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1.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674662

RESUMO

The relevance of donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in HLA-mismatched haematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is known, but the importance of HLA antibodies in HLA-matched HCT is unclear. We hypothesized that HLA antibodies detected before HCT would cause platelet transfusion refractoriness during HCT and investigated this in a multi-centre study. Pre-HCT samples from 45 paediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing HLA-matched HCT were tested for HLA class I antibodies. The number of platelet transfusions received before day +45 was compared between those with and without antibodies. Thirteen of 45 (29%) patients had a positive HLA class I antibody screen, and these patients received significantly more platelet transfusions than patients without antibodies (median 19 vs. 7·5, P = 0·028). This platelet transfusion association remained significant when controlling for conditioning regimen. Among alloimmunized patients, there was no association between the panel-reactive antibody and the number of platelet transfusions. Patients with HLA class I antibodies also had a higher incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD): 6/13 (46%) vs. 3/32 (9%), P = 0·011. Pre-HCT HLA class I alloimmunization is associated with increased platelet transfusion support and acute GVHD in paediatric HLA-matched HCT for SCD. Further studies are needed to investigate the pathobiology of this association.

2.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(5): 955-964, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605731

RESUMO

Although donation of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) from children to family members undergoing allogeneic transplantation are well-established procedures, studies detailing levels of pain, symptoms, and long-term recovery are lacking. To address this lack, we prospectively enrolled 294 donors age <18 years at 25 pediatric transplantation centers in North America, assessing them predonation, peridonation, and at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year postdonation. We noted that 71% of children reported pain and 59% reported other symptoms peridonation, with resolution to 14% and 12% at 1 month postdonation. Both older age (age 13 to 17 years versus younger) and female sex were associated with higher levels of pain peridonation, with the highest rates in older females (57% with grade 2-4 pain and 17% with grade 3-4 pain). Multivariate analyses showed a 4-fold increase in risk for older females compared with males age <13 years (P <.001). At 1 year, 11% of 13- to 17-year-old females reported grade 2-4 pain, compared with 3% of males age 13 to 17 years, 0% of females age <13 years, and 1% of males age <13 years (P = .01). Males and females age 13 to 17 years failed to return to predonation pain levels at 1 year 22% and 23% of the time, respectively, compared with 3% and 10% in males and females age <13 years (P = .002). Our data show that females age 13 to 17 years are at increased risk of grade 2-4 pain at 1 year and >20% of females and males age 13 to 17 years do not return to baseline pain levels by 1 year after BM donation. Studies aimed at decreasing symptoms and improving recovery in older children are warranted.

3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(4): e27602, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609294

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative for primary immunodeficiencies. Bone marrow from an unaffected human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor is the ideal graft source. For minor donors, meaningful consent or assent may not be feasible, and permission from parents or legal guardians is considered acceptable. Adverse events, albeit extremely small, can be associated with bone marrow harvest in pediatric donors. Donor safety concerns potentially increase with multiple bone marrow harvests. Very little is known about multiple bone marrow harvests from pediatric donors. We describe the ethical considerations and clinical decision-making in an unusual clinical situation where three patients with the same primary immunodeficiency were HLA identical to one another and their younger sibling, who underwent bone marrow harvests three times between 1.3 and 4 years of age, resulting in successful transplantation for all three patients. We hope that this experience will provide guidance to providers and families in a similar situation.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Transplante de Medula Óssea/ética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/etnologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Irmãos , Doadores de Tecidos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
4.
Am J Hematol ; 94(4): 446-454, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637784

RESUMO

We conducted a multicenter pilot investigation of the safety and feasibility of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in adults with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) (NCT 01565616) using a reduced toxicity preparative regimen of busulfan (13.2 mg/kg), fludarabine (175 mg/m2 ) and thymoglobulin (6 mg/kg) and cyclosporine or tacrolimus and methotrexate for graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Twenty-two patients (median age 22 years; range 17-36) were enrolled at eight centers. Seventeen patients received marrow from an HLA-identical sibling donor and five patients received marrow from an 8/8 HLA-allele matched unrelated donor. Before BMT, patients had stroke, acute chest syndrome, recurrent pain events, were receiving regular red blood cell transfusions, or had an elevated tricuspid regurgitant jet (TRJ) velocity, which fulfilled eligibility criteria. Four patients developed grades II-III acute GVHD (18%) and six developed chronic GVHD (27%) that was moderate in two and severe in one patient. One patient died of intracranial hemorrhage and one of GVHD. Nineteen patients had stable donor chimerism, 1-year post-transplant. One patient who developed secondary graft failure survives disease-free after a second BMT. The one-year overall survival and event-free survival (EFS) are 91% (95% CI 68%-98%) and 86% (95% CI, 63%-95%), respectively, and 3-year EFS is 82%. Statistically significant improvements in the pain interference and physical function domains of health-related quality of life were observed. The study satisfied the primary endpoint of 1-year EFS ≥70%. This regimen is being studied in a prospective clinical trial comparing HLA-matched donor BMT with standard of care in adults with severe SCD (NCT02766465).


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Doadores não Relacionados , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/sangue , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Haematologica ; 104(4): 844-854, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381298

RESUMO

Unlike unrelated donor registries, transplant centers lack uniform approaches to related donor assessment and deferral. To test whether related donors are at increased risk for donation-related toxicities, we conducted a prospective observational trial of 11,942 related and unrelated donors aged 18-60 years. Bone marrow (BM) was collected at 37 transplant and 78 National Marrow Donor Program centers, and peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) were collected at 42 transplant and 87 unrelated donor centers in North America. Possible presence of medical comorbidities was verified prior to donation, and standardized pain and toxicity measures were assessed pre-donation, peri-donation, and one year following. Multivariate analyses showed similar experiences for BM collection in related and unrelated donors; however, related stem cell donors had increased risk of moderate [odds ratios (ORs) 1.42; P<0.001] and severe (OR 8.91; P<0.001) pain and toxicities (OR 1.84; P<0.001) with collection. Related stem cell donors were at increased risk of persistent toxicities (OR 1.56; P=0.021) and non-recovery from pain (OR 1.42; P=0.001) at one year. Related donors with more significant comorbidities were at especially high risk for grade 2-4 pain (OR 3.43; P<0.001) and non-recovery from toxicities (OR 3.71; P<0.001) at one year. Related donors with more significant comorbidities were at especially high risk for grade 2-4 pain (OR 3.43; P<0.001) and non-recovery from toxicities (OR 3.71; P<0.001) at one year. Related donors reporting grade ≥2 pain had significant decreases in Health-Related Quality of Life (HR-QoL) scores at one month and one year post donation (P=0.004). In conclusion, related PBSC donors with comorbidities are at increased risk for pain, toxicity, and non-recovery at one year after donation. Risk profiles described in this study should be used for donor education, planning studies to improve the related donor experience, and decisions regarding donor deferral. Registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier:00948636.

6.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(4): 699-711, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423480

RESUMO

The development of reduced-intensity approaches for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation has resulted in growing numbers of older related donors (RDs) of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). The effects of age on donation efficacy, toxicity, and long-term recovery in RDs are poorly understood. To address this we analyzed hematologic variables, pain, donation-related symptoms, and recovery in 1211 PBSC RDs aged 18 to 79 enrolled in the Related Donor Safety Study. RDs aged > 60 had a lower median CD34+ level before apheresis compared with younger RDs (age > 60, 59 × 106/L; age 41 to 60, 81 × 106/L; age 18 to 40, 121 × 106/L; P < .001). This resulted in older donors undergoing more apheresis procedures (49% versus 30% ≥ 2 collections, P < .001) and higher collection volumes (52% versus 32% > 24 L, P < .001), leading to high percentages of donors aged > 60 with postcollection thrombocytopenia <50 × 109/L (26% and 57% after 2 and 3days of collection, respectively). RDs aged 18 to 40 had a higher risk of grades 2 to 4 pain and symptoms pericollection, but donors over age 40 had more persistent pain at 1, 6, and 12 months (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; P = 0.02) and a higher rate of nonrecovery to predonation levels (OR, 1.7; P = .01). Donors reporting comorbidities increased significantly with age, and those with comorbidities that would have led to deferral by National Marrow Donor Program unrelated donor standards had an increased risk for persistent grades 2 to 4 pain (OR, 2.41; P < .001) and failure to recover to predonation baseline for other symptoms (OR, 2.34; P = .004). This information should be used in counseling RDs regarding risk and can assist in developing practice approaches aimed at improving the RD experience for high-risk individuals.

7.
Pediatr Transplant ; 22(8): e13294, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246483

RESUMO

Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening, rapidly progressing infection of fascia and subcutaneous cellular tissue typically caused by mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. We present a case report of an immunocompromised 4-year-old female with necrotizing fasciitis from a rare fungal organism, Mucor indicus. The patient underwent multiple debridements and was treated for 10 months, first on liposomal amphotericin B (2 months) then posaconazole (8 months). Mucor indicus is a rarely described pathogen with only nine other cases described. Identification of this organism remains a challenge, and the need for further understanding of risk factors and organism susceptibility testing to help guide treatment is crucial.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Fasciite Necrosante/etiologia , Fasciite Necrosante/microbiologia , Mucor , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Desbridamento , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Triazóis
8.
Blood ; 132(17): 1737-1749, 2018 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154114

RESUMO

The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) performed a retrospective analysis of 662 patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) who received a hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as first-line treatment between 1982 and 2012 in 33 North American institutions. Overall survival was higher after HCT from matched-sibling donors (MSDs). Among recipients of non-MSD HCT, multivariate analysis showed that the SCID genotype strongly influenced survival and immune reconstitution. Overall survival was similar for patients with RAG, IL2RG, or JAK3 defects and was significantly better compared with patients with ADA or DCLRE1C mutations. Patients with RAG or DCLRE1C mutations had poorer immune reconstitution than other genotypes. Although survival did not correlate with the type of conditioning regimen, recipients of reduced-intensity or myeloablative conditioning had a lower incidence of treatment failure and better T- and B-cell reconstitution, but a higher risk for graft-versus-host disease, compared with those receiving no conditioning or immunosuppression only. Infection-free status and younger age at HCT were associated with improved survival. Typical SCID, leaky SCID, and Omenn syndrome had similar outcomes. Landmark analysis identified CD4+ and CD4+CD45RA+ cell counts at 6 and 12 months post-HCT as biomarkers predictive of overall survival and long-term T-cell reconstitution. Our data emphasize the need for patient-tailored treatment strategies depending upon the underlying SCID genotype. The prognostic significance of CD4+ cell counts as early as 6 months after HCT emphasizes the importance of close follow-up of immune reconstitution to identify patients who may need additional intervention to prevent poor long-term outcome.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Reconstituição Imune/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/mortalidade , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Genótipo , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(10): 2040-2046, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933069

RESUMO

We enrolled 150 patients in a prospective multicenter study of children with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to compare the detection of measurable residual disease (MRD) by a "difference from normal" flow cytometry (ΔN) approach with assessment of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene expression without access to the diagnostic specimen. Prospective analysis of the specimens using this approach showed that 23% of patients screened for HSCT had detectable residual disease by ΔN (.04% to 53%). Of those patients who proceeded to transplant as being in morphologic remission, 10 had detectable disease (.04% to 14%) by ΔN. The disease-free survival of this group was 10% (0 to 35%) compared with 55% (46% to 64%, P < .001) for those without disease. The ΔN assay was validated using the post-HSCT specimen by sorting abnormal or suspicious cells to confirm recipient or donor origin by chimerism studies. All 15 patients who had confirmation of tumor detection relapsed, whereas the 2 patients with suspicious phenotype cells lacking this confirmation did not. The phenotype of the relapse specimen was then used retrospectively to assess the pre-HSCT specimen, allowing identification of additional samples with low levels of MRD involvement that were previously undetected. Quantitative assessment of WT1 gene expression was not predictive of relapse or other outcomes in either pre- or post-transplant specimens. MRD detected by ΔN was highly specific, but did not identify most relapsing patients. The application of the assay was limited by poor quality among one-third of the specimens and lack of a diagnostic phenotype for comparison.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Doadores não Relacionados , Proteínas WT1/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/sangue , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Neoplasia Residual , Transplante Homólogo
10.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(6): 1216-1222, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374585

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT). In a multicenter trial we investigated the efficacy of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) before unrelated donor (URD) HSCT in children with TDT. Thirty-three children, ages 1 to 17 years, received bone marrow (BM) or umbilical cord blood (UCB) allografts. Median time to neutrophil engraftment was 13 days (range, 10 to 25) and 24 days (range, 18 to 49) and platelet engraftment 23 days (range, 12 to 46) and 50 days (range, 31 to 234) after BM and UCB allografts, respectively. With a median follow-up of 58 months (range, 7 to 79), overall and thalassemia-free survival was 82% (95% CI, .64% to .92%) and 79% (95% CI, .6% to .9%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after BM and UCB allografts was 24% and 44%; the 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic extensive GVHD was 29% and 21%, respectively; 71% of BM and 91% of UCB recipients discontinued systemic immunosuppression by 2 years. Six patients who had Pesaro risk class 2 (n = 5) and class 3 (n = 1) died of GVHD (n = 3), viral pneumonitis (n = 2) and pulmonary hemorrhage (n = 1). Outcomes after this RIC compared favorably with URD HSCT outcomes for TDT and supported engraftment in 32 of 33 patients. Efforts to reduce GVHD and infectious complications are being pursued further.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Talassemia/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Doadores não Relacionados , Adolescente , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/transplante , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida , Talassemia/mortalidade , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(5): 1041-1048, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29196076

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most commonly inherited hemoglobin disorders that has a significant impact on quality of life, increased childhood morbidity, and premature mortality. Currently, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is the only treatment with a curative intent. The objective of this study was to determine patients' and caregivers' knowledge of HSCT, the factors influencing the decision to pursue HSCT, their experiences, and the impact of a successful HSCT on their daily living. At Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, we conducted a qualitative study using a semistructured interview guide of patient-caregiver dyads and 2 focus-group sessions of adult long-term survivors of HSCT to elicit key factors in decision making, their experiences with HSCT, and the impact of HSCT. Interviews and focus-group sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed for emerging themes using NVivo 10.0. We enrolled 11 patient-caregiver dyads (n = 6, female patients; n = 10, mothers) in the qualitative interviews and 2 focus groups with 5 (n = 2, females) and 7 (n = 3, females) participants in each group, respectively. Our analysis revealed 3 prominent themes: (1) factors and concerns influencing HSCT decision making; (2) HSCT experiences; and (3) impact of HSCT on daily life. Participants reported that progression of disease-related complications and availability of a matched donor strongly influenced the decision to pursue HSCT. Although patients and caregivers had to deal with the arduous process of HSCT and transplant-related morbidities, participants were satisfied with their decision and expressed no decisional regrets. Decision making for HSCT for patients with SCD is a complex process. Understanding the key influential factors in decision making and the impact HSCT has on these patients and their families will generate crucial insights that can guide the care of future patients and research studies.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Tomada de Decisões , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Família , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pacientes/psicologia
12.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(10): 1695-1700, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627425

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative in patients with ß-thalassemia major. However, most reports on HCT outcomes lack long-term follow-up data with the exception of single-center reports. An international multicenter retrospective data collection and analysis was conducted in 176 ß-thalassemia patients who were 1 year or beyond after first HCT to evaluate follow-up methods and outcomes at 7 centers. Median age at HCT was 5.5 years (range, .6 to 18.5), and median follow-up was 7 years (range, 1 to 20). HCT was predominantly from HLA-matched related donors (91%) with bone marrow as stem cell source (91%) and myeloablative conditioning regimens (88%). Late mortality or persistent chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was rare (<2%). Graft rejection was reported in 23% (24% of these occurred beyond 1 year) post-HCT. Of 119 patients with donor chimerism results available for ≥4 years post-HCT, 50% had >95%, 22% had 50% to 95%, 7% had 20% to 50% and 25 (21%) had <20% donor chimerism. Organ dysfunction was identified in 10% pre-HCT and in 20% post-HCT even without complete clinical details on all patients. Hypogonadism and elevated creatinine for age were most commonly reported and significantly higher in recipients ≥ 7 years at the time of HCT (P = .007) and in those with pre-existing morbidity before HCT (P = .02). Outcomes were unaffected by pre-HCT ferritin or GVHD. Mean z scores for height and weight were low at baseline and remained low post-HCT (79%), confirming that growth impairment from disease lacked recovery post-HCT during this follow-up period. HCT for ß-thalassemia has a high rate of cure and low mortality, especially in the young and from HLA-matched related donors. Half of the number of recipients live with mixed chimerism that requires continued follow-up because of a risk of late graft rejection (14%). Organ function after HCT when <7 years of age was generally preserved. Hypogonadism, renal dysfunction, and growth impairment that failed to correct were late complications identified most frequently in older transplant recipients. Systematic follow-up of individual organs such as lung and heart were inadequate but important. These data support the development of simple measures of uniformly tracking long-term HCT outcomes and organ functions in children and adolescents who undergo HCT for thalassemia, allowing for systematic identification and implementation of standardized surveillance strategies and interventions.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Talassemia beta/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Pediatrics ; 139(2)2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28119426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the strategies families report using to address the needs and concerns of siblings of children, adolescents, and young adults undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). METHODS: A secondary semantic analysis was conducted of 86 qualitative interviews with family members of children, adolescents, and young adults undergoing HSCT at 4 HSCT centers and supplemented with a primary analysis of 38 additional targeted qualitative interviews (23 family members, 15 health care professionals) conducted at the primary center. Analyses focused on sibling issues and the strategies families use to address these issues. RESULTS: The sibling issues identified included: (1) feeling negative effects of separation from the patient and caregiver(s); (2) experiencing difficult emotions; (3) being faced with additional responsibilities or burdens; (4) lacking information; and (5) feeling excluded. Families and health care providers reported the following strategies to support siblings: (1) sharing information; (2) using social support and help offered by family or friends; (3) taking siblings to the hospital; (4) communicating virtually; (5) providing special events or gifts or quality time for siblings; (6) offering siblings a defined role to help the family during the transplant process; (7) switching between parents at the hospital; (8) keeping the sibling's life constant; and, (9) arranging sibling meetings with a certified child life specialist or school counselor. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the above strategies and sharing them with other families in similar situations can begin to address sibling issues during HSCT and can improve hospital-based, family-centered care efforts.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Família , Irmãos/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Papel (figurativo) , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(2): 357-360, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27840208

RESUMO

Blood stream infections (BSI) are a major source of morbidity and mortality both in allogeneic blood and marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. Various risk factors for BSI in BMT have been identified. The impact of race and cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia, a common complication after engraftment, however, has not been rigorously assessed. This is important because both CMV infection and ganciclovir, the mainstay of pre-emptive therapy, have myelosuppressive and immunosuppressive effects. We conducted a retrospective analysis to test the hypothesis that race and CMV viremia predispose allogeneic BMT patients to postengraftment BSI. We analyzed 278 allogeneic BMT performed at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2014 that met eligibility criteria. We performed a multivariate analysis to estimate the effect of CMV viremia on risk for BSI in the postengraftment period (days +30 to 100). Risk for BSI was associated with CMV viremia (hazard ratio [HR], 3.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51 to 7.36; P = .003); grade III and IV acute graft-versus-host disease (HR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.55 to 6.92; P = .002), and African American race (HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.09 to 4.51; P = .027). The results of our study highlight the importance of a novel risk factor for postengraftment BSI, not previously considered-African American race.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Bacteriemia/etnologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Viremia/etnologia , Adolescente , Aloenxertos , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Neutropenia/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Viremia/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Blood ; 128(21): 2561-2567, 2016 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27625358

RESUMO

Children with sickle cell disease experience organ damage, impaired quality of life, and premature mortality. Allogeneic bone marrow transplant from an HLA-matched sibling can halt disease progression but is limited by donor availability. A Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) phase 2 trial conducted from 2008 to 2014 enrolled 30 children aged 4 to 19 years; 29 were eligible for evaluation. The primary objective was 1-year event-free survival (EFS) after HLA allele-matched (at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 loci) unrelated donor transplant. The conditioning regimen included alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis included calcineurin inhibitor, short-course methotrexate, and methylprednisolone. Transplant indications included stroke (n = 12), transcranial Doppler velocity >200 cm/s (n = 2), ≥3 vaso-occlusive pain crises per year (n = 12), or ≥2 acute chest syndrome episodes (n = 4) in the 2 years preceding enrollment. Median follow-up was 26 months (range, 12-62 months); graft rejection was 10%. The 1- and 2-year EFS rates were 76% and 69%, respectively. The corresponding rates for overall survival were 86% and 79%. The day 100 incidence rate of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 28%, and the 1-year incidence rate of chronic GVHD was 62%; 38% classified as extensive. There were 7 GVHD-related deaths. A 34% incidence of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome was noted in the first 6 months. Although the 1-year EFS met the prespecified target of ≥75%, this regimen cannot be considered sufficiently safe for widespread adoption without modifications to achieve more effective GVHD prophylaxis. The BMT CTN #0601 trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00745420.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Doadores não Relacionados , Adolescente , Aloenxertos , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Criança , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 38(8): e310-e314, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27403771

RESUMO

Monomorphic plasmacytoma-type posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) has not been reported after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We present a child with hepatitis-associated severe aplastic anemia who underwent an unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and subsequently developed graft failure and an Epstein-Barr virus-positive monomorphic plasmacytoma-type PTLD of recipient origin. Despite broad-spectrum antimicrobials, weaning immunosuppression, rituximab administration, and a stem cell boost she died from complications of PTLD and a fungal pulmonary infection on day +78.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/etiologia , Plasmocitoma/etiologia , Anemia Aplástica/complicações , Criança , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto , Humanos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/virologia , Plasmocitoma/virologia , Transplante Homólogo
17.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 94(2): 349-59, 2016 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26853343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated factors associated with increased risk of pulmonary toxicity (PT) from any cause in pediatric patients after myeloablative conditioning, using total body irradiation (TBI), followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The records of 129 consecutive pediatric patients (range: 1-21 years of age) who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at our institution between January 2003 and May 2014 were reviewed. Although total TBI doses ranged from 10.5 to 14 Gy, lung doses were limited to 10 Gy with partial transmission blocks. TBI dose rates ranged from 5.6 cGy/min to 20.9 cGy/min. PT was classified using clinical symptoms, radiographic evidence, and ventilatory defects on pulmonary function tests. Noninfectious (idiopathic) pneumonia syndrome (IPS) was characterized by patients exhibiting PT while demonstrating no signs of infection throughout the follow-up period. RESULTS: PT from any cause developed in 70.5% of patients and was significantly associated with increased transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (P=.03) and decreased overall survival (OS) (P=.02). IPS developed in 23.3% of patients but was not associated with increased TRM (P=.6) or decreased OS (P=.5). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) significantly affected PT (P=.001) but did not significantly influence the development of IPS (P=.4). Infection was a leading cause of PT (75.8%). TBI dose rate significantly affected development of overall PT (P=.02) and was the sole factor to significantly influence the incidence of IPS (P=.002). TBI total dose, dose per fraction, disease type, transplantation chemotherapy, age of patient, sex, and donor type did not significantly impact overall PT or IPS. CONCLUSIONS: A high incidence of PT was noted in this large series of homogeneously treated pediatric patients undergoing TBI for allogeneic HSCT. TBI dose rates affected overall PT and strongly influenced IPS. TBI dose rate is a contributing factor influencing pulmonary toxicity and rates less than 15 cGy/min should be considered to decrease the risk of IPS.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Pneumonia/etiologia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Irradiação Corporal Total/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Aloenxertos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/complicações , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 63(5): 908-13, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26757445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Splenic dysfunction is a significant complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is a proven cure for SCD; however, its long-term effect on splenic function is not well characterized. PROCEDURE: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients who had HSCT for SCD at two transplant centers. (99m) Tc liver-spleen (LS) scans were blindly reviewed and classified as demonstrating absent, decreased, or normal splenic uptake. RESULTS: Considering all engrafted nonsplenectomized Hb SS and Sß(0) -thalassemia patients with LS scans available, at a median of 2.0 years post-HSCT (range 1.0-9.3 years) eight of 53 (15%) had normal, 40 of 53 (75%) decreased, and five of 53 (9%) absent splenic uptake. More patients had splenic uptake after HSCT: pre-HSCT 14/38 (37%) versus post-HSCT 34/38 (89%), P < 0.0001. Older age at HSCT was associated with worse splenic function post-HSCT (median age at HSCT for absent uptake 16.6 years vs. present uptake 8.0 years, P = 0.030). Extensive chronic GVHD was also more common in patients with absent splenic uptake compared to patients with present uptake (absent 40% vs. present 6%, P = 0.064). CONCLUSIONS: HSCT significantly improves splenic function for most pediatric patients with SCD, but older patient age at time of HSCT and extensive chronic GVHD appear to be risk factors for poor post-HSCT splenic function.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Baço , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Aloenxertos , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico por imagem , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Cintilografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Baço/fisiopatologia
19.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 21(10): 1845-52, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26095669

RESUMO

Transfusion-related alloimmunization is a potent barrier to the engraftment of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells in patients with nonmalignant diseases (NMDs). Memory T cells, which drive alloimmunization, are relatively resistant to commonly used conditioning agents. Alefacept, a recombinant leukocyte function antigen-3/IgG1 fusion protein, targets CD2 and selectively depletes memory versus naive T cells. Three multiply transfused pediatric patients with NMD received a short course of high-dose i.v. alefacept (.25 mg/kg/dose on days -40 and -9 and .5 mg/kg/dose on days -33, -26, -19, and -12) before undergoing unrelated allogeneic transplant in the setting of reduced-intensity pretransplant conditioning and calcineurin inhibitor-based post-transplant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Alefacept infusions were well tolerated in all patients. Peripheral blood flow cytometry was performed at baseline and during and after alefacept treatment. As expected, after the 5 weekly alefacept doses, each patient demonstrated selective loss of CD2(hi)/CCR7(-)/CD45RA(-) effector memory (Tem) and CD2(hi)/CCR7(+)/CD45RA(-) central memory (Tcm) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with relative preservation of the CD2(lo) Tem and Tcm subpopulations. In addition, depletion of CD2(+) natural killer (NK) cells also occurred. Neutrophil recovery was rapid, and all 3 patients had 100% sorted (CD3/CD33) peripheral blood donor chimerism by day +100. Immune reconstitution (by absolute neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts) was comparable with a cohort of historical control patients. All 3 patients developed GVHD but are all now off immune suppression and >2 years post-transplant with stable full-donor engraftment. These results suggest that alefacept at higher dosing can deplete both memory T cells and NK cells and that incorporating CD2-targeted depletion into a reduced-intensity transplant regimen is feasible and safe in heavily transfused patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Depleção Linfocítica/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Alefacept , Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Antígenos CD2/imunologia , Criança , Disceratose Congênita/terapia , Anemia de Fanconi/terapia , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Estudo Historicamente Controlado , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/provisão & distribução , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Doadores não Relacionados
20.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 55(1): 56-61, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25976468

RESUMO

Gonadal hypofunction is described in male and female patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) after bone marrow transplant (BMT) and in males treated with hydroxyurea (HU). Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a serum marker of ovarian reserve. This study describes AMH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in female SCA subjects treated with supportive care (SCA-SC), HU (SCA-HU) and BMT (SCA-BMT). SCA (SS/Sß(0)) subjects not on HU, on HU and status-post BMT, ages 10-21 years were recruited. SCA-HU subjects were treated with HU ≥ 20 mg/kg for ≥ 12 consecutive months. SCA-BMT subjects had received busulfan and cyclophosphamide. Serum AMH and random FSH levels were obtained. Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) was defined as AMH level <5th percentile for age-matched controls. Subjects also with FSH >40 IU/L were classified as having premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). 14 SCA-SC (14.5 ± 2.7 years), 33 SCA-HU (14.4 ± 2.4 years) and 9 SCA-BMT (14.3 ± 2.7 years) females were included. AMH was undetectable in all SCA-BMT subjects and <5th percentile in 24% of SCA-HU subjects. FSH was menopausal (>40 IU/L) in 88.9% of SCA-BMT subjects. All SCA-BMT subjects and 24% of subjects on HU had DOR; 89% of SCA-BMT subjects had POI. AMH and FSH may be useful tools in assessing ovarian reserve and function.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Antidrepanocíticos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/terapia , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hemoglobina Falciforme/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Menarca/fisiologia , Agonistas Mieloablativos/uso terapêutico , Reserva Ovariana/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/sangue , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/complicações , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
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