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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive Ventilation (NIV) is a well-established treatment for Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF) in hematological cancer. However, the NIV impact on mortality in patients with solid tumors is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To define the factors associated with NIV failure and mortality and to describe the mortality risk of patients with solid tumors requiring NIV for ARF treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with solid tumors admitted into an ICU between Jan 2016 and Dec 2017, for cancer treatment, with ARF diagnosis that had used the NIV as first-line treatment. Our primary outcome was ICU and in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcome was NIV failure. A Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify variables associated with mortality and NIV failure. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to demonstrate cumulative survival. RESULTS: A total of 226 patients with solid tumors were included. The ICU and hospital mortality rates were 57.5% and 69.5%, respectively. NIV failed in 52.2% of the patients. The use of vasopressors (HR 2.48 [95% CI: 1.43-4.30] p = 0.001), baseline lactate (HR 1.20 [95% CI: 1.07-1.35] p = 0.003), baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio (HR1.33 [1.11-1.55] p = 0.002), and NIV success (HR0.17 [95% CI: 0.10-0.27] p = 0.005) was independently associated with hospital mortality. The use of vasopressors (HR 2.58 [95% CI: 1.41-4.73] p = 0.02), NIV duration (HR 0.93 [95% CI: 0.89-0.97] p = 0.003), and baseline lactate (HR 1.13 [95% CI: 1.06-1.20] p = 0.001) was associated with NIV failure. CONCLUSIONS: NIV failure was independently associated with an increase in both ICU and hospital mortality rates. In patients with NIV therapy indication, the duration of this intervention was associated with NIV failure.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554620

RESUMO

Background - COVID-19 has led to over 1 million deaths worldwide and has been associated with cardiac complications including cardiac arrhythmias. The incidence and pathophysiology of these manifestations remain elusive. In this worldwide survey of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who developed cardiac arrhythmias, we describe clinical characteristics associated with various arrhythmias, as well as global differences in modulations of routine electrophysiology practice during the pandemic. Methods - We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection worldwide with and without incident cardiac arrhythmias. Patients with documented atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter (AFL), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), non-sustained or sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), atrioventricular block (AVB), or marked sinus bradycardia (HR<40bpm) were classified as having arrhythmia. De-identified data was provided by each institution and analyzed. Results - Data was collected for 4,526 patients across 4 continents and 12 countries, 827 of whom had an arrhythmia. Cardiac comorbidities were common in patients with arrhythmia: 69% had hypertension, 42% diabetes mellitus, 30% had heart failure and 24% coronary artery disease. Most had no prior history of arrhythmia. Of those who did develop an arrhythmia, the majority (81.8%) developed atrial arrhythmias, 20.7% developed ventricular arrhythmias, and 22.6% had bradyarrhythmia. Regional differences suggested a lower incidence of AF in Asia compared to other continents (34% vs. 63%). Most patients in in North America and Europe received hydroxychloroquine, though the frequency of hydroxychloroquine therapy was constant across arrhythmia types. Forty-three percent of patients who developed arrhythmia were mechanically ventilated and 51% survived to hospital discharge. Many institutions reported drastic decreases in electrophysiology procedures performed. Conclusions - Cardiac arrhythmias are common and associated with high morbidity and mortality among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection. There were significant regional variations in the types of arrhythmias and treatment approaches.

3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the COVID-19 pandemic, the increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality from them has been recognized worldwide. In Brazil, the impact of COVID-19 on CVD must be evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of the current pandemic on the numbers of hospital admissions (HA), in-hospital deaths (ID), and in-hospital fatality (IF) from CVD by use of national epidemiological data from the Brazilian Unified Public Health System. METHODS: Time-series observational study using comparative analysis of the HA, ID, and IF due to CVD recorded from January to May 2020, having as reference the values registered in the same period from 2016 to 2019 and the values projected by linear regression methods for 2020. The statistical significance level applied was 0.05. RESULTS: Compared to the same period in 2019, there was a 15% decrease in the HA rate and a 9% decrease in the total ID due to CVD between March and May 2020, followed by a 9% increase in the IF rate due to CVD, especially among patients aged 20-59 years. The HA and IF rates registered in 2020 differed significantly from the projected trend for 2020 (p = 0.0005 and 0.0318, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: During the first months of the pandemic, there were a decline in HA and an increase in IF due to CVD in Brazil. These data might have resulted from the inadequate planning of the CVD management during the pandemic. Thus, immediate actions are required to change this scenario. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).

4.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 15, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of inotropes are well-known, and in many fields they are only used within a goal-directed therapy approach. Nevertheless, standard management in many centers includes administering inotropes to all patients undergoing cardiac surgery to prevent low cardiac output syndrome and its implications. Randomized evidence in favor of a patient-tailored, inotrope-sparing approach is still lacking. We designed a randomized controlled noninferiority trial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with normal ejection fraction to assess whether an dobutamine-sparing strategy (in which the use of dobutamine was guided by hemodynamic evidence of low cardiac output associated with signs of inadequate tissue perfusion) was noninferior to an inotrope-to-all strategy (in which all patients received dobutamine). RESULTS: A total of 160 patients were randomized to the dobutamine-sparing strategy (80 patients) or to the dobutamine-to-all approach (80 patients). The primary composite endpoint of 30-day mortality or occurrence of major cardiovascular complications (arrhythmias, acute myocardial infarction, low cardiac output syndrome and stroke or transient ischemic attack) occurred in 25/80 (31%) patients of the dobutamine-sparing group (p = 0.74) and 27/80 (34%) of the dobutamine-to-all group. There were no significant differences between groups regarding the incidence of acute kidney injury, prolonged mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit or hospital length of stay. DISCUSSION: Although it is common practice in many centers to administer inotropes to all patients undergoing cardiac surgery, a dobutamine-sparing strategy did not result in an increase of mortality or occurrence of major cardiovascular events when compared to a dobutamine-to-all strategy. Further research is needed to assess if reducing the administration of inotropes can improve outcomes in cardiac surgery. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02361801. Registered Feb 2nd, 2015. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02361801.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498096

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with advanced heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) and concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) might have a higher risk of severe events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively studied 16 patients with advanced HFrEF who developed COVID-19 between 1 March and 29 May 2020. Follow-up lasted until 30 September. Ten patients previously hospitalized with decompensated HFrEF were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during hospitalization. Six patients undergoing ambulatory care at initiation of COVID-19 symptoms were hospitalized because of advanced HFrEF. All patients who experienced worsening of HFrEF due to COVID-19 required higher doses or introduction of additional inotropic drugs or intra-aortic balloon pump in the intensive care unit. The mean intravenous dobutamine dose before SARS-CoV-2 infection in previously hospitalized patients (n = 10) and the median (inter-quartile range) peak intravenous dobutamine dose during SARS-CoV-2 infection in all patients (n = 16) were 2 (0-7) µg/kg/min and 20 (14-20) (P < 0.001), respectively. During follow-up, 56% underwent heart transplantation (n = 2) or died (n = 7). Four patients died during hospitalization from mixed shock consequent to severe acute respiratory syndrome with inflammatory storm syndrome associated with septic and cardiogenic shock during COVID-19. After COVID-19 recovery, two patients died from mixed septic and cardiogenic shock and one from sustained ventricular tachycardia and cardiogenic shock. Five patients were discharged from hospital to ambulatory care. Four were awaiting heart transplantation. CONCLUSION: Worsening of advanced HF by COVID-19 is associated with high mortality. This report highlights the importance of preventing COVID-19 in patients with advanced HF.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in patients with 2019-nCoV (novel coronavirus 2019) infection still are debated. Because large randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and a well-conducted meta-analysis on the use of corticosteroids, focused on patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in intensive care units, recently were published, a meta-analysis of RCTs on corticosteroids therapy in patients with different disease severity was performed to evaluate the effect on survival. DESIGN: A meta-analyses of RCTs was performed. SETTING: Patients admitted to hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with coronavirus disease. INTERVENTIONS: Administration of corticosteroids. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A search was performed for RCTs of adult patients with acute hypoxemic failure related to 2019-nCoV infection who received corticosteroids versus any comparator. The primary endpoint was mortality rate. Five RCTs involving 7,692 patients were included. Overall mortality of patients treated with corticosteroids was slightly but significantly lower than mortality of controls (26% v 28%, relative risk {RR} = 0.89 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.82-0.96], p = 0.003). The same beneficial effect was found in the subgroup of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (RR = 0.85 [95% CI 0.72-1.00], p = 0.05 number needed to treat {NNT} = 19). Remarkably, corticosteroids increased mortality in the subgroup of patients not requiring oxygen (17% v 13%, RR = 1.23 [95% CI 1.00-1.62], p = 0.05 number needed to harm {NNH} = 29). Tests for comparison between mechanically ventilated subgroups and those not requiring oxygen confirmed that treatment with corticosteroids had a statistically significant different effect on survival. Patients treated with corticosteroids had a significantly lower risk of need for mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids may be considered in severe critically ill patients with COVID-19 but must be discouraged in patients not requiring oxygen therapy. Urgently, further trials are warranted before implementing this treatment worldwide.

7.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 115(5): 1006-1043, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295473
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334651

RESUMO

Hemodynamic conditions with reduced systemic vascular resistance commonly are observed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and may range from moderate reductions in vascular tone, as a side effect of general anesthetics, to a profound vasodilatory syndrome, often referred to as vasoplegic shock. Therapy with vasopressors is an important pillar in the treatment of these conditions. There is limited guidance on the appropriate choice of vasopressors to restore and optimize systemic vascular tone in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A panel of experts in the field convened to develop statements and evidence-based recommendations on clinically relevant questions on the use of vasopressors in cardiac surgical patients, using a critical appraisal of the literature following the GRADE system and a modified Delphi process. The authors unanimously and strongly recommend the use of norepinephrine and/or vasopressin for restoration and maintenance of systemic perfusion pressure in cardiac surgical patients; despite that, the authors cannot recommend either of these drugs with respect to the risk of ischemic complications. The authors unanimously and strongly recommend against using dopamine for treating post-cardiac surgery vasoplegic shock and against using methylene blue for purposes other than a rescue therapy. The authors unanimously and weakly recommend that clinicians consider early addition of a second vasopressor (norepinephrine or vasopressin) if adequate vascular tone cannot be restored by a monotherapy with either norepinephrine or vasopressin and to consider using vasopressin as a first-line vasopressor or to add vasopressin to norepinephrine in cardiac surgical patients with pulmonary hypertension or right-sided heart dysfunction.

9.
AME Case Rep ; 4: 32, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179004

RESUMO

Thymomas are usually tumors with a good prognosis but with potential to invade nearby structures. We report a case of a 56-year-old woman previously diagnosed with an invasive thymoma that came to the emergence room with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome. After a coronary computed tomography angiography, it was seen that the tumor was invading the myocardial and it was irrigated by the left circumflex coronary and its branches. Considering her poor prognosis, it was decided not to make further interventions. This case highlights a unique and rare case of an unresectable thymoma that was invading the myocardium and it was irrigated by the left circumflex coronary and its branches, causing typical angina due to compromised coronary blood flow by the mass causing ischemia.

11.
Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Costa, Isabela Bispo Santos da Silva da; Lopes, Marcelo Antônio Cartaxo Queiroga; Hoff, Paulo Marcelo Gehm; Diz, Maria Del Pilar Estevez; Fonseca, Silvia Moulin Ribeiro; Bittar, Cristina Salvadori; Rehder, Marília Harumi Higuchi dos Santos; Rizk, Stephanie Itala; Almeida, Dirceu Rodrigues; Fernandes, Gustavo dos Santos; Beck-da-Silva, Luís; Campos, Carlos Augusto Homem de Magalhães; Montera, Marcelo Westerlund; Alves, Sílvia Marinho Martins; Fukushima, Júlia Tizue; Santos, Maria Verônica Câmara dos; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Silva, Thiago Liguori Feliciano da; Ferreira, Silvia Moreira Ayub; Malachias, Marcus Vinicius Bolivar; Moreira, Maria da Consolação Vieira; Valente Neto, Manuel Maria Ramos; Fonseca, Veronica Cristina Quiroga; Soeiro, Maria Carolina Feres de Almeida; Alves, Juliana Barbosa Sobral; Silva, Carolina Maria Pinto Domingues Carvalho; Sbano, João; Pavanello, Ricardo; Pinto, Ibraim Masciarelli F; Simão, Antônio Felipe; Dracoulakis, Marianna Deway Andrade; Hoff, Ana Oliveira; Assunção, Bruna Morhy Borges Leal; Novis, Yana; Testa, Laura; Alencar Filho, Aristóteles Comte de; Cruz, Cecília Beatriz Bittencourt Viana; Pereira, Juliana; Garcia, Diego Ribeiro; Nomura, Cesar Higa; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Macedo, Ariane Vieira Scarlatelli; Marcatti, Patricia Tavares Felipe; Mathias Junior, Wilson; Wiermann, Evanius Garcia; Val, Renata do; Freitas, Helano; Coutinho, Anelisa; Mathias, Clarissa Maria de Cerqueira; Vieira, Fernando Meton de Alencar Camara; Sasse, André Deeke; Rocha, Vanderson; Ramires, José Antônio Franchini; Kalil Filho, Roberto.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 1006-1043, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1142267
12.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 115(3): 547-557, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027380

RESUMO

The challenges that the COVID-19 pandemic cretead to the healthcare system have made it necessary to adapt routines and services, with the objectives of controlling the spread of the virus and preserving health. Safe and correct management of patients in risks groups, such as elderly patients, patients with cardiovascular diseases, and patients with cancer, has become even more important. Thus, cardio-oncology has gained a new dimension, with the aim of adapting to patients' needs during the pandemic by restructuring the system of care in a manner that offers quality and safety in healthcare.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Cardiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Oncologia , Pandemias
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(3): 547-557, out. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1131313

RESUMO

Resumo O desafio imposto ao sistema de saúde pela pandemia da COVID-19 faz com que haja uma necessidade de readequações de rotinas e serviços de saúde, com os objetivos de controlar a disseminação do vírus e preservar a saúde. Torna-se ainda mais importante o manejo seguro e correto dos pacientes dos grupos de risco, como os pacientes idosos, os portadores de doenças cardiovasculares e os pacientes com câncer. Dessa forma, a cardio-oncologia ganha novo dimensionamento, no intuito de se adequar às necessidades dos pacientes diante de uma pandemia, reestruturando o sistema de atendimento de forma a oferecer qualidade e segurança na assistência à saúde.


Abstract The challenges that the COVID-19 pandemic cretead to the healthcare system have made it necessary to adapt routines and services, with the objectives of controlling the spread of the virus and preserving health. Safe and correct management of patients in risks groups, such as elderly patients, patients with cardiovascular diseases, and patients with cancer, has become even more important. Thus, cardio-oncology has gained a new dimension, with the aim of adapting to patients' needs during the pandemic by restructuring the system of care in a manner that offers quality and safety in healthcare.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Neoplasias/complicações , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1604-1607, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876012

RESUMO

Although high mortality has been reported in many COVID-19 studies, very limited postmortem information from complete autopsies is available. We report the findings in the adrenal glands in 28 autopsies with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Microscopic lesions were identified in the adrenal glands in 12/28 patients (46%). Seven cases showed necrosis, generally ischemic; four showed cortical lipid degeneration; two showed hemorrhage; and one unspecific focal adrenalitis. Vascular thrombosis in one patient and focal inflammation in association with other findings in three patients were observed. No case presented adrenal insufficiency. In conclusion, adrenal lesions are frequent in patients with severe COVID-19. The lesions are mild but could contribute to the lethal outcome.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Autopsia/normas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Autopsia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
18.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 2020 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836520

RESUMO

The care for patients suffering from cardiopulmonary arrest in a context of a COVID-19 pandemic has particularities that should be highlighted. The following recommendations from the Brazilian Association of Emergency Medicine (ABRAMEDE), the Brazilian Society of Cardiology (SBC) and the Brazilian Association of Intensive Medicine (AMIB) and the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA), associations and societies official representatives of specialties affiliated to the Brazilian Medical Association (AMB), aim to guide the various assistant teams, in a context of little solid evidence, maximizing the protection of teams and patients. It is essential to wear full Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for aerosols during the care of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and it is imperative to consider and treat the potential causes in these patients, especially hypoxia and arrhythmias caused by changes in the QT interval or myocarditis. The installation of an advanced invasive airway must be obtained early and the use of High Efficiency Particulate Arrestance (HEPA) filters at the interface with the valve bag is mandatory; situations of occurrence of CPR during mechanical ventilation and in a prone position demand peculiarities that are different from the conventional CPR pattern. Faced with the care of a patient diagnosed or suspected of COVID-19, the care follows the national and international protocols and guidelines 2015 ILCOR (International Alliance of Resuscitation Committees), AHA 2019 Guidelines (American Heart Association) and the Update of the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Care Directive of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology 2019.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Steroid use for COVID-19 is based on the possible role of these drugs in mitigating the inflammatory response, mainly in the lungs, triggered by SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed at evaluating at evaluating the efficacy of methylprednisolone (MP) among hospitalized patients with suspected COVID-19. METHODS: Parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, phase IIb clinical trial was performed with hospitalized patients aged ≥ 18 years with clinical, epidemiological and/or radiological suspected COVID-19, at a tertiary care facility in Manaus, Brazil. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1 ratio) to receive either intravenous MP (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo (saline solution), twice daily, for 5 days. A modified intention-to-treat (mITT) analysis was conducted. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. ClinicalTrials Identifier NCT04343729. FINDINGS: From April 18 to June 16, 2020, 647 patients were screened, 416 randomized, and 393 analyzed as mITT, MP in 194 and placebo in 199 individuals. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by RT-PCR in 81.3%. Mortality at day 28 was not different between groups. A subgroup analysis showed that patients over 60 years in the MP group had a lower mortality rate at day 28. Patients in the MP arm tended to need more insulin therapy, and no difference was seen in virus clearance in respiratory secretion until day 7. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that a short course of MP in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 did not reduce mortality in the overall population.

20.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 115(1): 111-126, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813825

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a huge challenge to the health system because of the exponential increase in the number of individuals affected. The rational use of resources and correct and judicious indication for imaging exams and interventional procedures are necessary, prioritizing patient, healthcare personnel, and environmental safety. This review was aimed at guiding health professionals in safely and effectively performing imaging exams and interventional procedures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
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