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1.
Nano Lett ; 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310666

RESUMO

When approaching the atomically thin limit, defects and disorder play an increasingly important role in the properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials. While defects are generally thought to negatively affect superconductivity in 2D materials, here we demonstrate the contrary in the case of oxygenation of ultrathin tantalum disulfide (TaS2). Our first-principles calculations show that incorporation of oxygen into the TaS2 crystal lattice is energetically favorable and effectively heals sulfur vacancies typically present in these crystals, thus restoring the electronic band structure and the carrier density to the intrinsic characteristics of TaS2. Strikingly, this leads to a strong enhancement of the electron-phonon coupling, by up to 80% in the highly oxygenated limit. Using transport measurements on fresh and aged (oxygenated) few-layer TaS2, we found a marked increase of the superconducting critical temperature (Tc) upon aging, in agreement with our theory, while concurrent electron microscopy and electron-energy loss spectroscopy confirmed the presence of sulfur vacancies in freshly prepared TaS2 and incorporation of oxygen into the crystal lattice with time. Our work thus reveals the mechanism by which certain atomic-scale defects can be beneficial to superconductivity and opens a new route to engineer Tc in ultrathin materials.

2.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319490

RESUMO

We develop herein plasmonic-catalytic Au-IrO2 nanostructures with a morphology optimized for efficient light harvesting and catalytic surface area; the nanoparticles have a nanoflower morphology, with closely spaced Au branches all partially covered by an ultrathin (1 nm) IrO2 shell. This nanoparticle architecture optimizes optical features due to the interactions of closely spaced plasmonic branches forming electromagnetic hot spots, and the ultra-thin IrO2 layer maximizes efficient use of this expensive catalyst. This concept was evaluated towards the enhancement of the electrocatalytic performances towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) as a model transformation. The OER can play a central role in meeting future energy demands but the performance of conventional electrocatalysts in this reaction is limited by the sluggish OER kinetics. We demonstrate an improvement of the OER performance for one of the most active OER catalysts, IrO2, by harvesting plasmonic effects from visible light illumination in multimetallic nanoparticles. We find that the OER activity for the Au-IrO2 nanoflowers can be improved under LSPR excitation, matching best properties reported in the literature. Our simulations and electrocatalytic data demonstrate that the enhancement in OER activities can be attributed to an electronic interaction between Au and IrO2 and to the activation of Ir-O bonds by LSPR excited hot holes, leading to a change in the reaction mechanism (rate-determinant step) under visible light illumination.

3.
Langmuir ; 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275436

RESUMO

MXenes are a recently discovered class of two-dimensional materials that have shown great potential as electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices. Despite their promise in this area, MXenes can still suffer limitations in the form of restricted ion accessibility between the closely spaced multistacked MXene layers causing low capacities and poor cycle life. Pillaring, where a secondary species is inserted between layers, has been used to increase interlayer spacings in clays with great success but has had limited application in MXenes. We report a new amine-assisted pillaring methodology that successfully intercalates silica-based pillars between Ti3C2 layers. Using this technique, the interlayer spacing can be controlled with the choice of amine and calcination temperature, up to a maximum of 3.2 nm, the largest interlayer spacing reported for an MXene. Another effect of the pillaring is a dramatic increase in surface area, achieving BET surface areas of 235 m2 g-1, a sixty-fold increase over the unpillared material and the highest reported for MXenes using an intercalation-based method. The intercalation mechanism was revealed by different characterization techniques, allowing the surface chemistry to be optimized for the pillaring process. The porous MXene was tested for Na-ion battery applications and showed superior capacity, rate capability and remarkable stability compared with those of the nonpillared materials, retaining 98.5% capacity between the 50th and 100th cycles. These results demonstrate the applicability and promise of pillaring techniques applied to MXenes providing a new approach to optimizing their properties for a range of applications, including energy storage, conversion, catalysis, and gas separations.

4.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233490

RESUMO

Electrochemical exfoliation is one of the most promising methods for scalable production of graphene. However, limited understanding of its Raman spectrum as well as lack of measurement standards for graphene strongly limit its industrial applications. In this work, we show a systematic study of the Raman spectrum of electrochemically exfoliated graphene, produced using different electrolytes and types of solvents in varying amounts. We demonstrate that no information on the thickness can be extracted from the shape of the 2D peak as this type of graphene is defective. Furthermore, the number of defects and the uniformity of the samples strongly depend on the experimental conditions, including postprocessing. Under specific conditions, the formation of short conductive trans-polyacetylene chains has been observed. Our Raman analysis provides guidance for the community on how to get information on defects coming from electrolyte, temperature, and other experimental conditions, by making Raman spectroscopy a powerful metrology tool.

5.
Ultramicroscopy ; 212: 112976, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217349

RESUMO

Convergent beam electron diffraction is routinely applied for studying deformation and local strain in thick crystals by matching the crystal structure to the observed intensity distributions. Recently, it has been demonstrated that CBED can be applied for imaging two-dimensional (2D) crystals where a direct reconstruction is possible and three-dimensional crystal deformations at a nanometre resolution can be retrieved. Here, we demonstrate that second-order effects allow for further information to be obtained regarding stacking arrangements between the crystals. Such effects are especially pronounced in samples consisting of multiple layers of 2D crystals. We show, using simulations and experiments, that twisted multilayer samples exhibit extra modulations of interference fringes in CBED patterns, i. e., a CBED moiré. A simple and robust method for the evaluation of the composition and the number of layers from a single-shot CBED pattern is demonstrated.

6.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(2): 117, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925565

RESUMO

The room temperature polar vapor sensing behavior of a graphene-TiS3 heterojunction material and TiS3 nanoribbons is described. The nanoribbons were synthesized via chemical vapor transport (CVT) and their structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The gas sensing performance was assessed by following the changes in their resistivities. Sensing devices were fabricated with gold contacts and with lithographically patterned graphene (Gr) electrodes in a heterojunction Gr-TiS3-Gr. The gold contacted TiS3 device has a rather linear I-V behavior while the Gr-TiS3-Gr heterojunction forms a contact with a higher Schottky barrier (250 meV). The I-V responses of the sensors were recorded at room temperature at a relative humidity of 55% and for different ethanol vapor concentrations (varying from 2 to 20 ppm). The plots indicate an increase in the resistance of Gr-TiS3-Gr due to adsorption of water and ethanol with a relatively high sensing response (~495% at 2 ppm). The results reveal that stable responses to 2 ppm concentrations of ethanol are achieved at room temperature. The response and recovery times are around 8 s and 72 s, respectively. Weaker responses are obtained for methanol and acetone. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of resistance sensor for detection of low concentration of ethanol vapor. The graphene and TiS3 nanoribbons were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition and chemical vapor transport technique respectively. The 2D graphene/TiS3 heterojunction device was fabricated to make a high response sensor due to their synergy effect.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 125, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913279

RESUMO

Control over the quantization of electrons in quantum wells is at the heart of the functioning of modern advanced electronics; high electron mobility transistors, semiconductor and Capasso terahertz lasers, and many others. However, this avenue has not been explored in the case of 2D materials. Here we apply this concept to van der Waals heterostructures using the thickness of exfoliated crystals to control the quantum well dimensions in few-layer semiconductor InSe. This approach realizes precise control over the energy of the subbands and their uniformity guarantees extremely high quality electronic transport in these systems. Using tunnelling and light emitting devices, we reveal the full subband structure by studying resonance features in the tunnelling current, photoabsorption and light emission spectra. In the future, these systems could enable development of elementary blocks for atomically thin infrared and THz light sources based on intersubband optical transitions in few-layer van der Waals materials.

8.
Nano Lett ; 19(12): 8526-8532, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664847

RESUMO

In graphite crystals, layers of graphene reside in three equivalent, but distinct, stacking positions typically referred to as A, B, and C projections. The order in which the layers are stacked defines the electronic structure of the crystal, providing an exciting degree of freedom which can be exploited for designing graphitic materials with unusual properties including predicted high-temperature superconductivity and ferromagnetism. However, the lack of control of the stacking sequence limits most research to the stable ABA form of graphite. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to control the stacking order using van der Waals technology. To this end, we first visualize the distribution of stacking domains in graphite films and then perform directional encapsulation of ABC-rich graphite crystallites with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). We found that hBN encapsulation, which is introduced parallel to the graphite zigzag edges, preserves ABC stacking, while encapsulation along the armchair edges transforms the stacking to ABA. The technique presented here should facilitate new research on the important properties of ABC graphite.

9.
Nanoscale ; 11(38): 17791-17799, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552997

RESUMO

Accurately determining the morphology and hence the true surface areas of catalytic nanoparticles remains challenging. For many chemically synthesised nanoparticle suspensions conventional BET surface area measurements are often not feasible due to the large quantities of material required. For platinum, a paradigmatic catalyst, this issue is further complicated by the propensity of this metal to form porous aggregate structures comprised of smaller (ca. 2-5 nm) crystallites as opposed to continuous solid structures. This dendritic/porous particulate morphology leads to a large but poorly defined 'active' surface which is difficult to measure accurately. Here we compare, single nanoparticle electrochemistry with three dimensional (3D) electron tomography and quantitative 2D high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) analysis to yield insights into the porosity and chemically accessible surface area of a 30 nm diameter commercial Pt nanoparticle catalyst. Good quantitative agreement is found between 2D and 3D STEM-based measurements of the particle morphology, density and size distribution. Both 3D STEM tomography and single nanoparticle electrochemical measurements allow quantification of the surface area but the electrocatalytic surface area is found to be 2.8× larger than is measured in STEM; indicating the importance of the atomic scale roughness and structure (<2 nm) in contributing to the total catalytic surface area of the nanomaterial.

10.
Nano Lett ; 19(9): 6475-6481, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426634

RESUMO

Most of the studied two-dimensional (2D) materials have been obtained by exfoliation of van der Waals crystals. Recently, there has been growing interest in fabricating synthetic 2D crystals which have no layered bulk analogues. These efforts have been focused mainly on the surface growth of molecules in high vacuum. Here, we report an approach to making 2D crystals of covalent solids by chemical conversion of van der Waals layers. As an example, we used 2D indium selenide (InSe) obtained by exfoliation and converted it by direct fluorination into indium fluoride (InF3), which has a nonlayered, rhombohedral structure and therefore cannot  possibly be obtained by exfoliation. The conversion of InSe into InF3 is found to be feasible for thicknesses down to three layers of InSe, and the obtained stable InF3 layers are doped with selenium. We study this new 2D material by optical, electron transport, and Raman measurements and show that it is a semiconductor with a direct bandgap of 2.2 eV, exhibiting high optical transparency across the visible and infrared spectral ranges. We also demonstrate the scalability of our approach by chemical conversion of large-area, thin InSe laminates obtained by liquid exfoliation, into InF3 films. The concept of chemical conversion of cleavable thin van der Waals crystals into covalently bonded noncleavable ones opens exciting prospects for synthesizing a wide variety of novel atomically thin covalent crystals.

11.
Adv Mater ; 31(37): e1902725, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343084

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies appear as a paradigm for scalable manufacture of electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices, where complex 3D architectures are typically required but are hard to achieve using conventional techniques. The combination of these technologies and innovative material formulations that maximize surface area accessibility and ion transport within electrodes while minimizing space are of growing interest. Herein, aqueous inks composed of atomically thin (1-3 nm) 2D Ti3 C2 Tx with large lateral size of about 8 µm possessing ideal viscoelastic properties are formulated for extrusion-based 3D printing of freestanding, high specific surface area architectures to determine the viability of manufacturing energy storage devices. The 3D-printed device achieves a high areal capacitance of 2.1 F cm-2 at 1.7 mA cm-2 and a gravimetric capacitance of 242.5 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 with a retention of above 90% capacitance for 10 000 cycles. It also exhibits a high energy density of 0.0244 mWh cm-2 and a power density of 0.64 mW cm-2 at 4.3 mA cm-2 . It is anticipated that the sustainable printing and design approach developed in this work can be applied to fabricate high-performance bespoke multiscale and multidimensional architectures of functional and structural materials for integrated devices in various applications.

12.
Nano Lett ; 19(7): 4678-4683, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192613

RESUMO

The ability of different materials to display self-limiting growth has recently attracted an enormous amount of attention because of the importance of nanoscale materials in applications for catalysis, energy conversion, (opto)electronics, and so forth. Here, we show that the electrochemical deposition of palladium (Pd) between graphene oxide (GO) sheets result in the self-limiting growth of 5-nm-thick Pd nanosheets. The self-limiting growth is found to be a consequence of the strong interaction of Pd with the confining GO sheets, which results in the bulk growth of Pd being energetically unfavorable for larger thicknesses. Furthermore, we have successfully carried out liquid exfoliation of the resulting Pd-GO laminates to isolate Pd nanosheets and have demonstrated their high efficiency in continuous flow catalysis and electrocatalysis.

13.
ACS Nano ; 13(5): 5112-5123, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946569

RESUMO

Two dimensional III-VI metal monochalcogenide materials, such as GaSe and InSe, are attracting considerable attention due to their promising electronic and optoelectronic properties. Here, an investigation of point and extended atomic defects formed in mono-, bi-, and few-layer GaSe and InSe crystals is presented. Using state-of-the-art scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is observed that these materials can form both metal and selenium vacancies under the action of the electron beam. Selenium vacancies are observed to be healable: recovering the perfect lattice structure in the presence of selenium or enabling incorporation of dopant atoms in the presence of impurities. Under prolonged imaging, multiple point defects are observed to coalesce to form extended defect structures, with GaSe generally developing trigonal defects and InSe primarily forming line defects. These insights into atomic behavior could be harnessed to synthesize and tune the properties of 2D post-transition-metal monochalcogenide materials for optoelectronic applications.

15.
Chem Sci ; 10(4): 1035-1045, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774899

RESUMO

Solventless thermolysis of molecular precursors followed by liquid phase exfoliation allows access to two-dimensional IV-VI semiconductor nanomaterials hitherto unreachable by a scalable processing pathway. Firstly, the use of metal dithiocarbamate precursors to produce bulk alloys in the series Pb1-x Sn x S (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) by thermolysis is demonstrated. The bulk powders are characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. It was found that there is a transition from cubic structures for the Pb-rich alloys including the end compound, PbS (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) to layered orthorhombic structures for Sn-rich alloys and the end compound SnS (0.5 ≤ x ≤ 1.0). A smooth elemental progression from lead-rich to tin-rich monochalcogenides across the series of materials is observed. Liquid phase exfoliation was applied to produce two dimensional (2D) nanosheets for a mixed Pb1-x Sn x S alloy (where x = 0.8) in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) using the synthetic bulk powder as starting material. The nanosheet products were characterized by SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM). First principle calculations of Pb1-x Sn x S alloys show that the Sn content x modifies the size of the band gap by several 100 meV and that x changes the gap type from indirect in SnS to direct in Pb0.2Sn0.8S. These results are supported by UV-Vis spectroscopy of exfoliated Pb0.2Sn0.8S. The method employed demonstrates a new, scalable, processing pathway which can potentially be used to synthesize a range of synthetic layered structures that can be exfoliated to as-yet unaccessed 2D materials with tunable electronic properties.

16.
ACS Nano ; 13(2): 2136-2142, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676744

RESUMO

Atomically thin films of III-VI post-transition metal chalcogenides (InSe and GaSe) form an interesting class of two-dimensional semiconductors that feature a strong variation of their band gap as a function of the number of layers in the crystal and, specifically for InSe, an expected crossover from a direct gap in the bulk to a weakly indirect band gap in monolayers and bilayers. Here, we apply angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with submicrometer spatial resolution (µARPES) to visualize the layer-dependent valence band structure of mechanically exfoliated crystals of InSe. We show that for one-layer and two-layer InSe the valence band maxima are away from the Γ-point, forming an indirect gap, with the conduction band edge known to be at the Γ-point. In contrast, for six or more layers the band gap becomes direct, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The high-quality monolayer and bilayer samples enable us to resolve, in the photoluminescence spectra, the band-edge exciton (A) from the exciton (B) involving holes in a pair of deeper valence bands, degenerate at Γ, with a splitting that agrees with both µARPES data and the results of DFT modeling. Due to the difference in symmetry between these two valence bands, light emitted by the A-exciton should be predominantly polarized perpendicular to the plane of the two-dimensional crystal, which we have verified for few-layer InSe crystals.

17.
Nano Lett ; 19(2): 732-738, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681878

RESUMO

The properties of nanoparticles are known to critically depend on their local chemistry but characterizing three-dimensional (3D) elemental segregation at the nanometer scale is highly challenging. Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomographic imaging is one of the few techniques able to measure local chemistry for inorganic nanoparticles but conventional methodologies often fail due to the high electron dose imparted. Here, we demonstrate realization of a new spectroscopic single particle reconstruction approach built on a method developed by structural biologists. We apply this technique to the imaging of PtNi nanocatalysts and find new evidence of a complex inhomogeneous alloying with a Pt-rich core, a Ni-rich hollow octahedral intermediate shell and a Pt-rich rhombic dodecahedral skeleton framework with less Pt at ⟨100⟩ vertices. The ability to gain evidence of local surface enrichment that varies with the crystallographic orientation of facets and vertices is expected to provide significant insight toward the development of nanoparticles for sensing, medical imaging, and catalysis.

18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(6): 5282-5293, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667060

RESUMO

Transformation products of two-line ferrihydrite associated with Lu(III) were studied after 12 years of aging using aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), high-efficiency energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and density functional theory (DFT). The transformation products consisted of hematite nanoparticles with overgrown goethite needles. High-efficiency STEM-EDXS revealed that Lu is only associated with goethite needles, and atomic-resolution HAADF-STEM reveals structural incorporation of Lu within goethite, partially replacing structural Fe sites. This finding corroborates those recently obtained by AsFlFFF and EXAFS spectroscopy on the same sample (Finck et al. 2018). DFT calculations indicate that Lu incorporation within goethite or hematite are almost equally likely, suggesting that experimental parameters such as temperature and reaction time which affect reaction kinetics, play important roles in determining the Lu uptake. It seems likely that these results may be transferable to predict the behavior of chemically homologous trivalent actinides.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Lutécio/química , Adsorção , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos de Ferro/química , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão e Varredura , Minerais/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(1): 99-102, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30512029

RESUMO

Direct synthesis of either 2H-MoS2 or α-MoO3 is made possible by thermolysis of the same single source precursor in either argon or air at moderate temperatures.

20.
Nano Lett ; 18(11): 7289-7297, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352162

RESUMO

The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) excitation in plasmonic nanoparticles has been used to accelerate several catalytic transformations under visible-light irradiation. In order to fully harness the potential of plasmonic catalysis, multimetallic nanoparticles containing a plasmonic and a catalytic component, where LSPR-excited energetic charge carriers and the intrinsic catalytic active sites work synergistically, have raised increased attention. Despite several exciting studies observing rate enhancements, controlling reaction selectivity remains very challenging. Here, by employing multimetallic nanoparticles combining Au, Ag, and Pt in an Au@Ag@Pt core-shell and an Au@AgPt nanorattle architectures, we demonstrate that reaction selectivity of a sequential reaction can be controlled under visible light illumination. The control of the reaction selectivity in plasmonic catalysis was demonstrated for the hydrogenation of phenylacetylene as a model transformation. We have found that the localized interaction between the triple bond in phenylacetylene and the Pt nanoparticle surface enables selective hydrogenation of the triple bond (relative to the double bond in styrene) under visible light illumination. Atomistic calculations show that the enhanced selectivity toward the partial hydrogenation product is driven by distinct adsorption configurations and charge delocalization of the reactant and the reaction intermediate at the catalyst surface. We believe these results will contribute to the use of plasmonic catalysis to drive and control a wealth of selective molecular transformations under ecofriendly conditions and visible light illumination.

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