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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial genome encodes for thirty-seven proteins, among them thirteen are essential for the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Inherited variation in mitochondrial genes may influence cancer development through changes in mitochondrial proteins, altering the OXPHOS process and promoting the production of reactive oxidative species. METHODS: To investigate the association between mitochondrial genetic variation and breast cancer risk, we tested 314 mitochondrial SNPs (mtSNPs), capturing four complexes of the mitochondrial OXPHOS pathway and mtSNP groupings for rRNA and tRNA, in 2,723 breast cancer cases and 3,260 controls from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. RESULTS: We examined the collective set of 314 mtSNPs as well as subsets of mtSNPs grouped by mitochondrial OXPHOS pathway, complexes, and genes, using the sequence kernel association test and adjusting for age, sex, and principal components of global ancestry. We also tested haplogroup associations using unconditional logistic regression and adjusting for the same covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. No significant mitochondrial OXPHOS pathway, gene, and haplogroup associations were observed in African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. In European Americans, a global test of all genetic variants of the mitochondrial genome identified an association with breast cancer risk (P = 0.017, q = 0.102). In mtSNP-subset analysis, the gene MT-CO2 (P = 0.001, q = 0.09) in Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) and MT-ND2 (P = 0.004, q = 0.19) in Complex I (NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone)) were significantly associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings suggest that collective mitochondrial genetic variation and particularly in the MT-CO2 and MT-ND2 may play a role in breast cancer risk among European Americans. Further replication is warranted in larger populations and future studies should evaluate the contribution of mitochondrial proteins encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes to breast cancer risk.

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified; these SNPs can be combined into polygenic risk scores (PRS) to predict breast cancer risk. Since most SNPs were identified in predominantly European populations, little is known about the performance of PRS in non-Europeans. We tested the performance of a 180-SNP PRS in Latinas, a large ethnic group with variable levels of Indigenous American, European, and African ancestry. METHODS: We conducted a pooled case-control analysis of U.S. Latinas and Latin-American women (4,658 cases, 7,622 controls). We constructed a 180-SNP PRS consisting of SNPs associated with breast cancer risk (p < 5 x 10-8). We evaluated the association between the PRS and breast cancer risk using multivariable logistic regression and assessed discrimination using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). We also assessed PRS performance across quartiles of Indigenous American genetic ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of 180 SNPs tested, 142 showed directionally consistent associations compared with European populations, and 39 were nominally statistically significant (p < 0.05). The PRS was associated with breast cancer risk, with an odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation increment of 1.58 (95% CI 1.52 to 1.64) and AUCROC of 0.63 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.64). The discrimination of the PRS was similar between the top and bottom quartiles of Indigenous American ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: The 180-SNP PRS predicts breast cancer risk in Latinas, with similar performance as reported for Europeans. The performance of the PRS did not vary substantially according to Indigenous American ancestry.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4422, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562322

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ~170 genetic loci associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk, but most of them were identified in European populations. We here performed a GWAS and replication study using a large Japanese cohort (9,906 cases and 83,943 male controls) to identify novel susceptibility loci associated with PCa risk. We found 12 novel loci for PCa including rs1125927 (TMEM17, P = 3.95 × 10-16), rs73862213 (GATA2, P = 5.87 × 10-23), rs77911174 (ZMIZ1, P = 5.28 × 10-20), and rs138708 (SUN2, P = 1.13 × 10-15), seven of which had crucially low minor allele frequency in European population. Furthermore, we stratified the polygenic risk for Japanese PCa patients by using 82 SNPs, which were significantly associated with Japanese PCa risk in our study, and found that early onset cases and cases with family history of PCa were enriched in the genetically high-risk population. Our study provides important insight into genetic mechanisms of PCa and facilitates PCa risk stratification in Japanese population.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469419

RESUMO

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10-6 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.

5.
Blood Adv ; 3(16): 2512-2524, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455667

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infections are the 2 main causes of death without relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Elevated soluble serum simulation-2 (sST2), the product of IL1RL1 in plasma/serum post-HCT, is a validated GVHD biomarker. Hundreds of SNPs at 2q12.1 have been shown to be strongly associated with sST2 concentrations in healthy populations. We therefore hypothesized that the donor genetic variants in IL1RL1 correlate with sST2 protein levels associated with patient survival outcomes after HCT. We used DISCOVeRY-BMT (Determining the Influence of Susceptibility Conveying Variants Related to 1-Year Mortality after Blood and Marrow Transplantation), a genomic study of >3000 donor-recipient pairs, to inform our hypothesis. We first measured pre-HCT plasma/serum sST2 levels in a subset of DISCOVeRY-BMT donors (n = 757) and tested the association of donor sST2 levels with donor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 2q12.1 region. Donor SNPs associated with sST2 levels were then tested for association with recipient death caused by acute GVHD (aGVHD)-, infection-, and transplant-related mortality in cohorts 1 and 2. Meta-analyses of cohorts 1 and 2 were performed using fixed-effects inverse variance weighting, and P values were corrected for multiple comparisons. Donor risk alleles in rs22441131 (P meta = .00026) and rs2310241 (P meta = .00033) increased the cumulative incidence of aGVHD death up to fourfold and were associated with high sST2 levels. Donor risk alleles at rs4851601 (P meta = 9.7 × 10-7), rs13019803 (P meta = 8.9 × 10-6), and rs13015714 (P meta = 5.3 × 10-4) increased cumulative incidence of infection death to almost sevenfold and were associated with low sST2 levels. These functional variants are biomarkers of infection or aGVHD death and could facilitate donor selection, prophylaxis, and a conditioning regimen to reduce post-HCT mortality.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

8.
Cancer Res ; 79(18): 4592-4598, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337649

RESUMO

Several blood protein biomarkers have been associated with prostate cancer risk. However, most studies assessed only a small number of biomarkers and/or included a small sample size. To identify novel protein biomarkers of prostate cancer risk, we studied 79,194 cases and 61,112 controls of European ancestry, included in the PRACTICAL/ELLIPSE consortia, using genetic instruments of protein quantitative trait loci for 1,478 plasma proteins. A total of 31 proteins were associated with prostate cancer risk including proteins encoded by GSTP1, whose methylation level was shown previously to be associated with prostate cancer risk, and MSMB, SPINT2, IGF2R, and CTSS, which were previously implicated as potential target genes of prostate cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies. A total of 18 proteins inversely correlated and 13 positively correlated with prostate cancer risk. For 28 of the identified proteins, gene somatic changes of short indels, splice site, nonsense, or missense mutations were detected in patients with prostate cancer in The Cancer Genome Atlas. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that relevant genes were significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways. In conclusion, this study identifies 31 candidates of protein biomarkers for prostate cancer risk and provides new insights into the biology and genetics of prostate tumorigenesis. SIGNIFICANCE: Integration of genomics and proteomics data identifies biomarkers associated with prostate cancer risk.

9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 781-794, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence linking breast size to breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, and its interpretation is often hampered by confounding factors such as body mass index (BMI). Here, we used linkage disequilibrium score regression and two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine the genetic associations between BMI, breast size and breast cancer risk. METHODS: Summary-level genotype data from 23andMe, Inc (breast size, n = 33 790), the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (breast cancer risk, n = 228 951) and the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (BMI, n = 183 507) were used for our analyses. In assessing causal relationships, four complementary MR techniques [inverse variance weighted (IVW), weighted median, weighted mode and MR-Egger regression] were used to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: The genetic correlation (rg) estimated between BMI and breast size was high (rg = 0.50, P = 3.89x10-43). All MR methods provided consistent evidence that higher genetically predicted BMI was associated with larger breast size [odds ratio (ORIVW): 2.06 (1.80-2.35), P = 1.38x10-26] and lower overall breast cancer risk [ORIVW: 0.81 (0.74-0.89), P = 9.44x10-6]. No evidence of a relationship between genetically predicted breast size and breast cancer risk was found except when using the weighted median and weighted mode methods, and only with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative risk. There was no evidence of reverse causality in any of the analyses conducted (P > 0.050). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate a potential positive causal association between BMI and breast size and a potential negative causal association between BMI and breast cancer risk. We found no clear evidence for a direct relationship between breast size and breast cancer risk.

10.
Cancer ; 125(16): 2829-2836, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer and related cause of mortality among Hispanics, yet susceptibility has been understudied. BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations explain less than one-half of hereditary BC, and the proportion associated with other BC susceptibility genes is unknown. METHODS: Germline DNA from 1054 BRCA-mutation-negative Hispanic women with hereditary BC (BC diagnosed at age <51 years, bilateral BC, breast and ovarian cancer, or BC diagnosed at ages 51-70 years with ≥2 first-degree or second-degree relatives who had BC diagnosed at age <70 years), 312 local controls, and 887 multiethnic cohort controls was sequenced and analyzed for 12 known and suspected, high-penetrance and moderate-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM], breast cancer 1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 [BRIP1], cadherin 1 [CDH1], checkpoint kinase 2 [CHEK2], nibrin [NBN], neurofibromatosis type 1 [NF1], partner and localizer of BRCA2 [PALB2], phosphatase and tensin homolog [PTEN], RAD51 paralog 3 [RAD51C], RAD51D, serine/threonine kinase 11 [STK11], and TP53). RESULTS: Forty-nine (4.6%) pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (PVs) in 47 of 1054 participants (4.5%), including 21 truncating frameshift, 20 missense, 5 nonsense, and 4 splice variants, were identified in CHEK2 (n = 20), PALB2 (n = 18), ATM (n = 5), TP53 (n = 3), BRIP1 (n = 2), and CDH1 and NF1 (both n = 1) and none were identified in NBN, PTEN, STK11, RAD51C, or RAD51D. Nine participants carried the PALB2 c.2167_2168del PV (0.85%), and 14 carried the CHEK2 c.707T>C PV (1.32%). CONCLUSIONS: Of 1054 BRCA-negative, high-risk Hispanic women, 4.5% carried a PV in a cancer susceptibility gene, increasing understanding of hereditary BC in this population. Recurrent PVs in PALB2 and CHEK2 represented 47% (23 of 49) of the total, suggesting a founder effect. Accurate classification of variants was enabled by carefully controlling for ancestry and the increased identification of at-risk Hispanics for screening and prevention.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226226

RESUMO

Latinos represent <1% of samples analyzed to date in genome-wide association studies of cancer. The clinical value of genetic information in guiding personalized medicine in populations of non-European ancestry will require additional discovery and risk locus characterization efforts across populations. In the present study, we performed a GWAS of prostate cancer (PrCa) in 2,820 Latino PrCa cases and 5,293 controls to search for novel PrCa risk loci and to examine the generalizability of known PrCa risk loci in Latino men. We also conducted a genetic admixture-mapping scan to identify PrCa risk alleles associated with local ancestry. Genome-wide significant associations were observed with 84 variants all located at the known PrCa risk regions at 8q24 (128.484-128.548) and 10q11.22 (MSMB gene). In admixture mapping, we observed genome-wide significant associations with local African ancestry at 8q24. Of the 162 established PrCa risk variants that are common in Latino men, 135 (83.3%) had effects that were directionally consistent as previously reported, among which 55 (34.0%) were statistically significant with p < 0.05. A polygenic risk model of the known PrCa risk variants showed that, compared to men with average risk (25th-75th percentile of the polygenic risk score distribution), men in the top 10% had a 3.19-fold (95% CI: 2.65, 3.84) increased PrCa risk. In conclusion, we found that the known PrCa risk variants can effectively stratify PrCa risk in Latino men. Larger studies in Latino populations will be required to discover and characterize genetic risk variants for PrCa and improve risk stratification for this population.

12.
Cancer Med ; 8(7): 3592-3603, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066497

RESUMO

While disparity in pancreatic cancer incidence between blacks and whites has been observed, few studies have examined disparity in other ethnic minorities. We evaluated variations in pancreatic cancer incidence and assessed the extent to which known risk factors account for differences in pancreatic cancer risk among African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latino Americans, and European Americans in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Risk factor data were obtained from the baseline questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pancreatic cancer associated with risk factors and ethnicity. During an average 16.9-year follow-up, 1,532 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 184,559 at-risk participants. Family history of pancreatic cancer (RR 1.97, 95% CI 1.50-2.58), diabetes (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.14-1.54), body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.46), current smoking (<20 pack-years RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.19-1.73; ≥20 pack-years RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.46-2.12), and red meat intake (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00-1.36) were associated with pancreatic cancer. After adjustment for these risk factors, Native Hawaiians (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.30-1.98), Japanese Americans (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.54), and African Americans (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.42), but not Latino Americans (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.07), had a higher risk of pancreatic cancer compared to European Americans. Interethnic differences in pancreatic cancer risk are not fully explained by differences in the distribution of known risk factors. The greater risks in Native Hawaiians and Japanese Americans are new findings and elucidating the causes of these high rates may improve our understanding and prevention of pancreatic cancer.

13.
Cancer Res ; 79(13): 3192-3204, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101764

RESUMO

Genome-wide association study-identified prostate cancer risk variants explain only a relatively small fraction of its familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for many of these identified associations remain unknown. To discover novel prostate cancer genetic loci and possible causal genes at previously identified risk loci, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study in 79,194 cases and 61,112 controls of European ancestry. Using data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project, we established genetic models to predict gene expression across the transcriptome for both prostate models and cross-tissue models and evaluated model performance using two independent datasets. We identified significant associations for 137 genes at P < 2.61 × 10-6, a Bonferroni-corrected threshold, including nine genes that remained significant at P < 2.61 × 10-6 after adjusting for all known prostate cancer risk variants in nearby regions. Of the 128 remaining associated genes, 94 have not yet been reported as potential target genes at known loci. We silenced 14 genes and many showed a consistent effect on viability and colony-forming efficiency in three cell lines. Our study provides substantial new information to advance our understanding of prostate cancer genetics and biology. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies novel prostate cancer genetic loci and possible causal genes, advancing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive prostate cancer.

14.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 68, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammographic breast density, adjusted for age and body mass index, and a polygenic risk score (PRS), comprised of common genetic variation, are both strong risk factors for breast cancer and increase discrimination of risk models. Understanding their joint contribution will be important to more accurately predict risk. METHODS: Using 3628 breast cancer cases and 5126 controls of European ancestry from eight case-control studies, we evaluated joint associations of a 77-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PRS and quantitative mammographic density measures with breast cancer. Mammographic percent density and absolute dense area were evaluated using thresholding software and examined as residuals after adjusting for age, 1/BMI, and study. PRS and adjusted density phenotypes were modeled both continuously (per 1 standard deviation, SD) and categorically. We fit logistic regression models and tested the null hypothesis of multiplicative joint associations for PRS and adjusted density measures using likelihood ratio and global and tail-based goodness of fit tests within the subset of six cohort or population-based studies. RESULTS: Adjusted percent density (odds ratio (OR) = 1.45 per SD, 95% CI 1.38-1.52), adjusted absolute dense area (OR = 1.34 per SD, 95% CI 1.28-1.41), and the 77-SNP PRS (OR = 1.52 per SD, 95% CI 1.45-1.59) were associated with breast cancer risk. There was no evidence of interaction of the PRS with adjusted percent density or dense area on risk of breast cancer by either the likelihood ratio (P > 0.21) or goodness of fit tests (P > 0.09), whether assessed continuously or categorically. The joint association (OR) was 2.60 in the highest categories of adjusted PD and PRS and 0.34 in the lowest categories, relative to women in the second density quartile and middle PRS quintile. CONCLUSIONS: The combined associations of the 77-SNP PRS and adjusted density measures are generally well described by multiplicative models, and both risk factors provide independent information on breast cancer risk.

15.
Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol ; 18(3)2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956231

RESUMO

Genome-wide sequencing enables evaluation of associations between traits and combinations of variants in genes and pathways. But such evaluation requires multi-locus association tests with good power, regardless of the variant and trait characteristics. And since analyzing families may yield more power than analyzing unrelated individuals, we need multi-locus tests applicable to both related and unrelated individuals. Here we describe such tests, and we introduce SKAT-X, a new test statistic that uses genome-wide data obtained from related or unrelated subjects to optimize power for the specific data at hand. Simulations show that: a) SKAT-X performs well regardless of variant and trait characteristics; and b) for binary traits, analyzing affected relatives brings more power than analyzing unrelated individuals, consistent with previous findings for single-locus tests. We illustrate the methods by application to rare unclassified missense variants in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA2, as applied to combined data from prostate cancer families and unrelated prostate cancer cases and controls in the Multi-ethnic Cohort (MEC). The methods can be implemented using open-source code for public use as the R-package GATARS (Genetic Association Tests for Arbitrarily Related Subjects) .

16.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895617

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second-leading cause of cancer-related death among women. Inconsistent findings for the relationship between melatonin levels, sleep duration and breast cancer have been reported. We investigated the association of sleep duration at cohort entry and its interaction with body mass index (BMI) with risk of developing breast cancer in the large population-based Multiethnic Cohort study. Among the 74,481 at-risk participants, 5,790 breast cancer cases were identified during the study period. Although we detected no significant association between sleep duration and breast cancer incidence, higher risk estimates for short (HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.97-1.09) and long sleep (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.95-1.15) compared to normal sleep (7-8 hr) were found. The patterns for models stratified by age, BMI, ethnicity and hormone receptor status were similar but did not indicate significant interaction effects. When examining the combined sleep duration and BMI interaction effect, in comparison to the normal BMI-normal sleep group, risk estimates for underweight, overweight and obesity were similar across categories of sleep duration (≤6, 7-8, and ≥9 hr). The underweight-normal sleep group had lower breast cancer incidence (HR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.50-0.86), whereas the overweight-short sleep, overweight-normal sleep group and all obese women experienced elevated breast cancer incidence. The respective HRs for short, normal and long sleep among obese women were 1.35 (95% CI: 1.20-1.53), 1.27 (95% CI: 1.15-1.42) and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.21-1.76). Future perspectives need to examine the possibility that sleep quality, variations in circadian rhythm and melatonin are involved in breast cancer etiology.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 145(12): 3244-3256, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873591

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been implicated in the aetiology of several cancers. To better understand whether anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors may play a role in cancer risk via IGF signalling, we examined the cross-sectional associations of these exposures with circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) and IGFBPs (IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3). The Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group dataset includes individual participant data from 16,024 male controls (i.e. without prostate cancer) aged 22-89 years from 22 prospective studies. Geometric means of protein concentrations were estimated using analysis of variance, adjusted for relevant covariates. Older age was associated with higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3. Higher body mass index was associated with lower concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. Taller height was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-1. Smokers had higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-3 than nonsmokers. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-II and lower concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-2. African Americans had lower concentrations of IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 and Hispanics had lower IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 than non-Hispanic whites. These findings indicate that a range of anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors are associated with circulating concentrations of IGFs and IGFBPs in men, which will lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms through which these factors influence cancer risk.

19.
Br J Cancer ; 120(8): 867, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837682

RESUMO

This article was originally published under the standard License to Publish, but has now been made available under a CC BY 4.0 license. The PDF and HTML versions of the paper have been modified accordingly.

20.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(5): 315-326, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910780

RESUMO

Physical activity has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. However, data is lacking on whether the association is consistent between sexes and across different races/ethnicities and anatomic subsites of tumors. We analyzed data from the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and California, consisting of mostly African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites ages 45-75 years at recruitment. During a mean follow-up of 16.8 years, 4,430 invasive adenocarcinoma cases of the colorectum were identified among 172,502 eligible participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the HR and 95% confidence interval (CI). The multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) for the highest versus lowest quintiles of physical activity (metabolic equivalent hours of moderate or vigorous activities per day) was 0.76 (0.66-0.87) in men (P trend < 0.001) and 0.94 (0.80-1.11) in women (P trend = 0.53, P heterogeneity by sex = 0.07). Sleeping and sitting hours were not associated with colorectal cancer risk both in men and women. In men, the inverse association was statistically significant among African Americans and Japanese Americans, for right colon and rectal cancer, and in all body mass index groups, although heterogeneity tests were not significant across race/ethnicity or anatomic subsite of tumors. The findings confirm the inverse association between physical activity and colorectal cancer, which appears to be stronger in men, and suggest possible differences in the strength of the association by race/ethnicity and anatomic subsite of tumors.

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