Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 92
Filtrar
1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1631, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hot weather leads to increased illness and deaths. The Heatwave Plan for England (HWP) aims to protect the population by raising awareness of the dangers of hot weather, especially for those most vulnerable. Individuals at increased risk to the effects of heat include older adults, particularly 75+, and those with specific chronic conditions, such as diabetes, respiratory and heart conditions. The HWP recommends specific protective actions which relate to five heat-health alert levels (levels 0-4). This study examines the attitudes to hot weather of adults in England, and the protective measures taken during a heatwave. METHODS: As part of a wider evaluation of the implementation and effects of the HWP, a survey (n = 3153) and focus groups, a form of group interview facilitated by a researcher, were carried out after the June 2017 level 3 heat-health alert. Survey respondents were categorised into three groups based on their age and health status: 'vulnerable' (aged 75+), 'potentially vulnerable' (aged 18-74 in poor health) and 'not vulnerable' (rest of the adult population) to hot weather. Multivariable logistic regression models identified factors associated with these groups taking protective measures. In-person group discussion, focused on heat-health, were carried out with 25 people, mostly aged 75 + . RESULTS: Most vulnerable and potentially vulnerable adults do not consider themselves at risk of hot weather and are unaware of the effectiveness of important protective behaviours. Only one-quarter of (potentially) vulnerable adults reported changing their behaviour as a result of hearing hot weather-related health advice during the level 3 alert period. Focus group findings showed many vulnerable adults were more concerned about the effects of the sun's ultra-violet radiation on the skin than on the effects of hot temperatures on health. CONCLUSIONS: Current public health messages appear to be insufficient, given the low level of (potentially) vulnerable adults changing their behaviour during hot weather. In the context of increasingly warmer summers in England due to climate change, public health messaging needs to convince (potentially) vulnerable adults of all the risks of hot weather (not just effects of sunlight on the skin) and of the importance of heat protective measures.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Atitude , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
2.
Int J Biometeorol ; 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963898

RESUMO

Current development of temperature-related health early warning systems mainly arises from knowledge of temperature-related mortality or hospital-based morbidity. However, due to the delay in data reporting and limits in hospital capacity, these indicators cannot be used in health risk assessments timely. In this study, we examine temperature impacts on emergency ambulance and discuss the benefits of using this near real-time indicator for risk assessment and early warning. We collected ambulance dispatch data recording individual characteristics and preliminary diagnoses between 2015 and 2016 in Shenzhen, China. Distributed lag nonlinear model was used to examine the effects of high and low temperatures on ambulance dispatches during warm and cold seasons. Lag effects were also assessed to evaluate the sensitivity of ambulance dispatches in reflecting immediate health reactions. Stratified analyses by gender, age, and a wide range of diagnoses were performed to identify vulnerable subgroups. Disease-specific numbers of ambulance dispatches attributable to non-optimal temperature were calculated to determine the related medical burdens. Effects of temperature on ambulance dispatches appeared to be acute on the current day. Males, people aged 18-44 years, were more susceptible to non-optimal temperatures. Highest RR during heat exposure by far was for urinary disease, alcohol intoxication, and traumatic injury, while alcohol intoxication and cardiovascular disease were especially sensitive to cold exposure, causing the main part of health burden. The development of local health surveillance systems by utilizing ambulance dispatch data are important for temperature impact assessments and medical resource reallocation.

3.
Lancet ; 397(10286): 1693-1694, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857438
4.
Environ Res ; 195: 110834, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ambient temperature extremes due to heat exposure was an established risk factor for preterm birth (<37 gestational weeks). However, there is insufficient epidemiological evidence on the effects of temperature variation(TV), although TV is also associated with heat exposure and can influence human health risk. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between inter- and intraday TV and preterm birth (PTB). METHOD: A total of 1,388,994 live singleton births were collected from January 2003 to December 2012, from the Shenzhen Birth registry system. Daily temperature range (DTR) was defined as the difference between the highest and lowest recorded daily temperature. Intraday TV was defined as the maximum daily diurnal temperature range in a given week (Max-DTR). Inter-day TV was defined as the maximum increase or decrease in daily mean temperature between days t and t-1in a given week; either an increase (Temp-inc) or a decrease (Temp-dec). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate TV-related PTB risks during the first trimester, the second trimester, and in late pregnancy. RESULTS: The maximum values for DTR, Temp-inc, and Temp-dec were 17 °C, 8 °C and 11 °C, respectively. The greatest TV-related PTB risk occurred in the second trimester, with 5.8% (95%CI: 3.3%, 8.3%), 23.7% (95%CI: 19.6%, 27.9%), and 4.4% (95%CI: 1.8%, 7.1%) differences per 1 °C increase in Max-DTR, Temp-inc, and Temp-dec, respectively. Greater TV was associated with elevated PTB risk during the warm season. The association between TV and PTB was modified by seasons, maternal education and chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Sharp TV is a likely risk factor for PTB. Policy makers and clinicians should recognize the potential role of TV in the etiology of PTB so that interventions can be designed to protect pregnant women and their fetuses against extreme temperatures.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
5.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(4): 566-570, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570773

RESUMO

Climate change represents one of the largest global health threats of the 21st century with immediate and long-term consequences for the most vulnerable populations, especially in the poorest countries with the least capacity to adapt to climate change. Pregnant women and newborns are increasingly being recognized as vulnerable populations in the context of climate change. The effects can be direct or indirect through heat stress, extreme weather events and air pollution, potentially impacting both the immediate and long-term health of pregnant women and newborns through a broad range of mechanisms. In 2008, the World Health Organization passed a resolution during the 61st World Health Assembly, recognizing the need for research to identify strategies and health-system strengthening to mitigate the effects of climate change on health. Climate adaptation plans need to consider vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and neonates and a broad multisectoral approach to improve overall resilience of societies.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Saúde Global , Saúde do Lactente , Saúde Materna , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Populações Vulneráveis
7.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e036724, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify key predictors of general practitioner (GP) consultations for allergic rhinitis (AR) using meteorological and environmental data. DESIGN: A retrospective, time series analysis of GP consultations for AR. SETTING: A large GP surveillance network of GP practices in the London area. PARTICIPANTS: The study population was all persons who presented to general practices in London that report to the Public Health England GP in-hours syndromic surveillance system during the study period (3 April 2012 to 11 August 2014). PRIMARY MEASURE: Consultations for AR (numbers of consultations). RESULTS: During the study period there were 186 401 GP consultations for AR. High grass and nettle pollen counts (combined) were associated with the highest increases in consultations (for the category 216-270 grains/m3, relative risk (RR) 3.33, 95% CI 2.69 to 4.12) followed by high tree (oak, birch and plane combined) pollen counts (for the category 260-325 grains/m3, RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.15) and average daily temperatures between 15°C and 20°C (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.81). Higher levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) appeared to be associated with increased consultations (for the category 70-85 µg/m3, RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.71), but a significant effect was not found with ozone. Higher daily rainfall was associated with fewer consultations (15-20 mm/day; RR 0.812, 95% CI 0.674 to 0.980). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in grass, nettle or tree pollen counts, temperatures between 15°C and 20°C, and (to a lesser extent) NO2 concentrations were found to be associated with increased consultations for AR. Rainfall has a negative effect. In the context of climate change and continued exposures to environmental air pollution, intelligent use of these data will aid targeting public health messages and plan healthcare demand.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Rinite Alérgica , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia
8.
BMJ ; 371: m3811, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether exposure to high temperatures in pregnancy is associated with increased risk for preterm birth, low birth weight, and stillbirth. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline and Web of Science searched up to September 2018, updated in August 2019. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Clinical studies on associations between high environmental temperatures, and preterm birth, birth weight, and stillbirths. RESULTS: 14 880 records and 175 full text articles were screened. 70 studies were included, set in 27 countries, seven of which were countries with low or middle income. In 40 of 47 studies, preterm births were more common at higher than lower temperatures. Exposures were classified as heatwaves, 1°C increments, and temperature threshold cutoff points. In random effects meta-analysis, odds of a preterm birth rose 1.05-fold (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.07) per 1°C increase in temperature and 1.16-fold (1.10 to 1.23) during heatwaves. Higher temperature was associated with reduced birth weight in 18 of 28 studies, with considerable statistical heterogeneity. Eight studies on stillbirths all showed associations between temperature and stillbirth, with stillbirths increasing 1.05-fold (1.01 to 1.08) per 1°C rise in temperature. Associations between temperature and outcomes were largest among women in lower socioeconomic groups and at age extremes. The multiple temperature metrics and lag analyses limited comparison between studies and settings. CONCLUSIONS: Although summary effect sizes are relatively small, heat exposures are common and the outcomes are important determinants of population health. Linkages between socioeconomic status and study outcomes suggest that risks might be largest in low and middle income countries. Temperature rises with global warming could have major implications for child health. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD 42019140136 and CRD 42018118113.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
9.
Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health ; 16(Suppl-1): 142-155, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029191

RESUMO

Background: Postpartum Depression (PPD) is a major public health problem affecting mothers and their babies. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depression among Arab mothers. This systematic literature review aims to determine the prevalence of PPD among mothers in Arab countries and identify the main risk factors. Methods: A review of all peer-reviewed journal published studies on PPD and its risk factors among Arab mothers until February 2016. The following data bases were searched; PubMed, Springlink, Science direct, EBSCOhost, and Arabpsychnet. Results: 25 studies were included in the review. PPD rates were high in general but prevalences were close to the rates observed in other low and lower-middle-income countries. Twelve studies reported PPD prevalences in the region of 15-25%, 7 studies reported prevalences< 15% and 6 studies reported prevalences<25%. The most important risk factors for PPD were: low income and socioeconomic status, obstetric complications during pregnancy, unwanted pregnancy, ill infant, formula feeding, low social and husband support, marital and in-laws conflicts, stressful life events during pregnancy and personal or family history of depression. Conclusion: Prevalence of PPD is high in most Arab countries, with differences due in part to variations in methods of assessment. This review highlights the problem of PPD and advocates for the adoption of necessary changes in the Arab health systems such as routine screening and efficient referral systems in order to detect and treat this potentially debilitating condition.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825094

RESUMO

Both climate change and migration present key concerns for global health progress. Despite this, a transparent method for identifying and understanding the relationship between climate change, migration and other contextual factors remains a knowledge gap. Existing conceptual models are useful in understanding the complexities of climate migration, but provide varying degrees of applicability to quantitative studies, resulting in non-homogenous transferability of knowledge in this important area. This paper attempts to provide a critical review of climate migration literature, as well as presenting a new conceptual model for the identification of the drivers of migration in the context of climate change. It focuses on the interactions and the dynamics of drivers over time, space and society. Through systematic, pan-disciplinary and homogenous application of theory to different geographical contexts, we aim to improve understanding of the impacts of climate change on migration. A brief case study of Malawi is provided to demonstrate how this global conceptual model can be applied into local contextual scenarios. In doing so, we hope to provide insights that help in the more homogenous applications of conceptual frameworks for this area and more generally.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Migração Humana , Saúde Global , Humanos , Malaui
11.
Environ Int ; 144: 105966, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771827

RESUMO

There is a well-established relationship between temperature and mortality, with older individuals being most at risk in high-income settings. This raises the question of the degree to which lives are being shortened by exposure to heat or cold. Years of life lost (YLL) take into account population life expectancy and age at which mortality occurs. However, YLL are rarely used as an outcome-metric in studies of temperature-related mortality. This represents an important gap in knowledge; to better comprehend potential impacts of temperature in the context of climate change and an ageing population, it is important to understand the relationship between temperature and YLL, and also whether the risks of temperature related mortality and YLL have changed over recent years. Gridded temperature data derived from observations, and mortality data were provided by the UK Met Office and the Office for National Statistics (ONS), respectively. We derived YLL for each death using sex-specific yearly life expectancy from ONS English-national lifetables. We undertook an ecological time-series regression analysis, using a distributed-lag double-threshold model, to estimate the relationship between daily mean temperature and daily YLL and mortality between 1996 and 2013 in Greater London, the West Midlands including Birmingham, and Greater Manchester. Temperature-thresholds, as determined by model best fit, were set at the 91st (for heat-effects) and 35th (for cold-effects) percentiles of the mean temperature distribution. Secondly, we analysed whether there had been any changes in heat and cold related risk of YLL and mortality over time. Heat-effects (lag 0-2 days) were greatest in London, where for each 1 °C above the heat-threshold the risk of mortality increased by 3.9% (CI 3.5%, 4.3%) and YLL increased by 3.0% (2.5%, 3.5%). Between 1996 and 2013, the proportion of total deaths and YLL attributable to heat in London were 0.50% and 0.40% respectively. Cold-effects (lag 0-27 days) were greatest in the West Midlands, where for each 1 °C below the cold-threshold, risk of mortality increased by 3.1% (2.4%, 3.7%) and YLL also increased by 3.1% (2.2%, 3.9%). The proportion of deaths and YLL attributable to cold in the West Midlands were 3.3% and 3.2% respectively. We found no evidence of decreasing susceptibility to heat and cold over time. The addition of life expectancy information into calculations of temperature-related risk and mortality burdens for English cities is novel. We demonstrate that although older individuals are at greatest risk of temperature-related mortality, heat and cold still make a significant contribution to the YLL due to premature death.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Dinâmica não Linear , China , Cidades , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Mortalidade
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276439

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between summer temperatures and increased heat-related deaths. Epidemiological analyses of the health effects of climate exposures usually rely on observations from the nearest weather station to assess exposure-response associations for geographically diverse populations. Urban climate models provide high-resolution spatial data that may potentially improve exposure estimates, but to date, they have not been extensively applied in epidemiological research. We investigated temperature-mortality relationships in the city of Barcelona, and whether estimates vary among districts. We considered georeferenced individual (natural) mortality data during the summer months (June-September) for the period 1992-2015. We extracted daily summer mean temperatures from a 100-m resolution simulation of the urban climate model (UrbClim). Summer hot days (above percentile 70) and reference (below percentile 30) temperatures were compared by using a conditional logistic regression model in a case crossover study design applied to all districts of Barcelona. Relative Risks (RR), and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI), of all-cause (natural) mortality and summer temperature were calculated for several population subgroups (age, sex and education level by districts). Hot days were associated with an increased risk of death (RR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.10-1.16) and were significant in all population subgroups compared to the non-hot days. The risk ratio was higher among women (RR = 1.16; 95% CI= 1.12-1.21) and the elderly (RR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.13-1.22). Individuals with primary education had similar risk (RR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.08-1.18) than those without education (RR = 1.10; 95% CI= 1.05-1.15). Moreover, 6 out of 10 districts showed statistically significant associations, varying the risk ratio between 1.12 (95% CI = 1.03-1.21) in Sants-Montjuïc and 1.25 (95% CI = 1.14-1.38) in Sant Andreu. Findings identified vulnerable districts and suggested new insights to public health policy makers on how to develop district-specific strategies to reduce risks.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Estações do Ano
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192045

RESUMO

The epidemiological research relating mortality and hospital admissions to ambient temperature is well established. However, less is known about the effect temperature has on Accident and Emergency (A&E) department attendances. Time-series regression analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of temperature for a range of cause- and age-specific attendances in Greater London (LD) between 2007 to 2012. A seasonally adjusted Poisson regression model was used to estimate the percent change in daily attendances per 1 °C increase in temperature. The risk of overall attendance increased by 1.0% (95% CI 0.8, 1.4) for all ages and 1.4% (1.2, 1.5) among 0- to 15-year-olds. A smaller but significant increase in risk was found for cardiac, respiratory, cerebrovascular and psychiatric presentations. Importantly, for fracture-related attendances, the risk rose by 1.1% (0.7, 1.5) per 1 °C increase in temperature above the identified temperature threshold of 16 °C, with the highest increase of 2.1% (1.5, 3.0) seen among 0- to 15-year-olds. There is a positive association between increasing temperatures and A&E department attendance, with the risk appearing highest in children and the most deprived areas. A&E departments are vulnerable to increased demand during hot weather and therefore need to be adequately prepared to address associated health risks posed by climate change.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Temperatura Alta , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Londres , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 135098, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000339

RESUMO

Diabetes is a major public health problem globally, and heat exposure may be a potential risk factor for death among diabetes. This study examines the association between heat and diabetes mortality in different regions of Thailand and investigates whether heat effects are modified by regional greenness. Daily temperature and daily diabetes deaths data were obtained for 60 provinces of Thailand during 2000-2008. A case-crossover analysis was conducted to quantify the odds of heat-related death among diabetes. Meta-regression was then used to examine potential modification effects of regional greenness (as represented by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) on heat-related mortality. A strong association between heat and diabetes mortality was found in Thailand, with important regional variations. Nationally, the pooled odds ratio of diabetes mortality was 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.14) for heat (90th percentile of temperature) and 1.20 (95% CI: 1.10-1.30) for extreme heat (99th percentile of temperature) compared with the minimum mortality temperature, across lag 0-1 days. Central and northeast Thailand were the most vulnerable regions. Regional greenness modified the effects of heat, with lower mortality impacts in areas of higher levels of greenness. In conclusion, heat exposure increases mortality risk in diabetes, with large geographical variations in risk suggesting the need for region-specific public health strategies. Increasing greenness levels may help to reduce the burden of heat on diabetes in Thailand against the backdrop of a warming climate.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Temperatura , Tailândia/epidemiologia
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(1): 17006, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both extreme heat and air pollution exposure during pregnancy have been associated with preterm birth; however, their combined effects are unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to estimate the independent and joint effects of heatwaves and fine particulate matter [PM <2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)], exposure during the final gestational week on preterm birth. METHODS: Using birth registry data from Guangzhou, China, we included 215,059 singleton live births in the warm season (1 May-31 October) between January 2015 and July 2017. Daily meteorological variables from 5 monitoring stations and PM2.5 concentrations from 11 sites were used to estimate district-specific exposures. A series of cut off temperature thresholds and durations (2, 3, and 4 consecutive d) were used to define 15 different heatwaves. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the effects of heatwaves and PM2.5 exposures during the final week on preterm birth, and departures from additive joint effects were assessed using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). RESULTS: Numbers of preterm births increased in association with heatwave exposures during the final gestational week. Depending on the heatwave definition used, hazard ratios (HRs) ranged from 1.10 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.20) to 1.92 (1.39, 2.64). Associations were stronger for more intense heatwaves. Combined effects of PM2.5 exposures and heatwaves appeared to be synergistic (RERIs>0) for less extreme heatwaves (i.e., shorter or with relatively low temperature thresholds) but were less than additive (RERIs<0) for more intense heatwaves. CONCLUSIONS: Our research strengthens the evidence that exposure to heatwaves during the final gestational week can independently trigger preterm birth. Moderate heatwaves may also act synergistically with PM2.5 exposure to increase risk of preterm birth, which adds new evidence to the current understanding of combined effects of air pollution and meteorological variables on adverse birth outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5117.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Calor Extremo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(2): e46-e51, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of occupational risks factors, including specific work characteristics with the occurrence of accidents at workplace and on the way to work in Brazil. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional study design with comparison groups, to inquire data from 47,629 participants of the Brazilian National Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was performed for distinct multivariate models. RESULTS: Exposure to intense noise, biological materials, work experience of 40 years or more, and intense physical exertion were significantly associated with accidents at work. Regarding to accidents on the way to work, exposure to intense noise and performing work activities that require intense physical exertion remained associated. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to highlight the effects of multiple work-related risk factors on the occurrence of occupational accidents at the workplace and on the way to work in Brazil.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Local de Trabalho
17.
Environ Int ; 134: 105292, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Management of the natural and built environments can help reduce the health impacts of climate change. This is particularly relevant in large cities where urban heat island makes cities warmer than the surrounding areas. We investigate how urban vegetation, housing characteristics and socio-economic factors modify the association between heat exposure and mortality in a large urban area. METHODS: We linked 185,397 death records from the Greater London area during May-Sept 2007-2016 to a high resolution daily temperature dataset. We then applied conditional logistic regression within a case-crossover design to estimate the odds of death from heat exposure by individual (age, sex) and local area factors: land-use type, natural environment (vegetation index, tree cover, domestic garden), built environment (indoor temperature, housing type, lone occupancy) and socio-economic factors (deprivation, English language, level of employment and prevalence of ill-health). RESULTS: Temperatures were higher in neighbourhoods with lower levels of urban vegetation and with higher levels of income deprivation, social-rented housing, and non-native English speakers. Heat-related mortality increased with temperature increase (Odds Ratio (OR), 95% CI = 1.039, 1.036-1.043 per 1 °C temperature increase). Vegetation cover showed the greatest modification effect, for example the odds of heat-related mortality in quartiles with the highest and lowest tree cover were OR, 95%CI 1.033, 1.026-1.039 and 1.043, 1.037-1.050 respectively. None of the socio-economic variables were a significant modifier of heat-related mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that urban vegetation can modify the mortality risk associated with heat exposure. These findings make an important contribution towards informing city-level climate change adaptation and mitigation policies.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Temperatura Alta , Londres , Mortalidade
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627286

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer is a serious public health problem and is the second most prevalent cancer type in the world. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the association between pesticide use and breast cancer in a region of intense agribusiness activity in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methods: A case-control study was conducted on women living in the city of Rondonópolis, in the south of Mato Grosso state. There were 85 cases of women with confirmed breast cancer and 266 controls who were randomly selected from primary health care users. Bivariate and stratified analyses were performed. Multiple logistic regression was then performed, keeping in the final model the factors with a significance level lower than or equal to 0.05 or considered important according to apriori biological criteria. Results: In the final model, living near cropland with pesticides (OR: 2.37; CI: 95% 1.78-3.16) and women aged over 50 years who experienced early menarche (OR: 2.08; CI: 95% 1.06-4.12) had a higher risk of developing breast cancer compared to control subjects. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of exposure to pesticides as an environmental risk factor for the development of breast cancer among women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466421

RESUMO

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a major driver of climatic variability that can have far reaching consequences for public health globally. We explored whether global, regional and country-level rates of people affected by natural disasters (PAD) are linked to ENSO. Annual numbers of PAD between 1964-2017 recorded on the EM-DAT disaster database were combined with UN population data to create PAD rates. Time-series regression was used to assess de-trended associations between PAD and 2 ENSO indices: Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) and multivariate El Niño Index (MEI). Over 95% of PAD were caused by floods, droughts or storms, with over 75% of people affected by these three disasters residing in Asia. Globally, drought-related PAD rate increased sharply in El Niño years (versus neutral years). Flood events were the disaster type most strongly associated with El Niño regionally: in South Asia, flood-related PAD increased by 40.5% (95% CI 19.3% to 65.6%) for each boundary point increase in ONI (p = 0.002). India was found to be the country with the largest increase in flood-related PAD rates following an El Niño event, with the Philippines experiencing the largest increase following La Niña. Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI)-analyses showed consistent results. These findings can be used to inform disaster preparedness strategies.


Assuntos
Desastres , El Niño Oscilação Sul , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...