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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015531

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A challenge in the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is to distinguish chromophobe RCC (chRCC) from benign renal oncocytoma, because these tumor types are histologically and morphologically similar, yet they require different clinical management. Molecular biomarkers could provide a way of distinguishing oncocytoma from chRCC, which could prevent unnecessary treatment of oncocytoma. Such biomarkers could also be applied to preoperative biopsy specimens such as needle core biopsy specimens, to avoid unnecessary surgery of oncocytoma. METHODS: We profiled DNA methylation in fresh-frozen oncocytoma and chRCC tumors and adjacent normal tissue and used machine learning to identify a signature of differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs) that robustly distinguish oncocytoma from chRCC. RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering of Stanford and preexisting RCC data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed that of all RCC subtypes, oncocytoma is most similar to chRCC. Unexpectedly, however, oncocytoma features more extensive, overall abnormal methylation than does chRCC. We identified 79 CpGs with large methylation differences between oncocytoma and chRCC. A diagnostic model trained on 30 CpGs could distinguish oncocytoma from chRCC in 10-fold cross-validation (area under the receiver operating curve [AUC], 0.96 (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.00)) and could distinguish TCGA chRCCs from an independent set of oncocytomas from a previous study (AUC, 0.87). This signature also separated oncocytoma from other RCC subtypes and normal tissue, revealing it as a standalone diagnostic biomarker for oncocytoma. CONCLUSION: This CpG signature could be developed as a clinical biomarker to support differential diagnosis of oncocytoma and chRCC in surgical samples. With improved biopsy techniques, this signature could be applied to preoperative biopsy specimens.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1800-1808, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS: Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including DPP10 (PG×E = 1.96 × 10-4), KRT16 (PG×E = 2.3 × 10-4), CD14 (PG×E = 9.38 × 10-4), and CYP27A1 (PG×E = 1.44 × 10-3). There was a significant interaction between expression level of RP11-89N17 and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (PG×E = 3.23 × 10-5). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use. IMPACT: These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.

4.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(9): 773-782, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561562

RESUMO

Gastric carcinoma (GC) disproportionately affects Asian Americans. We examined whether history of upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy was associated with lower stage at GC diagnosis among Asian Americans and whether origin of providers influenced referral for endoscopy. We employed Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data on Asian Americans diagnosed with GC in 2004-2013 (n = 1,554). Stage distribution, GI conditions at diagnosis, and history of endoscopy were compared between Asian ethnic groups. Multivariate logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, poverty level, tumor location, and histology was used to examine the association of ethnicity and endoscopic history with stage I disease at diagnosis of GC. Koreans were more likely to be diagnosed with stage I, T1a GC and have prior history of endoscopy, compared with other Asian ethnicities (24% vs. 8% for stage I, T1a; 40% vs. 15% for endoscopy). Patients with primary care providers of concordant ethnic origin were more likely to have history of endoscopy. Asian American patients with GC with history of endoscopy were more likely to be diagnosed with GC at stage I disease (adjusted OR, 3.07; 95% confidence interval, 2.34-4.02). Compared with other Asian Americans, Koreans were diagnosed with GC at earlier stages owing to common history of endoscopy, which was more often undergone by patients with primary care providers of concordant ethnic origin. Overall, upper GI endoscopy was associated with early detection of GC in Asian Americans. Novelty and Impact. It is well-established that Asian Americans in the United States are disproportionately affected by gastric cancer. In our study we found that Asian American patients treated by physicians of similar ethnic background are more likely to undergo upper GI endoscopy in the United States, leading to early detection of gastric cancer and longer survival. Given this, targeted endoscopic screening in Asian Americans should be considered for early detection of GC.

5.
Cancer ; 126(13): 3013-3020, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initiating screening at an earlier age based on cancer family history is one of the primary recommended strategies for the prevention and detection of early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC), but data supporting the effectiveness of this approach are limited. The authors assessed the performance of family history-based guidelines for identifying individuals with EOCRC. METHODS: The authors conducted a population-based, case-control study of individuals aged 40 to 49 years with (2473 individuals) and without (772 individuals) incident CRC in the Colon Cancer Family Registry from 1998 through 2007. They estimated the sensitivity and specificity of family history-based criteria jointly recommended by the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on CRC, and the American College of Radiology in 2008 for early screening, and the age at which each participant could have been recommended screening initiation if these criteria had been applied. RESULTS: Family history-based early screening criteria were met by approximately 25% of cases (614 of 2473 cases) and 10% of controls (74 of 772 controls), with a sensitivity of 25% and a specificity of 90% for identifying EOCRC cases aged 40 to 49 years. Among 614 individuals meeting early screening criteria, 98.4% could have been recommended screening initiation at an age younger than the observed age of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Of CRC cases aged 40 to 49 years, 1 in 4 met family history-based early screening criteria, and nearly all cases who met these criteria could have had CRC diagnosed earlier (or possibly even prevented) if earlier screening had been implemented as per family history-based guidelines. Additional strategies are needed to improve the detection and prevention of EOCRC for individuals not meeting family history criteria for early screening.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(15): 1664-1675, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083991

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Therapeutic advances for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have led to an increasing number of survivors. Both DLBCL and its treatments perturb the immune system, yet little is known about immune health during extended survivorship. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we compared 21,690 survivors of DLBCL from the California Cancer Registry (CCR) to survivors of breast, prostate, head and neck, and melanoma cancers. We linked their CCR records to a statewide database documenting hospital, emergency room, and ambulatory surgery visits and investigated the incidence of autoimmune conditions, immune deficiencies, and infections 1-10 years after cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: We found elevated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for many immune-related conditions in survivors of DLBCL compared with other cancer survivors, including significantly and consistently elevated IRRs for viral and fungal pneumonias (up to 10.8-fold), meningitis (up to 5.3-fold), as well as humoral deficiency (up to 17.6-fold) and autoimmune cytopenias (up to 12-fold). IRRs for most conditions remained high even in the late survivorship period (5-10 years after cancer diagnosis). The elevated risks could not be explained by exposure to chemotherapy, stem-cell transplantation, or rituximab, except for IRRs for humoral deficiency, which were consistently higher after the incorporation of rituximab into DLBCL treatments. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the largest cohort study with extended follow-up to demonstrate impaired immune health in survivors of DLBCL. The observed persistent, elevated risks for autoimmune diseases, immune deficiencies, and infectious conditions may reflect persistent immune dysregulation caused by lymphoma or treatment and may lead to excess morbidity and mortality during survivorship. Improved understanding of these risks could meaningfully improve long-term care of patients with DLBCL.

7.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 15-25, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/economia , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
8.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 363-372, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
9.
Br J Cancer ; 121(10): 869-876, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and high total cholesterol and triglycerides are known to be associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for the general population. These associations are unknown for people with a germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome), who are at high risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This study included 2023 (56.4% female) carriers with a mismatch repair gene mutation (737 in MLH1, 928 in MSH2, 230 in MSH6, 106 in PMS2, 22 in EPCAM) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry between 1998 and 2012. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between self-reported type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, triglyceride and colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS: Overall, 802 carriers were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a median age of 42 years. A higher risk of colorectal cancer was observed in those with self-reported type-2 diabetes (HR 1.92; 95% CI, 1.03-3.58) and high cholesterol (HR 1.76; CI 1.23-2.52) compared with those without these conditions. There was no evidence of high triglyceride being associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: For people with Lynch syndrome, self-reported type-2 diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colesterol/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1912259, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560388

RESUMO

Importance: Radiation therapy for breast cancer is associated with increased risk of a second primary contralateral breast cancer, but the genetic factors modifying this association are not well understood. Objective: To determine whether a genetic risk score comprising single nucleotide polymorphisms in the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway is associated with radiation-associated contralateral breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study included a case group of women with contralateral breast cancer that was diagnosed at least 1 year after a first primary breast cancer who were individually matched to a control group of women with unilateral breast cancer. Inclusion criteria were receiving a first invasive breast cancer diagnosis prior to age 55 years between 1985 and 2008. Women were recruited through 8 population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Denmark as part of the Women's Environment, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology Studies I (November 2000 to August 2004) and II (March 2010 to December 2012). Data analysis was conducted from July 2017 to August 2019. Exposures: Stray radiation dose to the contralateral breast during radiation therapy for the first breast cancer. A novel genetic risk score comprised of genetic variants in the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway was considered the potential effect modifier, dichotomized as high risk if the score was above the median of 74 and low risk if the score was at or below the median. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was risk of contralateral breast cancer associated with stray radiation dose stratified by genetic risk score, age, and latency. Results: A total of 5953 women were approached for study participation, and 3732 women (62.7%) agreed to participate. The median (range) age at first diagnosis was 46 (23-54) years. After 5 years of latency or more, among women who received the first diagnosis when they were younger than 40 years, exposure to 1.0 Gy (to convert to rad, multiply by 100) or more of stray radiation was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of contralateral breast cancer compared with women who were not exposed (rate ratio, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.6]). The risk was higher among women with a genetic risk score above the median (rate ratio, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.1-8.1]), and there was no association among women with a genetic risk score below the median (rate ratio, 1.3 [95% CI, 0.5-3.7]). Among younger women with a high genetic risk score, the attributable increased risk for contralateral breast cancer associated with stray radiation dose was 28%. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer that was attributable to stray radiation exposure among women with a high genetic risk score and who received a first breast cancer diagnosis when they were younger than 40 years after 5 years or more of latency. This genetic risk score may help guide treatment and surveillance for women with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/patologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/induzido quimicamente , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 903-911, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study previously found folic acid increased risk of advanced and multiple colorectal adenomas during a surveillance colonoscopy interval starting about 3 y after randomization. OBJECTIVE: We conducted secondary analyses to evaluate folic acid effects with additional follow-up after treatment was stopped. METHODS: In total, 1021 participants recently diagnosed with colorectal adenomas were randomly assigned to 1 mg/d of folic acid (n = 516) or placebo (n = 505), with or without aspirin, beginning 6 July 1994. The original 3-y treatment period was extended into a subsequent colonoscopy interval, but eventually stopped prematurely on 1 October 2004. With additional post-treatment follow-up, a total of 663 participants who extended treatment completed a second colonoscopic surveillance interval after the initial 3-y follow-up. In addition, 490 participants provided information regarding a subsequent surveillance colonoscopy occurring before completion of follow-up on 31 May 2012, including 325 who had agreed to extended treatment. Study endpoints included conventional adenomas, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), or colorectal cancer, and RRs with 95% CIs were adjusted for baseline characteristics associated with availability of follow-up. RESULTS: Among those who extended treatment, any colorectal neoplasia was found in 118 (36%) participants assigned to placebo and 146 (43%) assigned to folic acid during the second surveillance interval (RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.47; P = 0.06). Increased risk of SSA/P with extended folic acid supplementation was statistically significant during the second surveillance interval (RR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.02, 3.68; P = 0.04). There was no evidence of post-treatment effects for any colorectal neoplasia (RR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.28; P = 0.94), and the post-treatment effect for SSA/P was no longer statistically significant (RR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.59, 3.19; P = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed treatment effects were not observed, but folic acid may increase SSA/P risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272324.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/farmacologia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
12.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 6(1): e000299, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275589

RESUMO

Objective: The plasma-based methylated SEPTIN9 (mSEPT9) is a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test for adults aged 50-75 years who are at average risk for CRC and have refused colonoscopy or faecal-based screening tests. The applicability of mSEPT9 for high-risk persons with Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common hereditary CRC condition, has not been assessed. This study sought preliminary evidence for the utility of mSEPT9 for CRC detection in LS. Design: Firstly, SEPT9 methylation was measured in LS-associated CRC, advanced adenoma, and subject-matched normal colorectal mucosa tissues by pyrosequencing. Secondly, to detect mSEPT9 as circulating tumor DNA, the plasma-based mSEPT9 test was retrospectively evaluated in LS subjects using the Epi proColon 2.0 CE assay adapted for 1mL plasma using the "1/1 algorithm". LS case groups included 20 peri-surgical cases with acolonoscopy-based diagnosis of CRC (stages I-IV), 13 post-surgical metastatic CRC, and 17 pre-diagnosis cases. The control group comprised 31 cancer-free LS subjects. Results: Differential hypermethylation was found in 97.3% (36/37) of primary CRC and 90.0% (18/20) of advanced adenomas, showing LS-associated neoplasia frequently produce the mSEPT9 biomarker. Sensitivity of plasma mSEPT9 to detect CRC was 70.0% (95% CI, 48%-88%)in cases with a colonoscopy-based CRC diagnosis and 92.3% (95% CI, 64%-100%) inpost-surgical metastatic cases. In pre-diagnosis cases, plasma mSEPT9 was detected within two months prior to colonoscopy-based CRC diagnosis in 3/5 cases. Specificity in controls was 100% (95% CI 89%-100%). Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest mSEPT9 may demonstrate similar diagnostic performance characteristics in LS as in the average-risk population, warranting a well-powered prospective case-control study.

13.
Fam Cancer ; 18(4): 389-397, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209717

RESUMO

Before SNP-based risk can be incorporated in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, the ability of these SNPs to estimate CRC risk for persons with and without a family history of CRC, and the screening implications need to be determined. We estimated the association with CRC of a 45 SNP-based risk using 1181 cases and 999 controls, and its correlation with CRC risk predicted from detailed family history. We estimated the predicted change in the distribution across predefined risk categories, and implications for recommended screening commencement age, from adding SNP-based risk to family history. The inter-quintile risk ratio for colorectal cancer risk of the SNP-based risk was 3.28 (95% CI 2.54-4.22). SNP-based and family history-based risks were not correlated (r = 0.02). For persons with no first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 4 years earlier for women (5 years for men) in the highest quintile of SNP-based risk. For persons with two first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 16 years earlier for men and women in the highest quintile, and 7 years earlier for the lowest quintile. This 45 SNP panel in conjunction with family history, can identify people who could benefit from earlier screening. Risk reclassification by 45 SNPs could inform targeted screening for CRC prevention, particularly in clinical genetics settings when mutations in high-risk genes cannot be identified. Yet to be determined is cost-effectiveness, resources requirements, community, patient and clinician acceptance, and feasibility with potentially ethical, legal and insurance implications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
14.
Int J Cancer ; 143(9): 2250-2260, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904935

RESUMO

Greater physical activity is associated with a decrease in risk of colorectal cancer for the general population; however, little is known about its relationship with colorectal cancer risk in people with Lynch syndrome, carriers of inherited pathogenic mutations in genes affecting DNA mismatch repair (MMR). We studied a cohort of 2,042 MMR gene mutations carriers (n = 807, diagnosed with colorectal cancer), from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Self-reported physical activity in three age-periods (20-29, 30-49 and ≥50 years) was summarized as average metabolic equivalent of task hours per week (MET-hr/week) during the age-period of cancer diagnosis or censoring (near-term exposure) and across all age-periods preceding cancer diagnosis or censoring (long-term exposure). Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between physical activity and colorectal cancer risk. Near-term physical activity was associated with a small reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer (HR ≥35 vs. <3.5 MET-hr/week, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53-0.96). The strength and direction of associations were similar for long-term physical activity, although the associations were not nominally significant. Our results suggest that physical activity is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer for people with Lynch syndrome; however, further confirmation is warranted. The potential modifying effect of physical activity on colorectal cancer risk in people with Lynch syndrome could be useful for risk prediction and support counseling advice for lifestyle modification to reduce cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/reabilitação , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 532, 2018 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is emerging as an important tool for detecting differences between diseased and non-diseased individuals. However, prospective studies are limited. METHODS: We examined the detectability, reliability, and distribution of metabolites measured in pre-diagnostic plasma samples in a pilot study of women enrolled in the Northern California site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. The study included 45 cases diagnosed with breast cancer at least one year after the blood draw, and 45 controls. Controls were matched on age (within 5 years), family status, BRCA status, and menopausal status. Duplicate samples were included for reliability assessment. We used a liquid chromatography/gas chromatography mass spectrometer platform to measure metabolites. We calculated intraclass correlations (ICCs) among duplicate samples, and coefficients of variation (CVs) across metabolites. RESULTS: Of the 661 named metabolites detected, 338 (51%) were found in all samples, and 490 (74%) in more than 80% of samples. The median ICC between duplicates was 0.96 (25th - 75th percentile: 0.82-0.99). We observed a greater than 20% case-control difference in 24 metabolites (p < 0.05), although these associations were not significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that assays are reproducible for many metabolites, there is a minimal laboratory variation for the same sample, and a large between-person variation. Despite small sample size, differences between cases and controls in some metabolites suggest that a well-powered large-scale study is likely to detect biological meaningful differences to provide a better understanding of breast cancer etiology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 16(12): 1901-1910.e11, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Families with a history of Lynch syndrome often do not adhere to guidelines for genetic testing and screening. We investigated practice patterns related to Lynch syndrome worldwide, to ascertain potential targets for research and public policy efforts. METHODS: We collected data from the International Mismatch Repair Consortium (IMRC), which comprises major research and clinical groups engaged in the care of families with Lynch syndrome worldwide. IMRC institutions were invited to complete a questionnaire to characterize diagnoses of Lynch syndrome and management practice patterns. RESULTS: Fifty-five providers, representing 63 of 128 member institutions (49%) in 21 countries, completed the questionnaire. For case finding, 55% of respondents reported participating in routine widespread population tumor testing among persons with newly diagnosed Lynch syndrome-associated cancers, whereas 27% reported relying on clinical criteria with selective tumor and/or germline analyses. Most respondents (64%) reported using multigene panels for germline analysis, and only 28% reported testing tumors for biallelic mutations for cases in which suspected pathogenic mutations were not confirmed by germline analysis. Respondents reported relying on passive dissemination of information to at-risk family members, and there was variation in follow through of genetic testing recommendations. Reported risk management practices varied-nearly all programs (98%) recommended colonoscopy every 1 to 2 years, but only 35% recommended chemoprevention with aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: There is widespread heterogeneity in management practices for Lynch syndrome worldwide among IMRC member institutions. This may reflect the rapid pace of emerging technology, regional differences in resources, and the lack of definitive data for many clinical questions. Future efforts should focus on the large numbers of high-risk patients without access to state-of-the-art Lynch syndrome management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0186518, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of less frequent genetic variants and their effect on complex disease pose new challenges for genomic research. To investigate whether epigenetic data can be used to inform aggregate rare-variant association methods (RVAM), we assessed whether variants more significantly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) were preferentially located in non-coding regulatory regions, and whether enrichment was specific to colorectal tissues. METHODS: Active regulatory elements (ARE) were mapped using data from 127 tissues and cell-types from NIH Roadmap Epigenomics and Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) projects. We investigated whether CRC association p-values were more significant for common variants inside versus outside AREs, or 2) inside colorectal (CR) AREs versus AREs of other tissues and cell-types. We employed an integrative epigenomic RVAM for variants with allele frequency <1%. Gene sets were defined as ARE variants within 200 kilobases of a transcription start site (TSS) using either CR ARE or ARE from non-digestive tissues. CRC-set association p-values were used to evaluate enrichment of less frequent variant associations in CR ARE versus non-digestive ARE. RESULTS: ARE from 126/127 tissues and cell-types were significantly enriched for stronger CRC-variant associations. Strongest enrichment was observed for digestive tissues and immune cell types. CR-specific ARE were also enriched for stronger CRC-variant associations compared to ARE combined across non-digestive tissues (p-value = 9.6 × 10-4). Additionally, we found enrichment of stronger CRC association p-values for rare variant sets of CR ARE compared to non-digestive ARE (p-value = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Integrative epigenomic RVAM may enable discovery of less frequent variants associated with CRC, and ARE of digestive and immune tissues are most informative. Although distance-based aggregation of less frequent variants in CR ARE surrounding TSS showed modest enrichment, future association studies would likely benefit from joint analysis of transcriptomes and epigenomes to better link regulatory variation with target genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Epigenômica , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 5(5): 553-569, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in several genes predispose to colorectal cancer. Genetic testing for hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes was previously limited to single gene tests; thus, only a very limited number of genes were tested, and rarely those infrequently mutated in colorectal cancer. Next-generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to sequencing panels of genes known and suspected to influence colorectal cancer susceptibility. METHODS: Targeted sequencing of 36 known or putative CRC susceptibility genes was conducted for 1231 CRC cases from five subsets: (1) Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X (n = 153); (2) CRC unselected by tumor immunohistochemical or microsatellite stability testing (n = 548); (3) young onset (age <50 years) (n = 333); (4) proficient mismatch repair (MMR) in cases diagnosed at ≥50 years (n = 68); and (5) deficient MMR CRCs with no germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2 (n = 129). Ninety-three unaffected controls were also sequenced. RESULTS: Overall, 29 nonsense, 43 frame-shift, 13 splice site, six initiator codon variants, one stop codon, 12 exonic deletions, 658 missense, and 17 indels were identified. Missense variants were reviewed by genetic counselors to determine pathogenicity; 13 were pathogenic, 61 were not pathogenic, and 584 were variants of uncertain significance. Overall, we identified 92 cases with pathogenic mutations in APC,MLH1,MSH2,MSH6, or multiple pathogenic MUTYH mutations (7.5%). Four cases with intact MMR protein expression by immunohistochemistry carried pathogenic MMR mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Results across case subsets may help prioritize genes for inclusion in clinical gene panel tests and underscore the issue of variants of uncertain significance both in well-characterized genes and those for which limited experience has accumulated.

20.
Breast Cancer Res ; 19(1): 83, 2017 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous population-based studies have described first primary breast cancer tumor characteristics and their association with contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. However, information on influential covariates such as treatment, family history of breast cancer, and BRCA1/2 mutation carrier status was not available. In a large, population-based, case-control study, we evaluated whether tumor characteristics of the first primary breast cancer are associated with risk of developing second primary asynchronous CBC, overall and in subgroups of interest, including among BRCA1/2 mutation non-carriers, women who are not treated with tamoxifen, and women without a breast cancer family history. METHODS: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study is a population-based case-control study of 1521 CBC cases and 2212 individually-matched controls with unilateral breast cancer. Detailed information about breast cancer risk factors, treatment for and characteristics of first tumors, including estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, was obtained by telephone interview and medical record abstraction. Multivariable risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for demographics, treatment, and personal medical and family history. A subset of women was screened for BRCA1/2 mutations. RESULTS: Lobular histology of the first tumor was associated with a 30% increase in CBC risk (95% CI 1.0-1.6). Compared to women with ER+/PR+ first tumors, those with ER-/PR- tumors had increased risk of CBC (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Notably, women with ER-/PR- first tumors were more likely to develop CBC with the ER-/PR- phenotype (RR = 5.4, 95% CI 3.0-9.5), and risk remained elevated in multiple subgroups: BRCA1/2 mutation non-carriers, women younger than 45 years of age, women without a breast cancer family history, and women who were not treated with tamoxifen. CONCLUSIONS: Having a hormone receptor negative first primary breast cancer is associated with increased risk of CBC. Women with ER-/PR- primary tumors were more likely to develop ER-/PR- CBC, even after excluding BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Hormone receptor status, which is routinely evaluated in breast tumors, may be used clinically to determine treatment protocols and identify patients who may benefit from increased surveillance for CBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Carga Tumoral
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