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1.
Zootaxa ; 5004(2): 251-287, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811307

RESUMO

Petrosiidae (Haplosclerida, Demospongiae) is characterized by the hard and friable consistency, and an isotropic reticulated skeleton of oxeas/ strongyles. The Brazilian coast and oceanic islands harbor three out of four known genera of Petrosiidae: Neopetrosia de Laubenfels, 1949; Petrosia (Petrosia) Vosmaer, 1885 and Xestospongia de Laubenfels, 1932. A taxonomic survey of samples from several expeditions housed at the Porifera Collection of Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, with additional comparative materials obtained from the Museu de Cincias Naturais, Fundao Zoobotnica do Rio Grande do Sul, and Universidade Federal de Pernambuco enabled the description of two new species: P. (P.) revizee sp. nov. and X. dorigo sp. nov. We also recorded a range extention for Neopetrosia proxima and Xestospongia muta, and Xestospongia grayi was synonymized with X. muta. Other species reported from the country are diagnosed, and an identification key for Petrosiidae from Brazil is provided.


Assuntos
Expedições , Poríferos , Animais , Brasil
2.
Zootaxa ; 5052(3): 353-379, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810868

RESUMO

Here, we describe four new species of Crellidae Dendy, 1922 and discuss characters and relationships from published molecular phylogenies including crellid sponges. New species proposed are Crella (Pytheas) chiloensis Fernandez, Gastaldi, Pardo Hajdu, sp. nov., from southern Chile (15 m depth), C. (P.) desventuradae Fernandez, Gastaldi, Zapata-Herndez Hajdu, sp. nov., from Desventuradas Archipelago (1020 m depth), Crella (P.) santacruzae Fernandez, Gastaldi, Thompson Hajdu, sp. nov., from deep waters off Argentina (750 m depth) and Crellomima sigmatifera Fernandez, Gastaldi Hajdu, sp. nov., from the Chilean fjords region (ca. 20 m depth). These new species are set apart from each other and from known species mainly due to aspects of their spiculation. Chelae microscleres and acanthostyles supply characters that might be used to infer phylogenetic relationships and to verify the monophyly of Crella Gray, 1867 and Crellidae, which has seemingly been contradicted by preliminary molecular data available in the systematics literature. Our own interpretation of phylogenetic affinities, in the light of morphological characters from previous taxonomic studies, argues for a classification reassessment of materials (vouchers) included in these molecular phylogenies, especially in the case of Crella incrustans (Carter, 1885). We argue that currently available molecular phylogenetic outcomes for crellid sponges are not supportive of the polyphyly of Crella and Crellidae.


Assuntos
Estuários , Poríferos , Animais , Chile , Filogenia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4979(1): 3856, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187015

RESUMO

The peer-reviewed journal Zootaxa has accelerated the rate of sponge (Porifera) species discoveries in 289 peer-reviewed papers published between 2002 up until the end of 2020, describing 725 new species, six new subspecies, 27 new genera, four new subgenera, and 123 new species and genus names needed to resolve existing homonyms. Zootaxa has been the most prolific of all taxonomic journals in its contributions to describing new taxa of Porifera in modern times. This present article analyses these taxonomic contributions over the past 20 years of Zootaxa, including their trends and highlights pertaining to sponge publications.


Assuntos
Poríferos/classificação , Animais , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto
4.
Neurochem Int ; 146: 105021, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741413

RESUMO

Benzodiazepines are commonly used to treat disorders of the central nervous system, including anxiety. However, due to their adverse effects, there is a continuing interest in discovering new safe and effective drugs. Marine natural products have emerged as a prolific source of bioactive nitrogenated compounds. Aiming to discover new biologically active natural compounds, the marine sponge Aplysina fulva, a nitrogen-bearing heterocyst producer, was investigated. The main isolated compounds (4, 6, and 9) were evaluated on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). A group of fishes (n = 6) was preliminarily subjected to acute toxicity, and open field tests using 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL (v. o.) of those compounds was performed. The anxiolytic effect was further investigated in the light/dark assay based on the locomotor response at zebrafish. Interactions through the GABAergic system were investigated using flumazenil, a silent modulator of GABA receptors. To improve the results, a study of molecular docking using the GABAA receptor also was performed. Based on the results, the bromotyrosine derivative compounds 4, 6, and 9 exhibited anxiolytic-like effects mediated by the GABAergic system.

5.
Zookeys ; 1011: 101-120, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551653

RESUMO

The first taxonomic descriptions of the sponge diversity at El Pelado Marine Protected Area in the province of Santa Elena, Ecuador is reported. Tedania (Tedania) ecuadoriensis Jaramillo & Hajdu, sp. nov. is described from its shallow waters. In addition, Callyspongia (Callyspongia) aff. californica (sensuCruz-Barraza and Carballo 2008; non sensuDickinson 1945) and Cliona aff. euryphylle are reported for the first time. The former species is likely distributed over 4,000 km along the Tropical Eastern Pacific, whereas the latter might be an example of a trans-isthmian lineage. An amended diagnosis for Callyspongia (Callyspongia) and an updated identification key for the subgenera of Callyspongia are provided.

6.
Zootaxa ; 4778(3): zootaxa.4778.3.5, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055812

RESUMO

Currently 26 sponge species are known for the Peruvian coast, but so far no raspailiids had been recorded from this region. Raspailiidae are distributed worldwide and its species are characterized by encrusting, massive, lobate, fan-shaped or branching growth forms, usually with a very hispid surface. In the present study, three new species of Raspailiidae are described from the Peruvian coast. Two new Eurypon spp. were collected at Islas Lobos de Afuera (Lambayeque). Eurypon lacertus sp. nov. is a thinly encrusting orange sponge with choanosomal skeleton composed of large tylostyles and small acanthostyles, and ectosomal skeleton with anisoxeas. Eurypon hookeri sp. nov. is a crustose, ruby red sponge, with choanosomal skeleton composed of large (subtylo)styles and acanthostyles, and ectosomal skeleton pierced by acanthostyles and (subtylo)styles, often surrounded by bouquets of smaller styles. The third new species, Plocamione matarani sp. nov., was collected at Matarani (Arequipa). It is a thinly encrusting orange sponge, the only Plocamione with two categories of choanosomal styles, and a single category of ectosomal styles, acanthostyles and anisoacanthostrongyles. These are the first records of Eurypon and Plocamione for the Peruvian coast, and the entire Southeastern Pacific, in the case of the latter.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Peru
7.
Zootaxa ; 4853(3): zootaxa.4853.3.6, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056369

RESUMO

Ciocalypta includes species with finger-shaped fistules emerging from a basal mass and skeleton composed by a central axis and secondary tracts supporting the ectosome. Although worldwide distributed, no species of this genus has been reported from the Eastern Pacific. In this study, a new Ciocalypta is described from shallow waters of the southern coast of Peru. Ciocalypta magnastyla sp. nov. is greenish white, possesses the typical fistules with oscula located at their tips, and it is characterized by the presence of large styles (370-1000/5.0-32.5 µm) in combination with oxeas of intermediate size (160-500/5.0-12.5 µm). This new species constitutes the first record of the genus for the Peruvian coast as well as for the entire Eastern Pacific.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Peru
8.
PeerJ ; 8: e9431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714660

RESUMO

This article describes or redescribes four hexactinellid sponges, namely Poliopogon amadou, Euplectella sanctipauli sp. nov., Bolosoma perezi sp. nov. and Advhena magnifica gen. et sp. nov. P. amadou, E. sanctipauli sp. nov. and B. perezi sp. nov. represent new findings for the South Atlantic deep-sea fauna, including the first record of Bolosoma for this ocean. Advhena magnifica gen. et sp. nov., on the other hand, was collected by NOAA oceanographic expeditions in the North Pacific (Pigafetta Guyot).

9.
Zootaxa ; 4728(1): zootaxa.4728.1.4, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230585

RESUMO

Antarctic sponges were mainly studied from trawling or dredging (shallow and deep water) during pioneering oceanographic expeditions carried out since the late 19th century. More recently, sponge collections by SCUBA diving have allowed the detection of species in more cryptic habitats such as rocky walls. In this study, we analyzed Antarctic sponges collected by SCUBA (in 2016 to 2018; shallower than 25 m) around Doumer Island (Palmer Archipelago, Western Antarctic Peninsula-WAP), where only five sponge species have been known. We gathered over 215 specimens, most part identified; 18 known species and one new species. Clathria (Axosuberites) retamalesi sp. nov., is set apart from its congeners on account of the combination of its habit, categories and dimensions of spicules. The East Antarctic material named as Hymeniacidon spec. (3397 m depth) from the Gauss scientific collection has been related to the shallow species H. torquata Topsent, 1916. We described H. torquata based in several specimens (n= 51) from Doumer Island (WAP), only ca. 41 km from Petermann Island (the type locality). Spicules of H. torquata are smaller than the ones present in the Hymeniacidon spec. material, which is here named Hymeniacidon hentscheli sp. nov., since it does not fit into any known cold water species of Hymeniacidon from Antarctica or the Southern Hemisphere, due to a combination of habit, oscula shape, and spicule dimensions. Only five sponge species were previously known from Doumer Island, also collected by SCUBA. Our findings suggest that the ongoing study of collections of sponges assembled at Doumer Island will still yield new taxonomic findings.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Ecossistema , Ilhas
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 884-892, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426232

RESUMO

Human occupation of coastal areas promotes the establishment of non-native species but information on bioinvasions is usually biased toward the Northern Hemisphere. We assessed non-native species' importance in sessile communities at six marinas along the most urbanized area of the Southwestern Atlantic coastline. We found 67 species, of which 19 are exotic. The most frequent species was the exotic polychaete Branchiomma luctuosum, while the most abundant was the exotic bryozoan Schizoporella errata that monopolized the substrata in three marinas. Along with S. errata, the exotic polychaete Hydroides elegans and ascidian Styela plicata dominated space in the three remaining marinas, while native species were in general rare. We show that communities associated with artificial substrata along this Brazilian urbanized area are dominated by exotic species and that using abundance data along with species identity can improve our understanding of the importance of exotic species for the dynamics of biological communities.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Oceano Atlântico , Biota , Brasil , Briozoários/classificação , Briozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Poliquetos/classificação , Poliquetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional , Urocordados/classificação , Urocordados/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Zootaxa ; 4466(1): 69-77, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313440

RESUMO

Hamacantha occurs worldwide and frequently in deep-waters. It is easily distinguished from any other sponge by the possession of conspicuous diancistra microscleres. Here we describe two new species from the Rio Grande Rise. Hamacantha (Vomerula) jeanvaceleti sp. nov. is the sole Hamacantha with styles, diancistras in two categories with the smaller ones cyrtancistra-like; and H. (V.) klausruetzleri sp. nov., the sole with two types of megascleres (styles and strongyles), two categories of diancistras, and two categories of sigmas.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais
12.
Zootaxa ; 4442(1): 137-152, 2018 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313987

RESUMO

Two new species of Hemimycale from Southeastern Brazil are described in this study with the use of morphological and molecular data. Hemimycale oxeata sp. nov. is orange salmon colored in life and has unique oxeote like tornote spicules in addition to the typical (subtylo-)strongyles of the genus. Hemimycale ceadensis sp. nov. is reddish orange in life and has raised, tiny pore sieves, and subtylostrongyles with asymmetrical ends and raphides as microscleres. The diagnosis of the genus Hemimycale was slightly modified for the inclusion of the new species. Maximum-Likelihood analyses of 18S rRNA and COI sequences resulted in the clustering of both new species with the type species of the genus, thus confirming our morphological identification. The value of anatomical characters of pore sieves for diagnosing species and the genus is discussed. A key for species identification is also furnished.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Brasil , RNA Ribossômico 18S
14.
PeerJ ; 6: e4935, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892508

RESUMO

Sponges belonging to genus Mycale are common and widely distributed across the oceans and represent a significant component of benthic communities in term of their biomass, which in many species is largely composed by bacteria. However, the microbial communities associated with Mycale species inhabiting different geographical areas have not been previously compared. Here, we provide the first detailed description of the microbiota of two Mycale species inhabiting the sub-Antarctic Magellan region (53°S) and the Western Antarctic Peninsula (62-64°S), two geographically distant areas (>1,300 km) with contrasting environmental conditions. The sponges Mycale (Aegogropila) magellanica and Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata are both abundant members of benthic communities in the Magellan region and in Antarctica, respectively. High throughput sequencing revealed a remarkable similarity in the microbiota of both sponge species, dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, with both species sharing more than 74% of the OTUs. In contrast, 16% and 10% of the OTUs were found only in either M. magellanica or M. acerata, respectively. Interestingly, despite slight differences in the relative abundance, the most dominant OTUs were present in both species, whereas the unique OTUs had very low abundances (less than 1% of the total abundance). These results show a significant overlap among the microbiota of both Mycale species and also suggest the existence of a low level of specificity of the most dominant symbiont groups.

15.
Microb Ecol ; 76(3): 825-838, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29546438

RESUMO

Marine sponge holobionts harbor complex microbial communities whose members may be the true producers of secondary metabolites accumulated by sponges. Bromopyrrole alkaloids constitute a typical class of secondary metabolites isolated from sponges that very often display biological activities. Bromine incorporation into secondary metabolites can be catalyzed by either halogenases or haloperoxidases. The diversity of the metagenomes of sponge holobiont species containing bromopyrrole alkaloids (Agelas spp. and Tedania brasiliensis) as well as holobionts devoid of bromopyrrole alkaloids spanning in a vast biogeographic region (approx. Seven thousand km) was studied. The origin and specificity of the detected halogenases was also investigated. The holobionts Agelas spp. and T. brasiliensis did not share microbial halogenases, suggesting a species-specific pattern. Bacteria of diverse phylogenetic origins encoding halogenase genes were found to be more abundant in bromopyrrole-containing sponges. The sponge holobionts (e.g., Agelas spp.) with the greatest number of sequences related to clustered, interspaced, short, palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) exhibited the fewest phage halogenases, suggesting a possible mechanism of protection from phage infection by the sponge host. This study highlights the potential of phages to transport halogenases horizontally across host sponges, particularly in more permissive holobiont hosts, such as Tedania spp.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Bactérias/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Hidrolases/genética , Poríferos/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bromo/metabolismo , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Poríferos/química , Metabolismo Secundário
16.
J Nat Prod ; 81(1): 188-202, 2018 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297684

RESUMO

The isolation and identification of a series of new pseudoceratidine (1) derivatives from the sponge Tedania brasiliensis enabled the evaluation of their antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agents of malaria, cutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, respectively. The new 3-debromopseudoceratidine (4), 20-debromopseudoceratidine (5), 4-bromopseudoceratidine (6), 19-bromopseudoceratidine (7), and 4,19-dibromopseudoceratidine (8) are reported. New tedamides A-D (9-12), with an unprecedented 4-bromo-4-methoxy-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide moiety, are also described. Compounds 4 and 5, 6 and 7, 9 and 10, and 11 and 12 have been isolated as pairs of inseparable structural isomers differing in their sites of bromination or oxidation. Tedamides 9+10 and 11+12 were obtained as optically active pairs, indicating an enzymatic formation rather than an artifactual origin. N12-Acetylpseudoceratidine (2) and N12-formylpseudoceratidine (3) were obtained by derivatization of pseudoceratidine (1). The antiparasitic activity of pseudoceratidine (1) led us to synthesize 23 derivatives (16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27-29, 31, 33, 35, 38, 39, 42, 43, 46, 47, 50, and 51) with variations in the polyamine chain and aromatic moiety in sufficient amounts for biological evaluation in antiparasitic assays. The measured antimalarial activity of pseudoceratidine (1) and derivatives 4, 5, 16, 23, 25, 31, and 50 provided an initial SAR evaluation of these compounds as potential leads for antiparasitics against Leishmania amastigotes and against P. falciparum. The results obtained indicate that pseudoceratidine represents a promising scaffold for the development of new antimalarial drugs.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Poríferos/química , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173859, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28329020

RESUMO

Although sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems of the Caribbean Sea, their diversity remained poorly investigated in the Lesser Antilles. By organizing a training course in Martinique, we wanted both to promote taxonomy and to provide a first inventory of the sponge diversity on this island. The course was like a naturalist expedition, with a field laboratory and a classroom nearby. Early-career scientists and environmental managers were trained in sponge taxonomy. We gathered unpublished data and conducted an inventory at 13 coastal sites. We explored only shallow water habitats (0-30 m), such as mangroves, reefs or rocky bottoms and underwater caves. According to this study, the sponge fauna of Martinique is currently represented by a minimum of 191 species, 134 of which we could assign species names. One third of the remaining non-identified sponge species we consider to be new to science. Martinique appears very remarkable because of its littoral marine fauna harboring sponge aggregations with high biomass and species diversity dominating over coral species. In mangroves, sponges cover about 10% of the surface of subtidal roots. Several submarine caves are true reservoirs of hidden and insufficiently described sponge diversity. Thanks to this new collaborative effort, the Eastern Caribbean has gained a significant increase of knowledge, with sponge diversity of this area potentially representing 40% of the total in the Caribbean Sea. We thus demonstrated the importance of developing exploratory and educational research in areas historically devoid of biodiversity inventories and systematics studies. Finally, we believe in the necessity to consider not only the number of species but their distribution in space to evaluate their putative contribution to ecosystem services and our willingness to preserve them.


Assuntos
Poríferos/classificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Classificação , Ecologia/educação , Ecossistema , Martinica , Poríferos/anatomia & histologia , Zoologia/educação
18.
J Nat Prod ; 80(3): 720-725, 2017 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28191951

RESUMO

Marine sponges are a rich source of terpenoids with rearranged spongian carbon skeletons. Investigation of extracts from the sponge Darwinella cf. oxeata yielded four new rearranged diterpenoids, oxeatine (2) and oxeatamides H-J (3-5), as well as the known metabolites oxeatamide A (6), oxeatamide A methyl ester (7), and membranolide (1). Oxeatine (2) has a new heterocyclic skeleton, while oxeatamide J (5) has an N-methyl urea group included in a γ-lactam moiety. UPLC-QTOF analysis of the extract obtained from the mantle of the nudibranch Felimida grahami indicated the presence of 1 and 4.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Gastrópodes/química , Poríferos/química , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Biologia Marinha , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular
19.
Zootaxa ; 4184(2): 386-390, 2016 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811648

RESUMO

Artemisina is a microcionid characterized by lacking a distinctive choanosomal skeleton or definite spongin fibres, lacking also echinating spicules, and with a nearly radial ectosomal skeleton (Hooper 2002). The genus currently has 19 valid species, six of which are recorded from the Atlantic Ocean (Van Soest et al. 2016): A. erecta Topsent, 1904, A. incrustans van Soest et al., 2013, A. melana van Soest, 1984, A. melanoides van Soest et al., 2013, A. transiens Topsent, 1890 and A. vulcani Lévi, 1963. The present study describes a new species of Artemisina from Northeastern Brazil. Four specimens of Artemisina brasili sp. nov. were collected by snorkelling at Pernambuco State. All specimens were preserved in 80% ethanol and deposited in the Porifera Collections at the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPEPOR) and Museu Nacional of Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ).


Assuntos
Poríferos/classificação , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Poríferos/anatomia & histologia
20.
Zootaxa ; 4158(1): 105-16, 2016 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615873

RESUMO

Alveospongia sinuosclera gen. nov. sp. nov. is described from shallow-waters off Canavieiras (Bahia, Brazil). The species bears an unusual morphology, combining saccular or alveolar, evenly perforated habit, and sinuous spiny microrhabdose microscleres. This sponge is tentatively classified within the Heteroxyidae Dendy (1905), on the basis of its confused choanosomal architecture of styles, and possession of spiny microrhabdose microscleres. Assays to generate DNA sequences from this material were unsuccessful. We emended the diagnosis of the family to include species bearing saccular/alveolar shape, microrhabdose acanthomicrostrongyles and styles/strongyles with modifications at the ends. The proposed new genus is compared to the remaining heteroxyid genera, as well as Crella (Crellidae), Batzella (Chondropsidae), Goreauiella (Astroscleridae) and Sceptrintus (Podospongiidae). A revised key for identification of Heteroxyidae genera is provided.


Assuntos
Poríferos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Tamanho do Órgão , Poríferos/anatomia & histologia , Poríferos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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