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1.
Neuroimage ; 213: 116733, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169543

RESUMO

Loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) has long been considered to reflect central basal serotonin transmission. However, the relationship between LDAEP and individual serotonin receptors and transporters has not been fully explored in humans and may involve other neurotransmitter systems. To examine LDAEP's relationship with the serotonin system, we performed PET using serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) imaging via [11C]CUMI-101 and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) imaging via [11C]DASB on a mixed sample of healthy controls (n â€‹= â€‹4: 4 females, 0 males), patients with unipolar (MDD, n â€‹= â€‹11: 4 females, 7 males) and bipolar depression (BD, n â€‹= â€‹8: 4 females, 4 males). On these same participants, we also performed electroencephalography (EEG) within a week of PET scanning, using 1000 â€‹Hz tones of varying intensity to evoke LDAEP. We then evaluated the relationship between LDAEP and 5-HT1A or 5-HTT binding in both the raphe (5-HT1A)/midbrain (5-HTT) areas and in the temporal cortex. We found that LDAEP was significantly correlated with 5-HT1A positively and with 5-HTT negatively in the temporal cortex (p â€‹< â€‹0.05), but not correlated with either in midbrain or raphe. In males only, exploratory analysis showed multiple regions in which LDAEP significantly correlated with 5-HT1A throughout the brain; we did not find this with 5-HTT. This multimodal study partially validates preclinical models of a serotonergic influence on LDAEP. Replication in larger samples is necessary to further clarify our understanding of the role of serotonin in perception of auditory tones.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have found a reduced reward positivity (RewP) among individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Event-related potential studies have also reported blunted neural responses to pleasant pictures in MDD as reflected by the late positive potential (LPP). These deficits have been interpreted broadly in terms of anhedonia and decreased emotional engagement characteristic of depression. METHODS: In the current study, a community-based sample of 83 participants with current MDD and 45 healthy individuals performed both a guessing task and a picture viewing paradigm with neutral and pleasant pictures to assess the RewP and the LPP, respectively. RESULTS: We found that both RewP and LPP to pleasant pictures were reduced in the MDD group; moreover, RewP and LPP were both independent predictors of MDD status. Within the MDD group, a smaller RewP predicted impaired mood reactivity in younger but not older participants. Smaller LPP amplitudes were associated with increased anhedonia severity in the MDD group. CONCLUSIONS: These data replicate and merge separate previous lines of research, and suggest that a blunted RewP and LPP reflect independent neural deficits in MDD - which could be used in conjunction to improve the classification of depression.

3.
Psychophysiology ; 57(4): e13520, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898810

RESUMO

Individuals with current depression show reduced amplitude of the P300 component of the stimulus-locked event-related potential (ERP)-an effect most often examined in oddball tasks. Although imperative stimuli in response-monitoring paradigms (e.g., the flanker task), also elicit a P300, it is unclear whether a blunted P300 can be observed in depression in these tasks. Moreover, the P300 overlaps with the correct-response negativity (CRN) and error-related negativity (ERN), and is similar to the error positivity (Pe)-response-locked ERPs frequently examined in flanker tasks. The current study examined the stimulus-locked P300 and response-monitoring ERPs on error (i.e., ERN, Pe) and correct responses (i.e., CRN) during an arrowhead flanker task in 72 individuals with a current depressive disorder and 42 never depressed healthy individuals. Consistent with findings from oddball tasks, P300 amplitude was reduced among participants with depression. Further, results indicated increased ERN and CRN, and decreased Pe, in depression. However, when the blunted P300 was included in analyses, group differences in response-monitoring ERPs were no longer evident. Accordingly, P300 amplitudes were correlated negatively with the ERN/CRN and positively with Pe in both groups. A blunted P300 in depression can be observed in speeded response tasks, and can produce apparent increases in ERN and CRN due to ERP component overlap. Further, reduced Pe in participants with depression may reflect a reduced P300 to error commission. These data highlight the central role of reduced P300 in clinical depression, and demonstrate that this effect can be observed across both stimulus- and response-locked ERPs in speeded response tasks.

4.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 20(2): 326-339, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981093

RESUMO

Contemplative practices are thought to modify one's experience of self and fundamentally change self-referential processing. However, few studies have examined the brain correlates of self-referential processing in long-term meditators. Here, we used the self-referential encoding task (SRET) to examine event-related potentials (ERP) during assessment of pleasant and unpleasant self-views in long-term meditators versus age-matched meditation-naïve control participants. Compared with controls, meditators endorsed significantly more pleasant and fewer unpleasant words as self-referential. We also found a between-group difference in the early component of the late-positive-potential (LPP) of the ERP characterized by a larger response to unpleasant versus pleasant words in controls and no difference in meditators. A cross-sectional design, such as the one used in the present study, has certain caveats like self-selectivity bias. If such caveats did not affect our results, these findings suggest that a long-term contemplative lifestyle, of which meditation training is an integral part, alters self-referential processing towards a more adaptive view of self and neural equivalence towards pleasant and unpleasant self-views. These findings suggest that long-term meditation training may affect brain and behavioural mechanism that support a more flexible and healthy relationship to one's self.

5.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 48(1): 91-108, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515716

RESUMO

Reductions in positive affect are a salient feature of preschool-onset major depressive disorder. Yet, little is known about the psychophysiological correlates of this blunted positive affect and whether reduced physiological responding to pleasant stimuli may differentiate depressed and healthy young children. 120 four-to-seven year old children with current depression and 63 psychiatrically healthy 4-to-7 year old children completed a simple picture-viewing task of pleasant and neutral pictures while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The early-childhood version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Depression was used to establish psychiatric diagnoses. A one-way ANCOVA was used to test for group differences in response to pleasant and neutral pictures. Young children with depression showed a reduced response to pleasant vs. neutral pictures (LPP), after controlling for children's age (F(1,180) = 4.15, p = 0.04, η2 = 0.02). The LPP for the children with preschool-onset depression (M = 0.99, SE = 0.65) was significantly smaller than the LPP in the healthy group of young children (M = 3.27, SE = 0.90). This difference did not vary as a function of depression or anhedonia severity within the group with depression or the healthy children. Similar to older children and adolescents with depression, young children with depression display reductions in responsivity to pleasant stimuli as indexed by the LPP. These findings extend prior findings indicating a blunted response to pleasant stimuli in preschool- onset depression. Given the greater neuroplasticity of emotional response and regulation, these findings suggest clinical attention to emotional response to pleasure is an important target in preschool-onset depression. Clinical trial registration information: A Randomized Control Trial of PCIT-ED for Preschool Depression; http://clinicaltrials.gov/;NCT02076425.

6.
Psychophysiology ; 57(2): e13478, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536141

RESUMO

The late positive potential (LPP) is characterized by temporal and spatial changes across development-though existing work has primarily relied on visual or statistical comparisons of relatively few electrodes and averaged activity over time. The current study used an empirically based approach to characterize temporal and spatial changes in ERPs over time. Data were utilized from a large longitudinal study (N = 380) in which the LPP was recorded to pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures around age 9 and again around age 12. Age 9 ERPs were subtracted from age 12 ERPs for all three image types; the resulting ERPs for each subject at each electrode site were then submitted to a temporospatial principal component analysis (PCA). A PCA factor was greater in amplitude for emotional pictures compared to neutral pictures between ages 9 and 12, evident as an occipital negativity and frontocentral positivity that peaked approximately 850 ms following picture presentation. Furthermore, the factor scores to emotional pictures for this component increased as a function of age 12 pubertal development, consistent with the notion that the LPP shifts from occipital to more frontocentral sites in relation to developmental changes from childhood to adolescence. A similar factor was observed when PCA was applied to all ERPs from both ages 9 and 12. Using temporospatial PCA on ERPs collected from the same subjects over time-especially within-subject subtraction-based ERPs-provides a concise way of characterizing and quantifying within-subject developmental changes in both the timing and scalp distribution of ERPs.

7.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 20(1): 172-180, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820417

RESUMO

Research has identified the neural response to errors (the error-related negativity; ERN) as a marker of current anxiety, as well as risk for future anxiety. Previous work found that traditional cognitive behavioral therapy approaches do not impact the ERN. However, none of these approaches directly target the psychological constructs linked to an increased ERN (e.g., error sensitivity). In the current study, we examine the extent to which a brief, computerized intervention ("Treating the ERN"; i.e., TERN) might impact the ERN by reducing error sensitivity. Results suggest that TERN reduced the ERN and that the impact of the intervention was larger amongst individuals with an increased baseline ERN. This study is an important first step in the development of a novel intervention approach that directly targets error sensitivity, and thereby the ERN.

8.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(1): 29-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868385

RESUMO

Researchers in clinical psychophysiology make several methodological decisions during the analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs). In the current study, we review these choices from the perspective of individual differences. We focus on baseline period and reference scheme (i.e., average, mastoid, current source density), as well as choices regarding where (i.e., single electrode site vs. pooling of sites), when (i.e., area, area around peak), and how (i.e., subtraction- or regression-based difference scores) to quantify ERPs. To illustrate the impact of these analytic pathways on internal consistency reliability and individual differences, we focus on the error-related negativity (ERN) and anxiety-and present data from 2 samples: 1st, in adults with diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); 2nd, in relation to continuous self-reported symptoms of GAD in a large community sample of female adolescents. Results generally indicated similar internal consistency and between-subjects effect sizes across all evaluated methods. Nonetheless, some patterns of variation emerged, such as that, across both data sets, difference-based ERN measures, especially with mastoid reference, yielded more robust associations with GAD diagnosis and symptoms, despite somewhat lower internal consistency. The current analyses suggest that the association between ERN and anxiety is robust across a range of commonly used methodological choices. The present study is an example of how systematic analyses of analytic strategies on measures of internal consistency and between-subjects variability could help inform individual-differences ERP research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Criança , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
9.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876170

RESUMO

Objectives: There is an association between depression and diminished social support; indeed, interpersonal dysfunction is often a central feature of depression. The purpose of this study is to examine the role that an emotion regulation (ER) strategy, cognitive reappraisal, plays in influencing the association between depressive symptoms and perceived social support in older adults.Method: Data for this cross-sectional study come from a community-based survey of older adults (60+, N = 910). We examined the effects of depressive symptoms and cognitive reappraisal on perceived social support. We then examined the potential moderating role of cognitive reappraisal on the association between depressive symptoms and perceived social support.Results: Depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of perceived social support. Cognitive reappraisal was associated with higher levels of perceived social support. Cognitive reappraisal moderated the negative consequences of depressive symptoms on perceived social support. Whereas depressive symptoms had a negative effect on perceived social support, the negative effect was greater for those with lower levels of cognitive reappraisal compared to those with higher levels of cognitive reappraisal.Discussion: ER strategies may play a role in attenuating the negative consequences of depressive symptoms on social support in older age. It may be possible to help individuals maintain social support in later life, even in the face of mental health challenges, if they cultivate ER skills.

10.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(8): 867-880, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657597

RESUMO

Disturbances in motivation are prominent in the clinical presentation of people with schizophrenia and might reflect a disturbance in reward processing. Recent advances in affective neuroscience have subdivided reward processing into distinct components, but there are two limitations of the prior work in schizophrenia. First, studies typically focus on only one component rather than on the unfolding of reward processing across multiple stages. Second, studies have not considered the impact of certainty effects, which represent an important contextual factor that impacts processing. We examined whether individuals with schizophrenia show the typical certainty effects across three phases of reward processing: cue evaluation, feedback anticipation, and feedback receipt. Electroencephalography from 74 healthy controls and 92 people with schizophrenia was recorded during a cued gambling task under conditions in which cues indicated forthcoming reward outcomes that were certain or uncertain. Controls demonstrated the expected certainty effects across each stage. Initial cue evaluation (cue P300) was intact in the schizophrenia group, but people with schizophrenia showed diminished certainty effects during feedback anticipation (stimulus-preceding negativity [SPN]) and receipt (feedback reward positivity [fRewP] and feedback P300). During feedback receipt, event-related potentials in people with schizophrenia were similar to controls for the uncertain context but larger than controls for the certain context. Essentially, people with schizophrenia appeared to process certain feedback as though it were uncertain. These findings show, for the first time, that the fundamental distinction between certain and uncertain contexts is altered in schizophrenia at a neural level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Recompensa , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Incerteza , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação
11.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 5009-5022, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486998

RESUMO

Despite evidence suggesting differences in early event-related potential (ERP) responses to social emotional stimuli, little is known about later stage ERP contributions to social emotional processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Adults with and without ASD completed a facial emotion recognition task involving stimuli that varied by emotional intensity while electroencephalograms were recorded. Principal components analysis was used to examine P300 and late positive potential (LPP) modulation by emotional intensity. Results indicated that greater ASD symptomatology evinced heightened P300 to high relative to low intensity faces, then heightened LPP to low relative to high intensity faces. Findings suggest that adults with greater ASD symptomatology may demonstrate a lag in engagement in elaborative processing of low intensity faces.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados , Reconhecimento Facial , Adulto , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reward processing deficits have been implicated in the etiology of depression. A blunted reward positivity (RewP), an event-related potential elicited by feedback to monetary gain relative to loss, predicts new onsets and increases in depression symptoms. Etiological models of depression also highlight stressful life events. However, no studies have examined whether stressful life events moderate the effect of the RewP on subsequent depression symptoms. We examined this question during the key developmental transition from childhood to adolescence. METHODS: A community sample of 369 children (mean age of 9) completed a self-report measure of depression symptoms. The RewP to winning v. losing was elicited using a monetary reward task. Three years later, we assessed stressful life events occurring in the year prior to the follow-up. Youth depressive symptoms were rated by the children and their parents at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: Stressful life events moderated the effect of the RewP on depression symptoms at follow-up such that a blunted RewP predicted higher depression symptoms in individuals with higher levels of stressful life events. This effect was also evident when events that were independent of the youth's behavior were examined separately. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the RewP reflects a vulnerability for depression that is activated by stress.

13.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; : 1-10, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328972

RESUMO

Blunted reward processing both characterizes major depressive disorder and predicts increases in depressive symptoms. However, little is known about the interaction between blunted reward processing and other risk factors in relation to increases in depressive symptoms. Stressful life events and sleep problems are prominent risk factors that contribute to the etiopathogenesis of depression and have been linked to reward dysfunction; these factors may interact with reward dysfunction to predict increased depressive symptoms. In a large sample of 8- to 14-year-old adolescent girls, the current study examined how blunted reward processing, stressful life events, and sleep problems at baseline interacted to predict increases in depressive symptoms 1 year later. Reward processing was indexed by the reward positivity (RewP), an event-related potential elicited during a simple monetary reward paradigm (i.e., Doors task). Two-way interactions confirmed that a blunted RewP predicted increased depressive symptoms at (a) high levels of stress but not average or low levels of stress, and (b) high and average levels of sleep problems but not low levels of sleep problems. Finally, a 3-way interaction confirmed that a blunted RewP predicted increased depressive symptoms at high levels of stress and sleep problems but not average or low levels of stress and sleep problems. Thus, adolescents characterized by low reward response (i.e., blunted RewP) were at an increased risk of developing depressive symptoms if they experienced increased stressful life events or sleep problems; moreover, risk was greatest among adolescents characterized by all 3.

15.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 19(6): 1458-1466, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187443

RESUMO

Converging evidence suggests that reinforcement learning (RL) signals exist within the human brain and that they play a role in the modification of behaviour. According to RL theory, prediction errors are used to update values associated with actions and/or predictive cues, thus facilitate decision-making. For example, the reward positivity-a feedback-sensitive component of the event-related brain potential (ERP)-is thought to index an RL prediction error. An unresolved question, however, is whether or not action is required to elicit a reward positivity. Reinforcement learning theory would predict that the reward positivity should diminish or disappear in the absence of action, but evidence for this claim is conflicting. To investigate the impact of cue, choice, and action on the amplitude of the reward positivity, we altered a two-armed bandit task by systematically removing these factors. The reward positivity was greatly reduced or absent in the altered versions of the task. This result highlights the key role of agency in producing learning signals, such as the reward positivity.

16.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 15: 71-95, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067414

RESUMO

Event-related potentials (ERPs) are direct measures of brain activity that can be leveraged for clinically meaningful research. They can relate robustly both to continuous measures of individual difference and to categorical diagnoses in ways that clarify similarities and distinctions between apparently related disorders and traits. ERPs can be linked to genetic risk, can act as moderators of developmental trajectories and responses to stress, and can be leveraged to identify those at greater risk for psychopathology, especially when used in combination with other neural and self-report measures. ERPs can inform models of the development of, and risk for, psychopathology. Finally, ERPs can be used as targets for existing and novel interventions and prevention efforts. We provide concrete examples for each of these possibilities by focusing on programmatic research on the error-related negativity and anxiety, and thus show that ERPs are poised to make greater contributions toward the identification, prediction, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.

17.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(4): 305-314, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045413

RESUMO

Blunted reward sensitivity and life stress are each depressogenic. Additionally, individuals with clinical and psychosocial vulnerabilities are prone to experience or evoke dependent life stressors (e.g., interpersonal conflict) that, in turn, increase depression risk. However, no previous study has investigated the role of neural vulnerability factors in generating life stress. Therefore, the current study investigated whether a neural measure of reward sensitivity prospectively predicts the generation of life stress, which in turn mediates effects of these neural processes on subsequent depression. Participants were 467 never-depressed adolescent girls. Using event-related potentials, neural sensitivity to the difference between monetary reward and loss (the Reward Positivity [RewP]) was assessed at baseline. Negative life events were assessed twice via interview over the ensuing 18 months, yielding an index of total life stress over the follow-up period. A self-report dimensional measure of depression symptoms was administered at baseline and follow-up. After accounting for baseline age, depression, and race, a blunted RewP predicted greater dependent, but not independent, life stress over the follow-up. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of the RewP on follow-up depression through dependent, but not independent, life stress. Our results suggest that neural processing reward and loss plays a crucial role in depressogenic stress generation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Recompensa , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
Psychophysiology ; 56(7): e13367, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950526

RESUMO

The etiology of major depressive disorder is heterogeneous, and differing pathways leading to the development of depression are proposed to account for alternative variants of depressive illness and their distinct comorbidity patterns. The present study was undertaken as a step toward developing a model for conceptualizing and quantifying dispositional proneness to depression, marked by reduced neural sensitivity to rewarding events and more persistent occurrence of depressive symptomatology. Using data for college and community adult participants (N = 201), we sought to quantify variations in depression proneness by combining symptom indicators of persistent depressive conditions (dysthymic disorder, depressive personality) with a brain potential response that has been shown to index sensitivity to pleasurable events-the reward positivity (RewP; Proudfit, 2015). We first extended prior work on the RewP and depression by showing that the magnitude of RewP covaried negatively with symptoms of persistent depressive conditions (dysthymia, depressive personality) but not with current levels of depression. Persistent depressive symptoms and the RewP were then combined to form a composite neuroclinical index of depression proneness. Compared to persistent depressive symptoms alone, this composite dimensional index showed improved specificity of relations with diagnostic criterion measures, that is, similar-level associations with other indicators of depression proneness but significantly lower associations with fear disorder symptomatology. These findings provide evidence that a dimension of depression proneness can be quantified effectively by combining psychological indicators of persistent depression with a neurophysiological index of a core depression-related process (i.e., reward sensitivity).

19.
Psychophysiology ; 56(7): e13359, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820966

RESUMO

Detecting and correcting errors is essential to successful action. Studies on response monitoring have examined scalp ERPs following the commission of motor slips in speeded-response tasks, focusing on a frontocentral negativity (i.e., error-related negativity or ERN). Sensorimotor neurophysiologists investigating cortical monitoring of reactive balance recovery behavior observe a strikingly similar pattern of scalp ERPs following externally imposed postural errors, including a brief frontocentral negativity that has been referred to as the balance N1. We integrate and review relevant literature from these discrepant fields to suggest shared underlying mechanisms and potential benefits of collaboration across fields. Unlike the cognitive tasks leveraged to study the ERN, balance perturbations afford precise experimental control of postural errors to elicit balance N1s that are an order of magnitude larger than the ERN and drive robust and well-characterized adaptation of behavior within an experimental session. Many factors that modulate the ERN, including motivation, perceived consequences, perceptual salience, expectation, development, and aging, are likewise known to modulate the balance N1. We propose that the ERN and balance N1 reflect common neural activity for detecting errors. Collaboration across fields could help clarify the functional significance of the ERN and poorly understood interactions between motor and cognitive impairments.

20.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 103: 233-240, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721837

RESUMO

The menstrual cycle is known to impact mood and cognitive function and has been shown to lead to variability in symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorders and anxiety. Using a within-subject design, the present study examined ovarian hormones, the error-related negativity (ERN), and self-reported checking symptoms in both the mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. ERN amplitude and checking symptom severity did not vary between the follicular and luteal phases. However, a more negative ERN was associated with greater checking symptoms in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, even when controlling for ERN amplitude in the follicular phase. Moreover, changes in checking symptoms between phases were associated with phase-related changes in the ERN. Finally, a significant mediation model was found such that the ERN measured in the luteal phase mediated the association between progesterone in the luteal phase and checking symptoms in the luteal phase. Collectively, the present findings suggest that levels of progesterone in the luteal phase could impact checking symptoms by modulating response monitoring and sensitivity to errors, and that fluctuation in the ERN between menstrual cycle phases may play an important role in the expression of anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

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