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1.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 313-329, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085121

RESUMO

Asthma genes have been identified through a range of approaches, from candidate gene association studies and family-based genome-wide linkage analyses to genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The first GWAS of asthma, reported in 2007, identified multiple markers on chromosome 17q21 as associates of the childhood-onset asthma. This remains the best replicated asthma locus to date. However, notwithstanding undeniable successes, genetic studies have produced relatively heterogeneous results with limited replication, and despite considerable promise, genetics of asthma and allergy has, so far, had limited impact on patient care, our understanding of disease mechanisms, and development of novel therapeutic targets. The paucity of precise replication in genetic studies of asthma is partly explained by the existence of numerous gene-environment interactions. Another important issue which is often overlooked is that of time of the assessment of the primary outcome(s) and the relevant environmental exposures. Most large GWASs use the broadest possible definition of asthma to increase the sample size, but the unwanted consequence of this is increased phenotypic heterogeneity, which dilutes effect sizes. One way of addressing this is to precisely define disease subtypes (e.g. by applying novel mathematical approaches to rich phenotypic data) and use these latent subtypes in genetic studies.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Asma/genética , Criança , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/genética
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23741, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887467

RESUMO

The mechanisms explaining excess morbidity and mortality in respiratory infections among males are poorly understood. Innate immune responses are critical in protection against respiratory virus infections. We hypothesised that innate immune responses to respiratory viruses may be deficient in males. We stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 345 participants at age 16 years in a population-based birth cohort with three live respiratory viruses (rhinoviruses A16 and A1, and respiratory syncytial virus) and two viral mimics (R848 and CpG-A, to mimic responses to SARS-CoV-2) and investigated sex differences in interferon (IFN) responses. IFN-α responses to all viruses and stimuli were 1.34-2.06-fold lower in males than females (P = 0.018 - < 0.001). IFN-ß, IFN-γ and IFN-induced chemokines were also deficient in males across all stimuli/viruses. Healthcare records revealed 12.1% of males and 6.6% of females were hospitalized with respiratory infections in infancy (P = 0.017). In conclusion, impaired innate anti-viral immunity in males likely results in high male morbidity and mortality from respiratory virus infections.

3.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(4)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881328

RESUMO

Background: The prevalences of obstructive and restrictive spirometric phenotypes, and their relation to early-life risk factors from childhood to young adulthood remain poorly understood. The aim was to explore these phenotypes and associations with well-known respiratory risk factors across ages and populations in European cohorts. Methods: We studied 49 334 participants from 14 population-based cohorts in different age groups (≤10, >10-15, >15-20, >20-25 years, and overall, 5-25 years). The obstructive phenotype was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) z-score less than the lower limit of normal (LLN), whereas the restrictive phenotype was defined as FEV1/FVC z-score ≥LLN, and FVC z-score

4.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(10): 1375-1385, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529520

RESUMO

Background: Nearly half of U.S. women experienced new or worsening health-related socioeconomic risks (HRSRs) (food, housing, utilities and transportation difficulties, and interpersonal violence) early in the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to examine racial/ethnic disparities in pandemic-related changes in HRSRs among women. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (04/2020) of 3200 women. Pre- and early pandemic HRSRs were described by race/ethnicity. Weighted, multivariable logistic regression models generated odds of incident and worsening HRSRs by race/ethnicity. Results: The majority of Black, East or Southeast (E/SE) Asian, and Hispanic women reported ≥1 prepandemic HRSR (51%-56% vs. 38% of White women, p < 0.001). By April 2020, 68% of Black, E/SE Asian, and Hispanic women and 55% of White women had ≥1 HRSR (p < 0.001). For most HRSRs, the odds of an incident or worsening condition were similar across racial/ethnic groups, except Black, E/SE Asian and Hispanic women had 2-3.6 times the odds of incident transportation difficulties compared with White women. E/SE Asian women also had higher odds of worsening transportation difficulties compared with White women (adjusted odds ratios = 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1-5.6). In the early pandemic, 1/19 Hispanic, 1/28 E/SE Asian, 1/36 Black and 1/100 White women had all 5 HRSRs (extreme health-related socioeconomic vulnerability). Conclusions: Prepandemic racial/ethnic disparities in HRSRs persisted and prevalence rates increased for all groups early in the pandemic. Disparities in transportation difficulties widened. White women were much less likely than others to experience extreme health-related socioeconomic vulnerability. An equitable COVID-19 response requires attention to persistent and widening racial/ethnic disparities in HRSRs among women.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(12): 1212-1221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children with food allergy are at increased risk for asthma and asthma morbidity. Since leukotrienes are implicated in the pathogenesis of both asthma and probably in food allergies, we hypothesized that asthmatic children with concomitant food allergy may have a favorable response to antileukotriene treatment. METHODS: Asthmatic children aged 6-18 years with and without food allergy were treated with montelukast and placebo in a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over parallel-group study. The primary outcome of the study was improvement in FEV1%. Asthma control tests, spirometry and methacholine challenges were performed as well as Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) levels. PGD2, CystLT, and lipoxin levels were measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). RESULTS: A total of 113 children were enrolled and 87 completed the study in accordance with the protocol. At baseline, children with food allergy and asthma (FAA) had higher levels of PGD2 and CysLT levels in the EBC than children with asthma alone (AA) (p < 0.001 for each). In the montelukast arm, although FEV1% was significantly higher in the FAA group compared to AA (p = 0.005), this effect was linked to the baseline difference of FEV1% between both arms. Montelukast treatment failed to improve FEV1% in both groups compared to the placebo. No effect of montelukast was observed in the remaining study parameters. CONCLUSION: Although children with FAA do not show a more favorable response to montelukast treatment compared to AA, a significant difference between baseline PGD2 and CystLT levels between FAA and AA groups may point to a different endotype of childhood asthma.

6.
Womens Health Rep (New Rochelle) ; 2(1): 227-234, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318292

RESUMO

Objective: To determine if the use of a simple self-administered Postpartum Questionnaire for Mothers (PQM) at the well-baby visit (WBV) increased the proportion of women who received health care and contraception by 6 months postpartum (PP). Methods: This was a single-site, system-level, intervention. Women were recruited from the pediatric clinic when presenting with their infants for a 2-month WBV. During phase 1 of the study, a control group was enrolled, followed by an 8-week washout period; then enrollment of the intervention group (phase 2). During phase 2, the PQM was administered and reviewed by the pediatrician during the infant's visit; the tool prompted the pediatrician to make a referral for the mother's primary or contraceptive care as needed. Data were collected at baseline and at 6 months PP, and additional data were extracted from the electronic medical record. Results: We found that PP women exposed to the PQM during their infant's WBV were more likely to have had a health care visit for themselves between 2 and 6 months PP, compared with the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.66, [confidence interval (CI) 0.91-3.03]). In addition, at 6 months PP, women in the intervention group were more likely to identify a primary care provider (RR 1.84, [CI 0.98-3.46]), and more likely to report use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) (RR 1.24, [CI 0.99-1.58]), compared with women in the control group. Conclusion: A simple self-administered PQM resulted in an increase in women's receipt of health care and use of LARC by 6 months PP. Clinical Trial Registration: Use of a reproductive life planning tool at the pediatric well-baby visit with postpartum women, NCT03448289.

8.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(8): 1824-1832, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemokines are important mediators in immune cell recruitment, contributing to allergy development. However, extensive studies of chemokines in the circulation in relation to the presence and development of allergic diseases remain scarce. Our aim was to investigate associations of circulating allergy-related chemokines with the development of asthma and sensitization cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a population-based cohort. METHODS: The chemokines CCL17, CCL22, CXCL10, CXCL11 and CCL18 were measured in plasma samples from children in the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study. Samples were available from cord blood at birth (n = 376), age 1 (n = 195) and age 8 (n = 334). Cross-sectional and longitudinal association analyses were performed in relation to asthma and allergic sensitization, as well as allergic phenotype clusters previously derived using machine learning in the same study population. RESULTS: In children with asthma and/or allergic sensitization, CCL18 levels were consistently elevated at 1 and/or 8 years of ages. In a longitudinal model including information on asthma from 4 time points (5, 8, 11 and 16 years of ages), we observed a significant association between increasing CCL18 levels at age 1 and a higher risk of asthma from early school age to adolescence (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.6, p = .028). We observed similar associations in longitudinal models for allergic sensitization. Asthma later in life was preceded by increased CXCL10 levels after birth and decreased CXCL11 levels at birth. CONCLUSION: Elevated CCL18 levels throughout childhood precede the development of asthma and allergic sensitization. The Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11 also associated with the development of both outcomes, with differential temporal effects.

9.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(4): 502-513, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818123

RESUMO

Background: During a pandemic, women may be especially vulnerable to secondary health problems driven by its social and economic effects. We examined the relationship between changes in health-related socioeconomic risks (HRSRs) and mental health. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 3,200 women aged 18-90 years was conducted in April 2020 using a quota-based sample from a national panel (88% cooperation rate). Patterns of change in HRSRs (food insecurity, housing instability, interpersonal violence, and difficulties with utilities and transportation) were described. Weighted, multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress symptoms among those with and without incident or worsening HRSRs. Results: More than 40% of women had one or more prepandemic HRSRs. In the early pandemic phase, 49% of all women, including 29% with no prepandemic HRSRs, had experienced incident or worsening HRSRs. By April 2020, the rates of depression and anxiety were twice that of prepandemic benchmarks (29%); 17% of women had symptoms of traumatic stress. The odds of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were two to three times higher among women who reported at least one incident or worsening HRSR; this finding was similar for women with and without prepandemic HRSRs. Conclusions: Increased health-related socioeconomic vulnerability among U.S. women early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was prevalent and associated with alarmingly high rates of mental health problems. Pandemic-related mental health needs are likely to be much greater than currently available resources, especially for vulnerable women.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disparities in HIV incidence and PrEP use among Black ciswomen remain. We examine factors associated with PrEP persistence using mixed methods. SETTING: Black ciswomen in Chicago, IL, prescribed PrEP at a federally qualified health center (FQHC). METHODS: We used electronic health data to determine PrEP persistence (Proportion of Days Covered ≥86% at 6 months) and tested demographic and clinical factors in logistic regressions. We interviewed eight Black ciswomen, purposefully selected by PrEP persistence. RESULTS: Among 112 Black ciswomen, 18% were persistent. In adjusted models, neighborhood, visit reason (at initiation), and initiation year were significantly associated with persistence. Qualitatively, we found little evidence of cost or adherence as barriers; participants reported low community awareness, importance of providers, and concerns around stigma, side effects, and pregnancy while using PrEP. CONCLUSION: While persistence among Black ciswomen was low, patients were often making decisions based on perceived HIV risk. We identified real-world barriers to address in future interventions.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821424

RESUMO

Background: Homelessness is a significant and growing problem in the United States. Women experiencing homelessness face unique challenges as they have high rates of unintended pregnancy. They often face significant barriers to obtaining effective contraception. This study aimed to explore the contraceptive preferences, desire for, and barriers to obtaining effective contraception among women experiencing homelessness. Study design: In this cross-sectional study, 54 women experiencing homelessness in Chicago who were at risk for unintended pregnancy were surveyed. Results: While 94% of the women experiencing homelessness surveyed desired avoiding pregnancy, most were using the least effective contraceptive methods. Among participants, 80% had health insurance, 75% had a high school diploma, and 90% knew where to obtain birth control. Despite these factors, participants faced barriers to obtaining contraception. One significant barrier was lack of comprehensive contraceptive counseling as 62% report a physician had never counseled them on LARC methods. Approximately half of participants desired or would consider using a LARC in the future. Conclusions: Women experiencing homelessness in our study demonstrate significant unmet needs for effective contraception. Women experiencing homelessness would benefit from comprehensive contraceptive counseling and improved access to effective forms of contraception.

13.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 16(9): 873-881, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856959

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Eczema, allergic rhinitis, and asthma are traditionally considered atopic (or allergic) diseases. They are complex, multifactorial, and are caused by a variety of different mechanisms, which result in multiple heterogeneous clinical phenotypes. Atopic march is usually interpreted as the sequential development of symptoms from eczema in infancy, to asthma, and then allergic rhinitis. Areas covered: The authors reviewed the evidence on the multimorbidity of eczema, asthma, and rhinitis, and the implication of results of data-driven analyses on the concept framework of atopic march. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed and Web of Science for peer-reviewed articles published until July 2020. Application of Bayesian machine learning framework to rich phenotypic data from birth cohorts demonstrated that the postulated linear progression of symptoms (atopic march) does not capture the heterogeneity of allergic phenotypes. Expert opinion: Eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis co-exist more often than would be expected by chance, but their relationship can be best understood in a multimorbidity framework, rather than through atopic march sequence. The observation of their co-occurrence does not imply any specific relationship between them, and certainly not a progressive or causal one. It is unlikely that a sngle mechanism such as allergic sensitization underpins different multimorbidity manifestations.


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Eczema/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Simulação por Computador , Eczema/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/epidemiologia , Imunização , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia
15.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 50(6): 733-740, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of drinking water may decrease microbial exposure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether bacterial load in drinking water is associated with altered risk of allergic diseases. METHODS: We recruited 1,110 schoolchildren aged 6-16 years between 2011 and 2013 in Pozega-Slavonia County in Croatia, where we capitalized on a natural experiment whereby individuals receive drinking water through public mains supply or individual wells. We obtained data on microbial content of drinking water for all participants; 585 children were randomly selected for more detailed assessments, including skin prick testing. Since water supply was highly correlated with rural residence, we compared clinical outcomes across four groups (Rural/Individual, Rural/Public, Urban/Individual and Urban/Public). For each child, we derived quantitative index of microbial exposure (bacterial load in the drinking water measured during the child's first year of life). RESULTS: Cumulative bacterial load in drinking water was higher (median [IQR]: 6390 [4190-9550] vs 0 [0-0]; P < .0001), and lifetime prevalence of allergic diseases was significantly lower among children with individual supply (5.5% vs 2.3%, P = .01; 14.4% vs 6.7%, P < .001; 25.2% vs 15.1%, P < .001; asthma, atopic dermatitis [AD] and rhinitis, respectively). Compared with the reference group (Urban/Public), there was a significant reduction in the risk of ever asthma, AD and rhinitis amongst rural children with individual supply: OR [95% CI]: 0.14 [0.03,0.67], P = .013; 0.20 [0.09,0.43], P < .001; 0.17 [0.10,0.32], P < .001. Protection was also observed in the Rural/Public group, but the effect was consistently highest among Rural/Individual children. In the quantitative analysis, the risk of allergic diseases decreased significantly with increasing bacterial load in drinking water in the first year of life (0.79 [0.70,0.88], P < .001; 0.90 [0.83,0.99], P = .025; 0.80 [0.74,0.86], P < .001; current wheeze, AD and rhinitis). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: High commensal bacterial content in drinking water may protect against allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Água Potável/microbiologia , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/microbiologia , Masculino
16.
Soc Work Health Care ; 59(3): 180-198, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208846

RESUMO

Sexual minority women (SMW) face both increased risk for unintended pregnancy and barriers to achieving wanted pregnancy, but little research investigates SMW's pregnancy desires. To fill this gap, we conducted five focus groups and 11 in-depth interviews with 20-30-year-old SMW in three US cities. Findings highlight that the heteronormative pregnancy planning paradigm lacks salience for SMW. While some SMW clearly wish to avoid pregnancy, many others are unsure, and factors influencing this uncertainty include relationship context, anticipating logistical barriers, and discord between queer identity and pregnancy.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(2): 83-92, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy among women with short interpregnancy intervals remains common. Women's attendance at the 4- to 6-week postpartum visit, when contraception provision often occurs, is low, whereas their attendance at well-baby visits is high. We aimed to evaluate if offering co-located contraceptive services to mothers at well-baby visits increases use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) at 5 months postpartum compared with usual care in a randomized, controlled trial. METHODS: Women with infants aged 4.5 months or younger who were not using a LARC method and had not undergone sterilization were eligible. Generalized linear models were used to estimate risk ratios. Likability and satisfaction of the contraception visit were assessed. RESULTS: Between January 2015 and January 2017, 446 women were randomized. LARC use at 5 months was 19.1% and 20.9% for the intervention and control groups, respectively, and was not significantly different after controlling for weeks postpartum (risk ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.23). Uptake of the co-located visit was low (17.7%), but the concept was liked; insufficient time to stay for the visit was the biggest barrier to uptake. Women who accepted the visit were more likely to use a LARC method at 5 months compared with women in the control group (risk ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-3.07). CONCLUSIONS: Women perceived co-located care favorably and LARC use was higher among those who completed a visit; however, uptake was low for reasons including inability to stay after the infant visit. Intervention effects were possibly diluted. Future research should test a version of this intervention designed to overcome barriers that participants reported.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/métodos , Cuidado do Lactente , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez não Planejada , Adulto , Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Esterilização Reprodutiva , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(3): 993-1001, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations modify the effect of allergen exposure on the development of allergic sensitization. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether early-life exposure to inhalant allergens increases the risk of specific sensitization and whether FLG mutations modulate these odds. METHODS: In a population-based birth cohort we measured mite, cat, and dog allergen levels in dust samples collected from homes within the first year of life. Sensitization was assessed at 6 time points between infancy and age 16 years. Genotyping was performed for 6 FLG mutations. RESULTS: In the longitudinal multivariable model (age 1-16 years), we observed a significant interaction between FLG and Fel d 1 exposure on cat sensitization, with the effect of exposure being significantly greater among children with FLG mutations compared with those without (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.80; P = .035). The increase in risk of mite sensitization with increasing Der p 1 exposure was consistently greater among children with FLG mutations, but the interaction did not reach statistical significance. Different associations were observed for dogs: there was a significant interaction between FLG and dog ownership, but the risk of sensitization to any allergen was significantly lower among children with FLG mutations who were exposed to a dog in infancy (odds ratio, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.86; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: FLG loss-of-function mutations modify the relationship between allergen exposure and sensitization, but effects differ at different ages and between different allergens.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/imunologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Proteínas S100/genética , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Artrópodes/efeitos adversos , Gatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Cisteína Endopeptidases/efeitos adversos , Cães , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Genótipo , Glicoproteínas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia
19.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 7(3): 550-554, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848943

RESUMO

Due to the gap between cisgender women eligible for and those accessing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention, it is critical to understand knowledge of and attitudes toward PrEP among HIV-vulnerable women. PrEP utilization is particularly low among African American women in the USA. Family planning clinics provide key access points to reach HIV-vulnerable African American women as well as to translate research findings into clinical practice. Our study aimed to (1) describe the awareness of and interest in PrEP among African American cisgender women attending a family planning clinic and (2) document the barriers and facilitators to PrEP uptake among these women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with sexually active African American women of reproductive age attending a family planning clinic. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample, and bivariate analysis was used to detect difference between categorical and outcome variables. In our survey (N = 109), over 80% of participants listed not knowing PrEP was available as the primary reason for not currently taking PrEP. Seventy percent reported they would probably or definitely like to take PrEP - demonstrating that barriers to uptake might stem from knowledge deficits rather than attitudes toward prevention. Study findings have the potential to inform strategies to increase awareness of PrEP as an HIV prevention option as well as to equip women with greater self-efficacy to access PrEP in family planning settings.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Chicago/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 50(3): 315-324, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876035

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exacerbation-prone asthma subtype has been reported in studies using data-driven methodologies. However, patterns of severe exacerbations have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate longitudinal trajectories of severe wheeze exacerbations from infancy to school age. METHODS: We applied longitudinal k-means clustering to derive exacerbation trajectories among 887 participants from a population-based birth cohort with severe wheeze exacerbations confirmed in healthcare records. We examined early-life risk factors of the derived trajectories, and their asthma-related outcomes and lung function in adolescence. RESULTS: 498/887 children (56%) had physician-confirmed wheeze by age 8 years, of whom 160 had at least one severe exacerbation. A two-cluster model provided the optimal solution for severe exacerbation trajectories among these 160 children: "Infrequent exacerbations (IE)" (n = 150, 93.7%) and "Early-onset frequent exacerbations (FE)" (n = 10, 6.3%). Shorter duration of breastfeeding was the strongest early-life risk factor for FE (weeks, median [IQR]: FE, 0 [0-1.75] vs. IE, 6 [0-20], P < .001). Specific airway resistance (sRaw ) was significantly higher in FE compared with IE trajectory throughout childhood. We then compared children in the two exacerbation trajectories with those who have never wheezed (NW, n = 389) or have wheezed but had no severe exacerbations (WNE, n = 338). At age 8 years, FEV1 /FVC was significantly lower and FeNO significantly higher among FE children compared with all other groups. By adolescence (age 16), subjects in FE trajectory were significantly more likely to have current asthma (67% FE vs. 30% IE vs. 13% WNE, P < .001) and use inhaled corticosteroids (77% FE vs. 15% IE vs. 18% WNE, P < .001). Lung function was significantly diminished in the FE trajectory (FEV1 /FVC, mean [95%CI]: 89.9% [89.3-90.5] vs. 88.1% [87.3-88.8] vs. 85.1% [83.4-86.7] vs. 74.7% [61.5-87.8], NW, WNE, IE, FE respectively, P < .001). CONCLUSION: We have identified two distinct trajectories of severe exacerbations during childhood with different early-life risk factors and asthma-related outcomes in adolescence.


Assuntos
Asma , Sons Respiratórios , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/imunologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco
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