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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 12550-12557, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513683

RESUMO

Energy storage is an integral part of modern society. A contemporary example is the lithium (Li)-ion battery, which enabled the launch of the personal electronics revolution in 1991 and the first commercial electric vehicles in 2010. Most recently, Li-ion batteries have expanded into the electricity grid to firm variable renewable generation, increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of transmission and distribution. Important applications continue to emerge including decarbonization of heavy-duty vehicles, rail, maritime shipping, and aviation and the growth of renewable electricity and storage on the grid. This perspective compares energy storage needs and priorities in 2010 with those now and those emerging over the next few decades. The diversity of demands for energy storage requires a diversity of purpose-built batteries designed to meet disparate applications. Advances in the frontier of battery research to achieve transformative performance spanning energy and power density, capacity, charge/discharge times, cost, lifetime, and safety are highlighted, along with strategic research refinements made by the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) and the broader community to accommodate the changing storage needs and priorities. Innovative experimental tools with higher spatial and temporal resolution, in situ and operando characterization, first-principles simulation, high throughput computation, machine learning, and artificial intelligence work collectively to reveal the origins of the electrochemical phenomena that enable new means of energy storage. This knowledge allows a constructionist approach to materials, chemistries, and architectures, where each atom or molecule plays a prescribed role in realizing batteries with unique performance profiles suitable for emergent demands.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(6): 2046-2052, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079402

RESUMO

Detailed speciation of electrolytes as a function of chemical system and concentration provides the foundation for understanding bulk transport as well as possible decomposition mechanisms. In particular, multivalent electrolytes have shown a strong coupling between anodic stability and solvation structure. Furthermore, solvents that are found to exhibit reasonable stability against alkaline-earth metals generally exhibit low permittivity, which typically increases the complexity of the electrolyte species. To improve our understanding of ionic population and associated transport in these important classes of electrolytes, the speciation of Mg(TFSI)2 in monoglyme and diglyme systems is studied via a multiscale thermodynamic model using first-principles calculations for ion association and molecular dynamics simulations for dielectric properties. The results are then compared to Raman and dielectric relaxation spectroscopies, which independently confirm the modeling insights. We find that the significant presence of free ions in the low-permittivity glymes in the concentration range from 0.02 to 0.6 M is well-explained by the low-permittivity redissociation hypothesis. Here, salt speciation is largely dictated by long-range electrostatics, which includes permittivity increases due to polar contact ion pairs. The present results suggest that other low-permittivity multivalent electrolytes may also reach high conductivities as a result of redissociation.

3.
Front Chem ; 7: 175, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024883

RESUMO

Rational design of novel electrolytes with enhanced functionality requires fundamental molecular-level understanding of structure-property relationships. Here we examine the suitability of a range of organic solvents for non-aqueous electrolytes in secondary magnesium batteries using density functional theory (DFT) calculations as well as experimental probes such as cyclic voltammetry and Raman spectroscopy. The solvents considered include ethereal solvents (e.g., glymes) sulfones (e.g., tetramethylene sulfone), and acetonitrile. Computed reduction potentials show that all solvents considered are stable against reduction by Mg metal. Additional computations were carried out to assess the stability of solvents in contact with partially reduced Mg cations (Mg2+ → Mg+) formed during cycling (e.g., deposition) by identifying reaction profiles of decomposition pathways. Most solvents, including some proposed for secondary Mg energy storage applications, exhibit decomposition pathways that are surprisingly exergonic. Interestingly, the stability of these solvents is largely dictated by magnitude of the kinetic barrier to decomposition. This insight should be valuable toward rational design of improved Mg electrolytes.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(35): 11076-11084, 2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059211

RESUMO

Future energy applications rely on our ability to tune liquid intermolecular interactions and achieve designer electrolytes with highly optimized properties. In this work, we demonstrate rational, combined experimental-computational design of a new carba- closo-dodecaborate-based salt with enhanced anodic stability for Mg energy storage applications. We first establish, through a careful examination using a range of solvents, the anodic oxidation of a parent anion, the carba- closo-dodecaborate anion at 4.6 V vs Mg0/2+ (2.0 vs Fc0/+), a value lower than that projected for this anion in organic solvent-based electrolytes and lower than weakly associating bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and tetrafluoroborate anions. Solvents such as acetonitrile, 3-methylsulfolane, and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol are shown to enable the direct measurement of carba- closo-dodecaborate oxidation, where the resultant neutral radical drives passive film formation on the electrode. Second, we employ computational screening to evaluate the impact of functionalization of the parent anion on its stability and find that replacement of the carbon-vertex proton with a more electronegative fluorine or trifluoromethyl ligand increases the oxidative stability and decreases the contact-ion pair formation energy while maintaining reductive stability. This predicted expansion of the electrochemical window for fluorocarba- closo-dodecaborate is experimentally validated. Future work includes evaluation of the viability of these derivative anions as efficient and stable carriers for energy storage as a function of the ionic transport through the resulting surface films formed on candidate cathodes.

5.
ACS Nano ; 11(11): 11194-11205, 2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112807

RESUMO

To understand the mechanism that controls low-aspect-ratio lithium deposition morphologies for Li-metal anodes in batteries, we conducted direct visualization of Li-metal deposition and stripping behavior through nanoscale in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (EC-STEM) and macroscale-cell electrochemistry experiments in a recently developed and promising solvate electrolyte, 4 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane. In contrast to published coin cell studies in the same electrolyte, our experiments revealed low Coulombic efficiencies and inhomogeneous Li morphology during in situ observation. We conclude that this discrepancy in Coulombic efficiency and morphology of the Li deposits was dependent on the presence of a compressed lithium separator interface, as we have confirmed through macroscale (not in the transmission electron microscope) electrochemical experiments. Our data suggests that cell compression changed how the solid-electrolyte interphase formed, which is likely responsible for improved morphology and Coulombic efficiency with compression. Furthermore, during the in situ EC-STEM experiments, we observed direct evidence of nanoscale self-discharge in the solvate electrolyte (in the state of electrical isolation). This self-discharge was duplicated in the macroscale, but it was less severe with electrode compression, likely due to a more passivating and corrosion-resistant solid-electrolyte interphase formed in the presence of compression. By combining the solvate electrolyte with a protective LiAl0.3S coating, we show that the Li nucleation density increased during deposition, leading to improved morphological uniformity. Furthermore, self-discharge was suppressed during rest periods in the cycling profile with coatings present, as evidenced through EC-STEM and confirmed with coin cell data.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(33): 18406-14, 2015 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26258957

RESUMO

Although rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pit densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 µm in height. The passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.

7.
ACS Nano ; 6(9): 7712-22, 2012 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22891667

RESUMO

Bismuth oxy-iodide is a potentially interesting visible-light-active photocatalyst; yet there is little research regarding its photoelectrochemical properties. Herein we report the synthesis of BiOI nanoplatelet photoelectrodes by spray pyrolysis on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates at various temperatures. The films exhibited n-type conductivity, most likely due to the presence of anion vacancies, and optimized films possessed incident photon conversion efficiencies of over 20% in the visible range for the oxidation of I(-) to I(3)(-) at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl in acetonitrile. Visible-light photons (λ > 420 nm) contributed approximately 75% of the overall photocurrent under AM1.5G illumination, illustrating their usefulness under solar light illumination. A deposition temperature of 260 °C was found to result in the best performance due to the balance of morphology, crystallinity, impurity levels, and optical absorption, leading to photocurrents of roughly 0.9 mA/cm(2) at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Although the films performed stably in acetonitrile, their performance decreased significantly upon extended exposure to water, which was apparently caused by a loss of surface iodine and subsequent formation of an insulating bismuth hydroxide layer.


Assuntos
Bismuto/química , Cristalização/métodos , Iodetos/química , Membranas Artificiais , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Semicondutores , Condutividade Elétrica , Gases/química , Temperatura Alta , Luz , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(8): 3659-62, 2012 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22316385

RESUMO

We report a synergistic effect involving hydrogenation and nitridation cotreatment of TiO(2) nanowire (NW) arrays that improves the water photo-oxidation performance under visible light illumination. The visible light (>420 nm) photocurrent of the cotreated TiO(2) is 0.16 mA/cm(2) and accounts for 41% of the total photocurrent under simulated AM 1.5 G illumination. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy reveals that the concentration of Ti(3+) species in the bulk of the TiO(2) following hydrogenation and nitridation cotreatment is significantly higher than that of the sample treated solely with ammonia. It is believed that the interaction between the N-dopant and Ti(3+) is the key to the extension of the active spectrum and the superior visible light water photo-oxidation activity of the hydrogenation and nitridation cotreated TiO(2) NW arrays.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 3(11): 1571-6, 2012 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26285640

RESUMO

The development of improved solar energy conversion materials is critical to the growth of a sustainable energy infrastructure in the coming years. We report the deposition of polycrystalline BiSI thin films exhibiting promising photoelectrochemical properties on both metal foils and fluorine-doped tin-oxide-coated glass slides using a single-source chemical spray pyrolysis technique. Their strong light absorption in the visible range and well-crystallized layered structure give rise to their excellent photoelectrochemical performance through improved electron-hole generation and separation. The structure and surface composition of the films are dependent on deposition temperature, resulting in dramatic differences in performance over the temperature range studied. These results reveal the potential of n-BiSI as an alternative thin film solar energy conversion material and may stimulate further investigation into V-VI-VII compounds for these applications.

10.
Acc Chem Res ; 45(3): 434-43, 2012 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22017522

RESUMO

Porous, high surface area materials have critical roles in applications including catalysis, photochemistry, and energy storage. In these fields, researchers have demonstrated that the nanometer-scale structure modifies mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of the material, greatly influencing its behavior and performance. Such complex chemical systems can involve several distinct processes occurring in series or parallel. Understanding the influence of size and structure on the properties of these materials requires techniques for producing clean, simple model systems. In the fields of photoelectrochemistry and lithium storage, for example, researchers need to evaluate the effects of changing the electrode structure of a single material or producing electrodes of many different candidate materials while maintaining a distinctly favorable morphology. In this Account, we introduce our studies of the formation and characterization of high surface area, porous thin films synthesized by a process called reactive ballistic deposition (RBD). RBD is a simple method that provides control of the morphology, porosity, and surface area of thin films by manipulating the angle at which a metal-vapor flux impinges on the substrate during deposition. This approach is largely independent of the identity of the deposited material and relies upon limited surface diffusion during synthesis, which enables the formation of kinetically trapped structures. Here, we review our results for the deposition of films from a number of semiconductive materials that are important for applications such as photoelectrochemical water oxidation and lithium ion storage. The use of RBD has enabled us to systematically control individual aspects of both the structure and composition of thin film electrodes in order to probe the effects of each on the performance of the material. We have evaluated the performance of several materials for potential use in these applications and have identified processes that limit their performance. Use of model systems, such as these, for fundamental studies or materials screening processes likely will prove useful in developing new high-performance electrodes.

11.
Nano Lett ; 12(1): 26-32, 2012 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22112010

RESUMO

We report hydrothermal synthesis of single crystalline TiO(2) nanowire arrays with unprecedented small feature sizes of ~5 nm and lengths up to 4.4 µm on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates. A substantial amount of nitrogen (up to 1.08 atomic %) can be incorporated into the TiO(2) lattice via nitridation in NH(3) flow at a relatively low temperature (500 °C) because of the small cross-section of the nanowires. The low-energy threshold of the incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) spectra of N-modified TiO(2) samples is at ~520 nm, corresponding to 2.4 eV. We also report a simple cobalt treatment for improving the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of our N-modified TiO(2) nanowire arrays. With the cobalt treatment, the IPCE of N-modified TiO(2) samples in the ultraviolet region is restored to equal or higher values than those of the unmodified TiO(2) samples, and it remains as high as ~18% at 450 nm. We propose that the cobalt treatment enhances PEC performance via two mechanisms: passivating surface states on the N-modified TiO(2) surface and acting as a water oxidation cocatalyst.


Assuntos
Cristalização/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Nitrogênio/química , Titânio/química , Água/química , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Luz , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular/efeitos da radiação , Nanoestruturas/efeitos da radiação , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Nitrogênio/efeitos da radiação , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação , Tamanho da Partícula , Doses de Radiação , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos da radiação , Titânio/efeitos da radiação
12.
ACS Nano ; 4(4): 1977-86, 2010 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20361756

RESUMO

We report the preparation of alpha-Fe2O3 electrodes using a technique known as reactive ballistic deposition in which iron metal is evaporatively deposited in an oxygen ambient for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. By manipulating synthesis parameters such as deposition angle, film thickness, and annealing temperature, we find that it is possible to optimize the structural and morphological properties of such films in order to improve their PEC efficiency. Incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) are used to calculate an AM1.5 photocurrent of 0.55 mA/cm(2) for optimized films with an IPCE reaching 10% at 420 nm in 1 M KOH at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl. We also note that the commonly observed low photoactivity of extremely thin hematite films on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates may be improved by modification of annealing conditions in some cases.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Água/química , Impedância Elétrica , Eletroquímica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Oxirredução , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X
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