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1.
Brain ; 142(9): 2581-2589, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497858

RESUMO

Autopsy measures of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology have been leveraged as endophenotypes in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite evidence of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease risk, sex-stratified models have not been incorporated into previous GWAS analyses. We looked for sex-specific genetic associations with Alzheimer's disease endophenotypes from six brain bank data repositories. The pooled dataset included 2701 males and 3275 females, the majority of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease at autopsy (70%). Sex-stratified GWAS were performed within each dataset and then meta-analysed. Loci that reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) in stratified models were further assessed for sex interactions. Additional analyses were performed in independent datasets leveraging cognitive, neuroimaging and CSF endophenotypes, along with age-at-onset data. Outside of the APOE region, one locus on chromosome 7 (rs34331204) showed a sex-specific association with neurofibrillary tangles among males (P = 2.5 × 10-8) but not females (P = 0.85, sex-interaction P = 2.9 × 10-4). In follow-up analyses, rs34331204 was also associated with hippocampal volume, executive function, and age-at-onset only among males. These results implicate a novel locus that confers male-specific protection from tau pathology and highlight the value of assessing genetic associations in a sex-specific manner.

2.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436842

RESUMO

Importance: Genetic variants associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) are known to influence disease risk. However, the clinical effect of associated variants individually or in aggregate is not known. Genetic risk scores (GRS) examine the cumulative genetic load by combining individual genetic variants into a single measure, which is assumed to have a larger effect and increased power to detect relevant disease-related associations. Objective: To investigate if a GRS that comprised 12 POAG genetic risk variants is associated with age at disease diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study included individuals with POAG and controls from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) study. A GRS was formulated using 12 variants known to be associated with POAG, and the alleles associated with increasing risk of POAG were aligned in the case-control sets. In case-only analyses, the association of the GRS with age at diagnosis was analyzed as an estimate of disease onset. Results from cohort-specific analyses were combined with meta-analysis. Data collection started in August 2012 for the NEIGHBOR cohort and in July 2008 for the GLAUGEN cohort and were analyzed starting in March 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of a 12 single-nucleotide polymorphism POAG GRS with age at diagnosis in individuals with POAG using linear regression. Results: The GLAUGEN study included 976 individuals with POAG and 1140 controls. The NEIGHBOR study included 2132 individuals with POAG and 2290 controls. For individuals with POAG, the mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 63.6 (9.8) years in the GLAUGEN cohort and 66.0 (13.7) years in the NEIGHBOR cohort. For controls, the mean (SD) age at enrollment was 65.5 (9.2) years in the GLAUGEN cohort and 68.9 (11.4) years in the NEIGHBOR cohort. All study participants were European white. The GRS was strongly associated with POAG risk in case-control analysis (odds ratio per 1-point increase in score = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.21-1.27; P = 3.4 × 10-66). In case-only analyses, each higher GRS unit was associated with a 0.36-year earlier age at diagnosis (ß = -0.36; 95% CI, -0.56 to -0.16; P = 4.0 × 10-4). Individuals in the top 5% of the GRS had a mean (SD) age at diagnosis of 5.2 (12.8) years earlier than those in the bottom 5% GRS (61.4 [12.7] vs 66.6 [12.9] years; P = 5.0 × 10-4). Conclusions and Relevance: A higher dose of POAG risk alleles was associated with an earlier age at glaucoma diagnosis. On average, individuals with POAG with the highest GRS had 5.2-year earlier age at diagnosis of disease. These results suggest that a GRS that comprised genetic variants associated with POAG could help identify patients with risk of earlier disease onset impacting screening and therapeutic strategies.

3.
Hum Genet ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367973

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the world. While dozens of independent genomic variants are associated with AMD, about one-third of AMD heritability is still unexplained. To identify novel variants and loci for AMD, we analyzed Illumina HumanExome chip data from 87 Amish individuals with early or late AMD, 79 unaffected Amish individuals, and 15 related Amish individuals with unknown AMD affection status. We retained 37,428 polymorphic autosomal variants across 175 samples for association and linkage analyses. After correcting for multiple testing (n = 37,428), we identified four variants significantly associated with AMD: rs200437673 (LCN9, p = 1.50 × 10-11), rs151214675 (RTEL1, p = 3.18 × 10-8), rs140250387 (DLGAP1, p = 4.49 × 10-7), and rs115333865 (CGRRF1, p = 1.05 × 10-6). These variants have not been previously associated with AMD and are not in linkage disequilibrium with the 52 known AMD-associated variants reported by the International AMD Genomics Consortium based on physical distance. Genome-wide significant linkage peaks were observed on chromosomes 8q21.11-q21.13 (maximum recessive HLOD = 4.03) and 18q21.2-21.32 (maximum dominant HLOD = 3.87; maximum recessive HLOD = 4.27). These loci do not overlap with loci previously linked to AMD. Through gene ontology enrichment analysis with ClueGO in Cytoscape, we determined that several genes in the 1-HLOD support interval of the chromosome 8 locus are involved in fatty acid binding and triglyceride catabolic processes, and the 1-HLOD support interval of the linkage region on chromosome 18 is enriched in genes that participate in serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity and the positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These results nominate novel variants and loci for AMD that require further investigation.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(18): 3053-3061, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162550

RESUMO

Little is known about the post-transcriptional mechanisms that modulate the genetic effects in the molecular pathways underlying Alzheimer disease (AD), and even less is known about how these changes might differ across diverse populations. RNA editing, the process that alters individual bases of RNA, may contribute to AD pathogenesis due to its roles in neuronal development and immune regulation. Here, we pursued one of the first transcriptome-wide RNA editing studies in AD by examining RNA sequencing data from individuals of both African-American (AA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) ethnicities. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and RNA editing analysis were performed on peripheral blood specimens from 216 AD cases (105 AA, 111 NHW) and 212 gender matched controls (105 AA, 107 NHW). 449 positions in 254 genes and 723 positions in 371 genes were differentially edited in AA and NHW, respectively. While most differentially edited sites localized to different genes in AA and NHW populations, these events converged on the same pathways across both ethnicities, especially endocytic and inflammatory response pathways. Furthermore, these differentially edited sites were preferentially predicted to disrupt miRNA binding and induce nonsynonymous coding changes in genes previously associated with AD in molecular studies, including PAFAH1B2 and HNRNPA1. These findings suggest RNA editing is an important post-transcriptional regulatory program in AD pathogenesis.

5.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180460

RESUMO

Importance: Previous genome-wide association studies of common variants identified associations for Alzheimer disease (AD) loci evident only among individuals with particular APOE alleles. Objective: To identify APOE genotype-dependent associations with infrequent and rare variants using whole-exome sequencing. Design, Setting, and Participants: The discovery stage included 10 441 non-Hispanic white participants in the Alzheimer Disease Sequencing Project. Replication was sought in 2 independent, whole-exome sequencing data sets (1766 patients with AD, 2906 without AD [controls]) and a chip-based genotype imputation data set (8728 patients with AD, 9808 controls). Bioinformatics and functional analyses were conducted using clinical, cognitive, neuropathologic, whole-exome sequencing, and gene expression data obtained from a longitudinal cohort sample including 402 patients with AD and 647 controls. Data were analyzed between March 2017 and September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Score, Firth, and sequence kernel association tests were used to test the association of AD risk with individual variants and genes in subgroups of APOE ε4 carriers and noncarriers. Results with P ≤ 1 × 10-5 were further evaluated in the replication data sets and combined by meta-analysis. Results: Among 3145 patients with AD and 4213 controls lacking ε4 (mean [SD] age, 83.4 [7.6] years; 4363 [59.3.%] women), novel genome-wide significant associations were obtained in the discovery sample with rs536940594 in AC099552 (odds ratio [OR], 88.0; 95% CI, 9.08-852.0; P = 2.22 × 10-7) and rs138412600 in GPAA1 (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.44-2.2; meta-P = 7.81 × 10-8). GPAA1 was also associated with expression in the brain of GPAA1 (ß = -0.08; P = .03) and its repressive transcription factor, FOXG1 (ß = 0.13; P = .003), and global cognition function (ß = -0.53; P = .009). Significant gene-wide associations (threshold P ≤ 6.35 × 10-7) were observed for OR8G5 (P = 4.67 × 10-7), IGHV3-7 (P = 9.75 × 10-16), and SLC24A3 (P = 2.67 × 10-12) in 2377 patients with AD and 706 controls with ε4 (mean [SD] age, 75.2 [9.6] years; 1668 [54.1%] women). Conclusions and Relevance: The study identified multiple possible novel associations for AD with individual and aggregated rare variants in groups of individuals with and without APOE ε4 alleles that reinforce known and suggest additional pathways leading to AD.

6.
Aging Cell ; 18(4): e12964, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144443

RESUMO

CpG-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (CGS) have the potential to perturb DNA methylation; however, their effects on Alzheimer disease (AD) risk have not been evaluated systematically. We conducted a genome-wide association study using a sliding-window approach to measure the combined effects of CGSes on AD risk in a discovery sample of 24 European ancestry cohorts (12,181 cases, 12,601 controls) from the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) and replication sample of seven European ancestry cohorts (7,554 cases, 27,382 controls) from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). The potential functional relevance of significant associations was evaluated by analysis of methylation and expression levels in brain tissue of the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (ROSMAP), and in whole blood of Framingham Heart Study participants (FHS). Genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8 ) associations were identified with 171 1.0 kb-length windows spanning 932 kb in the APOE region (top p < 2.2 × 10-308 ), five windows at BIN1 (top p = 1.3 × 10-13 ), two windows at MS4A6A (top p = 2.7 × 10-10 ), two windows near MS4A4A (top p = 6.4 × 10-10 ), and one window at PICALM (p = 6.3 × 10-9 ). The total number of CGS-derived CpG dinucleotides in the window near MS4A4A was associated with AD risk (p = 2.67 × 10-10 ), brain DNA methylation (p = 2.15 × 10-10 ), and gene expression in brain (p = 0.03) and blood (p = 2.53 × 10-4 ). Pathway analysis of the genes responsive to changes in the methylation quantitative trait locus signal at MS4A4A (cg14750746) showed an enrichment of methyltransferase functions. We confirm the importance of CGS in AD and the potential for creating a functional CpG dosage-derived genetic score to predict AD risk.

7.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A genetic correlation is the proportion of phenotypic variance between traits that is shared on a genetic basis. Here we explore genetic correlations between diabetes- and glaucoma-related traits. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: We assembled genome-wide association study summary statistics from European-derived participants regarding diabetes-related traits like fasting blood sugar (FBS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glaucoma-related traits (intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cup-disc ratio (CDR), and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)). We included data from the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database, the UK Biobank and the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium. We calculated genetic correlation (rg) between traits using linkage disequilibrium score regression. We also calculated genetic correlations between IOP, CCT and selected diabetes-related traits based on individual level phenotype data in two Northern European population-based samples using pedigree information and Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). RESULTS: Overall, there was little rg between diabetes- and glaucoma-related traits. Specifically, we found a non-significant negative correlation between T2D and POAG (rg=-0.14; p=0.16). Using SOLAR, the genetic correlations between measured IOP, CCT, FBS, fasting insulin and hemoglobin A1c, were null. In contrast, genetic correlations between IOP and POAG (rg ≥0.45; p≤3.0E-04) and between CDR and POAG were high (rg =0.57; p=2.8E-10). However, genetic correlations between corneal properties (CCT, CRF and CH) and POAG were low (rg range: -0.18 - 0.11) and non-significant (p≥0.07). CONCLUSION: These analyses suggest there is limited genetic correlation between diabetes- and glaucoma-related traits.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e191350, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924900

RESUMO

Importance: Some of the unexplained heritability of Alzheimer disease (AD) may be due to rare variants whose effects are not captured in genome-wide association studies because very large samples are needed to observe statistically significant associations. Objective: To identify genetic variants associated with AD risk using a nonstatistical approach. Design, Setting, and Participants: Genetic association study in which rare variants were identified by whole-exome sequencing in unrelated individuals of European ancestry from the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP). Data were analyzed between March 2017 and September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Minor alleles genome-wide and in 95 genes previously associated with AD, AD-related traits, or other dementias were tabulated and filtered for predicted functional impact and occurrence in participants with AD but not controls. Support for several findings was sought in a whole-exome sequencing data set comprising 19 affected relative pairs from Utah high-risk pedigrees and whole-genome sequencing data sets from the ADSP and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Results: Among 5617 participants with AD (3202 [57.0%] women; mean [SD] age, 76.4 [9.3] years) and 4594 controls (2719 [59.0%] women; mean [SD] age, 86.5 [4.5] years), a total of 24 variants with moderate or high functional impact from 19 genes were observed in 10 or more participants with AD but not in controls. These variants included a missense mutation (rs149307620 [p.A284T], n = 10) in NOTCH3, a gene in which coding mutations are associated with cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), that was also identified in 1 participant with AD and 1 participant with mild cognitive impairment in the whole genome sequencing data sets. Four participants with AD carried the TREM2 rs104894002 (p.Q33X) high-impact mutation that, in homozygous form, causes Nasu-Hakola disease, a rare disorder characterized by early-onset dementia and multifocal bone cysts, suggesting an intermediate inheritance model for the mutation. Compared with controls, participants with AD had a significantly higher burden of deleterious rare coding variants in dementia-associated genes (2314 vs 3354 cumulative variants, respectively; P = .006). Conclusions and Relevance: Different mutations in the same gene or variable dose of a mutation may be associated with result in distinct dementias. These findings suggest that minor differences in the structure or amount of protein may be associated with in different clinical outcomes. Understanding these genotype-phenotype associations may provide further insight into the pathogenic nature of the mutations, as well as offer clues for developing new therapeutic targets.

10.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007791, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517106

RESUMO

The ApoE ε4 allele is the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease. The risk conferred by ε4, however, differs across populations, with populations of African ancestry showing lower ε4 risk compared to those of European or Asian ancestry. The cause of this heterogeneity in risk effect is currently unknown; it may be due to environmental or cultural factors correlated with ancestry, or it may be due to genetic variation local to the ApoE region that differs among populations. Exploring these hypotheses may lead to novel, population-specific therapeutics and risk predictions. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed ApoE genotypes and genome-wide array data in individuals from African American and Puerto Rican populations. A total of 1,766 African American and 220 Puerto Rican individuals with late-onset Alzheimer disease, and 3,730 African American and 169 Puerto Rican cognitively healthy individuals (> 65 years) participated in the study. We first assessed average ancestry across the genome ("global" ancestry) and then tested it for interaction with ApoE genotypes. Next, we assessed the ancestral background of ApoE alleles ("local" ancestry) and tested if ancestry local to ApoE influenced Alzheimer disease risk while controlling for global ancestry. Measures of global ancestry showed no interaction with ApoE risk (Puerto Rican: p-value = 0.49; African American: p-value = 0.65). Conversely, ancestry local to the ApoE region showed an interaction with the ApoE ε4 allele in both populations (Puerto Rican: p-value = 0.019; African American: p-value = 0.005). ApoE ε4 alleles on an African background conferred a lower risk than those with a European ancestral background, regardless of population (Puerto Rican: OR = 1.26 on African background, OR = 4.49 on European; African American: OR = 2.34 on African background, OR = 3.05 on European background). Factors contributing to the lower risk effect in the ApoE gene ε4 allele are likely due to ancestry-specific genetic factors near ApoE rather than non-genetic ethnic, cultural, and environmental factors.

11.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The genetic architecture of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is only partially understood. METHODS: We conducted an association study for AD using whole sequence data from 507 genetically enriched AD cases (i.e., cases having close relatives affected by AD) and 4917 cognitively healthy controls of European ancestry (EA) and 172 enriched cases and 179 controls of Caribbean Hispanic ancestry. Confirmation of top findings from stage 1 was sought in two family-based genome-wide association study data sets and in a whole genome-sequencing data set comprising members from 42 EA and 115 Caribbean Hispanic families. RESULTS: We identified associations in EAs with variants in 12 novel loci. The most robust finding is a rare CASP7 missense variant (rs116437863; P = 2.44 × 10-10) which improved when combined with results from stage 2 data sets (P = 1.92 × 10-10). DISCUSSION: Our study demonstrated that an enriched case design can strengthen genetic signals, thus allowing detection of associations that would otherwise be missed in a traditional case-control study.

12.
Acta Neuropathol ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413934

RESUMO

Cardiovascular (CV)- and lifestyle-associated risk factors (RFs) are increasingly recognized as important for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Beyond the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE), comparatively little is known about whether CV-associated genes also increase risk for AD. Using large genome-wide association studies and validated tools to quantify genetic overlap, we systematically identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) jointly associated with AD and one or more CV-associated RFs, namely body mass index (BMI), type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary artery disease (CAD), waist hip ratio (WHR), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In fold enrichment plots, we observed robust genetic enrichment in AD as a function of plasma lipids (TG, TC, LDL, and HDL); we found minimal AD genetic enrichment conditional on BMI, T2D, CAD, and WHR. Beyond APOE, at conjunction FDR < 0.05 we identified 90 SNPs on 19 different chromosomes that were jointly associated with AD and CV-associated outcomes. In meta-analyses across three independent cohorts, we found four novel loci within MBLAC1 (chromosome 7, meta-p = 1.44 × 10-9), MINK1 (chromosome 17, meta-p = 1.98 × 10-7) and two chromosome 11 SNPs within the MTCH2/SPI1 region (closest gene = DDB2, meta-p = 7.01 × 10-7 and closest gene = MYBPC3, meta-p = 5.62 × 10-8). In a large 'AD-by-proxy' cohort from the UK Biobank, we replicated three of the four novel AD/CV pleiotropic SNPs, namely variants within MINK1, MBLAC1, and DDB2. Expression of MBLAC1, SPI1, MINK1 and DDB2 was differentially altered within postmortem AD brains. Beyond APOE, we show that the polygenic component of AD is enriched for lipid-associated RFs. We pinpoint a subset of cardiovascular-associated genes that strongly increase the risk for AD. Our collective findings support a disease model in which cardiovascular biology is integral to the development of clinical AD in a subset of individuals.

13.
J Law Med Ethics ; 46(3): 694-698, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336113

RESUMO

Alzheimer disease (AD) is a huge and growing societal problem with upwards of 35% of the population over the age of 80 developing the disease. AD results in a loss of memory, the ability to make reasoned and sound decisions, and ultimately the inability to take care of oneself. AD has an impact not only on the sufferer, but their caretakers and loved ones, who must take on a costly and time-consuming burden of care. AD is found in virtually all racial and ethnic groups. Genetic influences on AD are substantial, and there has been a 30 year history of both success and failure. Mutations for rare early onset forms of the disease have been identified, but this information has not yet led to an effective treatment. Multiple common genetic variations have also been identified, and have led to new insights into the potential role of microglia cells in addition to neuronal cells in the brain. Despite intensive efforts, a significant portion of the genetic etiology of AD remains unknown and must be identified.

14.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 59(12): 4978-4985, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326066

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify metabolites and metabolic pathways altered in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD). Methods: We performed metabolomics analysis using high-resolution C18 liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry on plasma samples from 100 NVAMD patients and 192 controls. Data for mass/charge ratio ranging from 85 to 850 were captured, and metabolic features were extracted using xMSanalyzer. Nested feature selection was used to identify metabolites that discriminated between NVAMD patients and controls. Pathway analysis was performed with Mummichog 2.0. Hierarchical clustering was used to examine the relationship between the discriminating metabolites and NVAMD patients and controls. Results: Of the 10,917 metabolic features analyzed, a set of 159 was identified that distinguished NVAMD patients from controls (area under the curve of 0.83). Of these features, 39 were annotated with confidence and included multiple carnitine metabolites. Pathway analysis revealed that the carnitine shuttle pathway was significantly altered in NVAMD patients (P = 0.0001). Tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the molecular identity of five carnitine shuttle pathway acylcarnitine intermediates that were increased in NVAMD patients. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that 51% of the NVAMD patients had similar metabolic profiles, whereas the remaining 49% displayed greater variability in their metabolic profiles. Conclusions: Multiple long-chain acylcarnitines that are part of the carnitine shuttle pathway were significantly increased in NVAMD patients compared to controls, suggesting that fatty acid metabolism may be involved in NVAMD pathophysiology. Cluster analysis suggested that clinically indistinguishable NVAMD patients can be separated into distinct subgroups based on metabolic profiles.

15.
Neurobiol Aging ; 72: 188.e3-188.e12, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201328

RESUMO

Systematic epistasis analyses in multifactorial disorders are an important step to better characterize complex genetic risk structures. We conducted a hypothesis-free sex-stratified genome-wide screening for epistasis contributing to Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility. We identified a statistical epistasis signal between the single nucleotide polymorphisms rs3733980 and rs7175766 that was associated with AD in males (genome-wide significant pBonferroni-corrected=0.0165). This signal pointed toward the genes WW and C2 domain containing 1, aka KIBRA; 5q34 and TLN2 (talin 2; 15q22.2). Gene-based meta-analysis in 3 independent consortium data sets confirmed the identified interaction: the most significant (pmeta-Bonferroni-corrected=9.02*10-3) was for the single nucleotide polymorphism pair rs1477307 and rs4077746. In functional studies, WW and C2 domain containing 1, aka KIBRA and TLN2 coexpressed in the temporal cortex brain tissue of AD subjects (ß=0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.30, p=0.01); modulated Tau toxicity in Drosophila eye experiments; colocalized in brain tissue cells, N2a neuroblastoma, and HeLa cell lines; and coimmunoprecipitated both in brain tissue and HEK293 cells. Our finding points toward new AD-related pathways and provides clues toward novel medical targets for the cure of AD.

16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108311

RESUMO

The Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) undertook whole exome sequencing in 5,740 late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) cases and 5,096 cognitively normal controls primarily of European ancestry (EA), among whom 218 cases and 177 controls were Caribbean Hispanic (CH). An age-, sex- and APOE based risk score and family history were used to select cases most likely to harbor novel AD risk variants and controls least likely to develop AD by age 85 years. We tested ~1.5 million single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 50,000 insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels) for association to AD, using multiple models considering individual variants as well as gene-based tests aggregating rare, predicted functional, and loss of function variants. Sixteen single variants and 19 genes that met criteria for significant or suggestive associations after multiple-testing correction were evaluated for replication in four independent samples; three with whole exome sequencing (2,778 cases, 7,262 controls) and one with genome-wide genotyping imputed to the Haplotype Reference Consortium panel (9,343 cases, 11,527 controls). The top findings in the discovery sample were also followed-up in the ADSP whole-genome sequenced family-based dataset (197 members of 42 EA families and 501 members of 157 CH families). We identified novel and predicted functional genetic variants in genes previously associated with AD. We also detected associations in three novel genes: IGHG3 (p = 9.8 × 10-7), an immunoglobulin gene whose antibodies interact with ß-amyloid, a long non-coding RNA AC099552.4 (p = 1.2 × 10-7), and a zinc-finger protein ZNF655 (gene-based p = 5.0 × 10-6). The latter two suggest an important role for transcriptional regulation in AD pathogenesis.

17.
Curr Protoc Hum Genet ; 97(1): e56, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040223

RESUMO

In this article, we discuss strategies for selection of families and family members for genetic studies. We will evaluate strategies to sample large families with multiply affected members, sibships, and nuclear families. In addition, we have added a section to discuss sub-sampling within pedigrees for large sequencing studies, particularly when genome-wide SNP chips are available on all members of a pedigree. The type of family sampled for a study will determine the statistical analyses and power of discovery of genetic findings. We will evaluate study designs that maximize power and allow for linkage and association analyses to identify genetic loci predisposing to phenotype. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

18.
Acta Neuropathol ; 136(6): 857-872, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967939

RESUMO

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-ß 42 (Aß42) and tau have been evaluated as endophenotypes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) genetic studies. Although there are sex differences in AD risk, sex differences have not been evaluated in genetic studies of AD endophenotypes. We performed sex-stratified and sex interaction genetic analyses of CSF biomarkers to identify sex-specific associations. Data came from a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of CSF Aß42 and tau (1527 males, 1509 females). We evaluated sex interactions at previous loci, performed sex-stratified GWAS to identify sex-specific associations, and evaluated sex interactions at sex-specific GWAS loci. We then evaluated sex-specific associations between prefrontal cortex (PFC) gene expression at relevant loci and autopsy measures of plaques and tangles using data from the Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project. In Aß42, we observed sex interactions at one previous and one novel locus: rs316341 within SERPINB1 (p = 0.04) and rs13115400 near LINC00290 (p = 0.002). These loci showed stronger associations among females (ß = - 0.03, p = 4.25 × 10-8; ß = 0.03, p = 3.97 × 10-8) than males (ß = - 0.02, p = 0.009; ß = 0.01, p = 0.20). Higher levels of expression of SERPINB1, SERPINB6, and SERPINB9 in PFC was associated with higher levels of amyloidosis among females (corrected p values < 0.02) but not males (p > 0.38). In total tau, we observed a sex interaction at a previous locus, rs1393060 proximal to GMNC (p = 0.004), driven by a stronger association among females (ß = 0.05, p = 4.57 × 10-10) compared to males (ß = 0.02, p = 0.03). There was also a sex-specific association between rs1393060 and tangle density at autopsy (pfemale = 0.047; pmale = 0.96), and higher levels of expression of two genes within this locus were associated with lower tangle density among females (OSTN p = 0.006; CLDN16 p = 0.002) but not males (p ≥ 0.32). Results suggest a female-specific role for SERPINB1 in amyloidosis and for OSTN and CLDN16 in tau pathology. Sex-specific genetic analyses may improve understanding of AD's genetic architecture.

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1864, 2018 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760442

RESUMO

Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a highly heritable trait associated with complex eye diseases such as keratoconus and glaucoma. We perform a genome-wide association meta-analysis of CCT and identify 19 novel regions. In addition to adding support for known connective tissue-related pathways, pathway analyses uncover previously unreported gene sets. Remarkably, >20% of the CCT-loci are near or within Mendelian disorder genes. These included FBN1, ADAMTS2 and TGFB2 which associate with connective tissue disorders (Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos and Loeys-Dietz syndromes), and the LUM-DCN-KERA gene complex involved in myopia, corneal dystrophies and cornea plana. Using index CCT-increasing variants, we find a significant inverse correlation in effect sizes between CCT and keratoconus (r = -0.62, P = 5.30 × 10-5) but not between CCT and primary open-angle glaucoma (r = -0.17, P = 0.2). Our findings provide evidence for shared genetic influences between CCT and keratoconus, and implicate candidate genes acting in collagen and extracellular matrix regulation.


Assuntos
Córnea/metabolismo , Genoma Humano , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Ceratocone/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Proteínas ADAMTS/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Córnea/anormalidades , Córnea/patologia , Doenças da Córnea/etnologia , Doenças da Córnea/genética , Doenças da Córnea/metabolismo , Doenças da Córnea/patologia , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/etnologia , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/genética , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/metabolismo , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/patologia , Decorina/genética , Decorina/metabolismo , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/etnologia , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/metabolismo , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/etnologia , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/genética , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/metabolismo , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/patologia , Fibrilina-1/genética , Fibrilina-1/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/etnologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/metabolismo , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/patologia , Humanos , Ceratocone/etnologia , Ceratocone/metabolismo , Ceratocone/patologia , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/etnologia , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/genética , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/metabolismo , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/patologia , Lumicana/genética , Lumicana/metabolismo , Síndrome de Marfan/etnologia , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Síndrome de Marfan/metabolismo , Síndrome de Marfan/patologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Miopia/etnologia , Miopia/genética , Miopia/metabolismo , Miopia/patologia
20.
Nat Genet ; 50(6): 778-782, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785010

RESUMO

Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness globally 1 . Despite its gravity, the disease is frequently undiagnosed in the community 2 . Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)3,4. Here we present a meta-analysis of 139,555 European participants, which identified 112 genomic loci associated with IOP, 68 of which are novel. These loci suggest a strong role for angiopoietin-receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function and developmental processes underlying risk for elevated IOP. In addition, 48 of these loci were nominally associated with glaucoma in an independent cohort, 14 of which were significant at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold. Regression-based glaucoma-prediction models had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.76 in US NEIGHBORHOOD study participants and 0.74 in independent glaucoma cases from the UK Biobank. Genetic-prediction models for POAG offer an opportunity to target screening and timely therapy to individuals most at risk.

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