studies. The study contributes to highly needed type 2 translation research. The population-based dissemination of EBP could be a promising approach to reach families at risk. However, there are considerable barriers to the implementation process, which currently limit the effectiveness of this rollout in a community.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
J Fam Psychol ; 29(1): 80-90, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25495639

RESUMO

The demand/withdraw interaction pattern is a destructive cycle of relationship communication behavior that is associated with negative individual and relationship outcomes. Demand/withdraw behavior is thought to be strongly linked to partners' emotional reactions, but current theories are inconsistent with empirical findings. The current study proposes the interpersonal process model of demand/withdraw behavior, which includes linkages between each partners' emotional reactions and the interpersonal behavior of demanding and withdrawing. Data come from problem solving discussions of 55 German couples with observationally coded demand/withdraw behavior and fundamental frequency (f0) to measure vocally encoded emotional arousal. Actor-partner interdependence models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) were used to examine associations among demand/withdraw behavior and f0 in the overall discussion and 5-min segments. Significant cross-partner associations emerged for demanding and withdrawing behavior across the whole conversation as well as within 5-min segments, and these associations are partially accounted for by each individual's f0. When behaviorally coded demanders expressed more vocal arousal, they demanded more and withdrew less while their partners withdrew more. In contrast, when behaviorally coded withdrawers expressed more vocal arousal, their partners demanded less and withdrew more. Findings demonstrate that demand/withdraw behavior varies between couples (i.e., some couples engage in a stronger demand/withdraw cycle than others) and between segments (i.e., when 1 partner increases demanding, the other increases withdrawing). Findings support key elements of the interpersonal process model, showing intra- and interpersonal pathways linking demand/withdraw behavior and emotion and demonstrate the importance of partners' behavioral roles in these linkages.


Assuntos
Emoções , Relações Interpessoais , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Prev Sci ; 15(2): 233-245, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23417668

RESUMO

Approximately 15-20% of children experience behavioral and/or emotional difficulties. Evidence-based treatment will likely not be sufficient to reduce the prevalence of these difficulties in children and adolescents. Effective prevention programs are therefore also needed to enable families access to support at multiple points across the lifecourse. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the 4-year efficacy of the group-based Triple P (Positive Parenting Program) as a prevention program administered universally. Seventeen preschools were randomly assigned to Triple P (n = 11 preschools, 186 families) or a no parenting intervention control group (n = 6 preschools, 94 families). Long-term efficacy was analyzed with hierarchical linear models using maternal and paternal self-report measures. Mothers and fathers from the intervention preschool group reported significant reductions in dysfunctional parenting behavior (d = 0.24 and 0.19, respectively). Mothers also reported a less steep decline from pre- to post-intervention in positive parenting behavior, which was maintained 4 years later (d = 0.38). Fathers from intervention preschools reported a delayed less steep decline in positive parenting during the follow-up (d = 0.33). In addition, mothers from intervention preschools reported immediate improvement in child behavior problems during the program while mothers from control preschools did not report this immediate change. However, with mothers from intervention preschools reporting more child behavior problems at baseline, the effect disappeared by the fourth year (d = 0.19). The results support the long-term efficacy of the Triple P-group program as a universal prevention intervention for changing parenting behavior while there was little evidence for maintenance of change in behavior problems.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/prevenção & controle , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pais/educação , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Apoio Social
17.
J Fam Psychol ; 27(5): 838-43, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24040903

RESUMO

Although there have been many studies that have examined the trajectory of relationship adjustment among newlywed couples in the United States, less is known about the trajectory of relationship adjustment in other countries and over other developmental periods of relationships, such as among families with young children. In this study, we used latent growth curve mixture modeling to examine the trajectories of relationship adjustment among German parents across a 4-year period (N = 242). Approximately 90% of men and women could be classified as showing high relationship adjustment and a stable or increasing trajectory. The remaining 10%, were initially more distressed and showed a decline in relationship adjustment over time. In addition, latent relationship adjustment trajectory class significantly predicted change in men's depressive symptoms over the 4 years; for women, relationship-adjustment trajectory class was related to depressive symptom levels, but did not predict change over time.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/classificação , Adulto , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/etnologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Cônjuges/etnologia
18.
Front Psychol ; 4: 439, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23874321

RESUMO

A multitude of factors contribute to why and how romantic relationships are formed as well as whether they ultimately succeed or fail. Drawing on evolutionary models of attraction and speech production as well as integrative models of relationship functioning, this review argues that paralinguistic cues (more specifically the fundamental frequency of the voice) that are initially a strong source of attraction also increase couples' risk for relationship failure. Conceptual similarities and differences between the multiple operationalizations and interpretations of vocal fundamental frequency are discussed and guidelines are presented for understanding both convergent and non-convergent findings. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

19.
J Fam Psychol ; 27(2): 212-20, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23458696

RESUMO

The human voice is one of the sounds most frequently experienced by human beings. During couple conflict, higher fundamental frequency (f0), a physical property of human speech, has been linked to an increased risk of divorce, less beneficial response to couple therapy, and higher levels of dysfunctional communication behavior. F0 is generally considered to be a measure of emotional arousal, but it is not currently clear whether this interpretation is appropriate for understanding spouses' f0 during couple interaction. The goal of the current article is to clarify what forms of information are encoded in f0 during couple conflict by examining the relations between f0 range, physiological variables, and communication behavior during the conflict discussions of 67 German couples. In line with evolutionary models of speech production, associations emerged in the expected directions between f0 and: (a) physiological variables (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and cortisol); (b) self-reported communication behavior; and (c) observationally coded communication behavior. Additionally, simultaneous examination of physiological variables and observationally coded communication behaviors revealed that associations between both sets of variables and f0 range were largely independent of one another. Furthermore, women's range of f0 was significantly greater than men's range of f0. With regard to social signaling theories, f0 range can be understood as a nonverbal transmission of distress. Implications for future research on and use of f0 are discussed.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medida da Produção da Fala , Adulto Jovem
20.
Behav Res Ther ; 50(6): 442-7, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22542535

RESUMO

Many studies have examined the importance of learning skills in behaviorally based couple interventions but none have examined predictors of long-term memory for skills. Associations between emotional arousal and long-term recall of communication skills delivered to couples during a behaviorally based relationship distress prevention program were examined in a sample of 49 German couples. Fundamental frequency (f(0)), a vocal measure of encoded emotional arousal, was measured during pre-treatment couple conflict. Higher levels of f(0) were linked to fewer skills remembered 11 years after completing the program, and women remembered more skills than men. Implications of results for behaviorally based couple interventions are discussed.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Comunicação , Emoções , Características da Família , Memória de Longo Prazo , Adulto , Conflito Psicológico , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Caracteres Sexuais
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