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1.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326218

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Hereditary cases account for about 5% of all cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). With advances in next-generation sequencing, several new hereditary syndromes have been described in the last few years. OBJECTIVE: To review and summarise the recent preclinical and clinical literature in hereditary renal cancer. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the literature was performed in November 2018 using PubMed and OMIM databases, with an emphasis on kidney cancer, genetics and genomics, clinical criteria, and management. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Several autosomal dominant hereditary RCC syndromes have been described, including those related to germline pathogenic variants in VHL, MET, FH, TSC1/TSC2, FLCN, SDHA/B/C/D, BAP1, CDC73, and MITF. Clinical spectrum of SDH, BAP1, and MITF is still being defined, although these appear to be associated with a lower incidence of RCC. FH and likely BAP1 RCC are associated with more aggressive disease. Preclinical and clinical studies show that using systemic therapy that exploits specific genetic pathways is a promising strategy. CONCLUSIONS: There are several well-described hereditary RCC syndromes, as well as recently identified ones, for which the full clinical spectrum is yet to be defined. In the new era of precision medicine, identification of these syndromes may play an important role in management and systemic treatment selection. PATIENT SUMMARY: This review covers updates in the diagnosis and management of familial kidney cancer syndromes. We describe updates in testing and management of the most common syndromes such as von Hippel-Lindau, and hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma. We also provide insights into recently described familial kidney cancer syndromes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to evaluate clinical features and prognostic factors in a large single institutional cohort of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) patients for identification of tumors with the highest metastatic potential. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinicopathological parameters of all patients with ChRCC diagnosed and surgically treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 1990 and 2016 were identified and compared with patients treated for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in the same study period using Wilcoxon test for continuous variables and Fisher exact test for categorical variables. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Four hundred ninety-six patients with ChRCC (10-year RFS, 91.7% and OS, 82.1%) and 3312 patients with ccRCC (10-year RFS, 79.4% and OS, 63.6%) were included in the analysis. Patients with ChRCC were younger (median 59 vs. 61 years; P = .0015), less frequently male (54.8% vs. 66.3%; P < .0001), showed more favorable T stages (T1-2 in 78% vs. 67%; P < .0001) and less frequent sarcomatoid differentiation (1.2 % vs. 4%; P = .0008) and showed lower rates of metastatic development compared with ccRCC patients. Larger tumor size, sarcomatoid differentiation, and higher T-stage are significantly associated with adverse RFS and OS in chromophobe tumors. CONCLUSION: ChRCC is more commonly diagnosed in female and younger patients and is associated with a more favorable clinical outcome and a lower propensity for metastatic development than ccRCC. Larger tumors and sarcomatoid differentiation of ChRCC might be considered as risk factors for metastatic development.

3.
Curr Opin Urol ; 29(5): 531-539, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313716

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent publications evaluating cytoreductive nephrectomy in the era of targeted therapy emphasize the importance of patient selection. We reviewed the predictive role of genetic alterations in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) undergoing cytoreductive nephrectomy. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies evaluating the association between genetic alterations and outcomes following systemic treatment for mRCC include mainly patients after cytoreductive nephrectomy. Expression of proangiogenic genes, single nucleotide polymorphisms involving genes of the vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway and somatic mutations of chromatin remodeling genes were associated with response to VEGF-targeted therapy. Outcomes following treatment with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors were initially associated with mTOR/TSC1/TSC2 mutations; however, subsequent studies did not validate these findings but rather found an association between loss of PTEN expression and PBRM1 mutations and improved outcomes. Loss of PBRM1 was initially linked to response to immunotherapy; however, larger studies question this association and showed high expression of T-effector gene signature predicted improved outcome. Primary tumors with low intratumor heterogeneity but elevated somatic copy-number alterations were associated with rapid progression at multiple sites. SUMMARY: Genetic alterations may help select patients for cytoreductive nephrectomy and optimize timing of treatment. Intratumor heterogeneity and genetic discordance between primary and metastatic tumors may limit clinical applicability. Future studies should evaluate approaches to overcome these limitations.

4.
Curr Opin Urol ; 29(5): 540-541, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305272
5.
Urol Oncol ; 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155438

RESUMO

The last 30 years of research in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has revealed that the vast majority of RCC histologies share a recurrent pattern of mutations to metabolic genes, including VHL, MTOR, ELOC, TSC1/2, FH, SDH, and mitochondrial DNA. This has prompted intense study of the consequences of these mutations on cellular metabolism and physiology in vivo by leveraging high-throughput technologies to measure small-molecule metabolites (i.e., metabolomics). The purpose of this review is to give a broad and integrated view on the discoveries made in RCC with metabolomics, and to give a basic understanding of the experimental design of metabolomic studies. Our discussion is organized around five concepts which synthesize discoveries from genomics and metabolomics into the molecular basis of RCC and transcend the different RCC histologies: (1) metabolic phenotypes unique to certain genotypes, (2) mitochondrial dysfunction, (3) the oxidative stress response, (4) epigenetics, and (5) therapy targeted to metabolism. We conclude by proposing several promising lines of investigation that intersect metabolism with emerging ideas in RCC biology.

6.
JCI Insight ; 4(11)2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167971

RESUMO

In patients with diabetes mellitus, poor metabolic control has a long-lasting impact on kidney disease development. Epigenetic changes, including cytosine methylation, have been proposed as potential mediators of the long-lasting effect of adverse metabolic events. Our understanding of the presence and contribution of methylation changes to disease development is limited because of the lack of comprehensive base-resolution methylome information of human kidney tissue samples and site-specific methylation editing. Base resolution, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing methylome maps of human diabetic kidney disease (DKD) tubule samples, and associated gene expression measured by RNA sequencing highlighted widespread methylation changes in DKD. Pathway analysis highlighted coordinated (methylation and gene expression) changes in immune signaling, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF). Changes in TNF methylation correlated with kidney function decline. dCas9-Tet1-based lowering of the cytosine methylation level of the TNF differentially methylated region resulted in an increase in the TNF transcript level, indicating that methylation of this locus plays an important role in controlling TNF expression. Increasing the TNF level in diabetic mice increased disease severity, such as albuminuria. In summary, our results indicate widespread methylation differences in DKD kidneys and highlights epigenetic changes in the TNF locus and its contribution to the development of nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

7.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(4): 268-274.e1, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucinous tubular and spindle-cell carcinoma (MTSCC) is a rare kidney cancer subtype with limited cases reported in the literature. We report on outcomes of 25 patients with this variant who were managed at our institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institution database was queried, and clinical data extracted for patients with MTSCC. Molecular features examined included next-generation sequencing with Memorial Sloan Kettering Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets and allele-specific copy number analysis using the Fraction and Allele-Specific Copy Number Estimates from Tumor Sequencing (FACETS) algorithm in a subset of patients. RESULTS: All patients underwent primary tumor-directed therapy (nephrectomy = 23, cryoablation = 2). Metastases were diagnosed in 6 patients (24%), 3 (12%) of whom had de novo metastatic disease. Five of 6 patients with metastatic disease had high-grade histological features compared with 0 of 19 nonmetastatic patients (83% vs. 0%; P < .001, Fisher exact test). Three-year overall survival from diagnosis was 84.8% (95% confidence interval, 59.6-94.9) with a median follow-up time of 3.9 years (range, 1 month to 10.3 years). Three deaths occurred, all from metastatic disease. Four patients received systemic therapy with time to treatment failure ≤6 months across different agents with the exception of 1 patient with prolonged response with sunitinib treatment (30.6 months). The most frequent molecular alterations were neurofibromin 2 mutations (n = 2; 40%), germline alterations (n = 2; 40%) including checkpoint kinase 2 and BRCA2 DNA repair associated mutations, multiple chromosomal copy number losses, and mismatch repair deficiency in 1 patient. CONCLUSION: MTSCC is characterized by localized tumors treated successfully with primary tumor-directed therapy. However, patients with high-grade histological features were more likely to develop metastatic disease with limited responses to standard therapies.

8.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 43(4): 628-633, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to quantify nonenhancing tumor (NT) component in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and assess its association with histologically defined tumor necrosis, stage, and survival outcomes. METHODS: Among 183 patients with ccRCC, multi-institutional changes in computed tomography attenuation of tumor voxels were used to quantify percent of NT. Associations of NT with histologic tumor necrosis and tumor stage/grade were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test and with survival outcomes using Kaplan-Meier curves/Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Nonenhancing tumor was higher in ccRCC with tumor necrosis (11% vs 7%; P = 0.040) and higher pathological stage (P = 0.042 and P < 0.001, respectively). Patients with greater NT had higher incidence of cancer recurrence after resection (P < 0.001) and cancer-specific mortality (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Nonenhancing tumor on preoperative computed tomographic scans in patients with ccRCC correlates with tumor necrosis and stage and may serve as an independent imaging prognostic biomarker for cancer recurrence and cancer-specific survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Curr Opin Urol ; 29(5): 505-506, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246591
10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 139, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor immune microenvironment has become the focus of research in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) due to its important role in immune surveillance post nephrectomy. This study investigates the correlation of tumor infiltrating immune cell characteristics with rates of recurrence following surgery in localized ccRCC. METHODS: We morphologically identified and scored tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides of patients with localized ccRCC (stage ≥T1b excluding stage IV). The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) dataset (n = 159) was used to discover and the Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC) dataset (n = 198) was used to validate the results of morphologic immune cell analysis. We then performed gene expression analysis using the Immune Profile panel by NanoString in the UAB cohort and identified immune cells and pathways associated with recurrence, followed by validation in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ccRCC dataset. Infiltrating immune cell types were identified by gene expression deconvolution. RESULTS: The presence of TILs identified by morphology correlated with higher T cell, Th1, CD8+ T and Treg gene signatures. Recurrence was associated with lower T cells and higher neutrophils. Higher Teffector (Teff)/Treg ratio correlated with lower rate of recurrence and was validated in the TCGA dataset. Genes associated with adaptive immune response were downregulated in tumors that recurred. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified a subset of patients with over-expression of adaptive response genes including CD8, CD3, GZMA/B, PRF1, IDO1, CTLA4, PDL1, ICOS and TIGIT. These patients had higher morphologic lymphocyte infiltration and T cell gene expression. Higher levels of TILs identified by morphology correlated with higher rates of recurrence in our discovery dataset but not in our validation set. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrence of ccRCC following surgery was associated with lower T cell infiltrate, lower adaptive immune response and higher neutrophil gene expression. Presence of higher Teff/Treg ratio correlated with lower recurrence.

11.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(3): e678-e688, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcomatoid features (SF) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) denote poor prognosis. Data for metastatic chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) with SF are limited. We studied clinical outcomes and genomic features in this setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of newly diagnosed metastatic ChRCC patients; end points included overall survival (OS), time to treatment failure (TTF), and time to metastatic recurrence (TTR) after nephrectomy for localized disease. A subset of patients underwent next-generation sequencing (NGS). Outcomes were compared using nonparametric tests. RESULTS: One hundred nine patients with metastatic ChRCC were identified including 29 with SF. Median TTR after nephrectomy was shorter for patients with versus without SF (2.7 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-6.9] versus 48.8 months [95% CI, 30.8-80.7], log rank P < .001). Median TTF during first-line therapy was shorter for patients with versus without SF (1.8 months [95% CI, 0.9-2.7] vs. 8.0 months [95% CI, 5.1-13.0]; log rank P < .001). No responses were observed in 6 patients treated with nivolumab including 4 with SF. Median OS was inferior for patients with versus without SF (38 months vs.7.5 months; hazard ratio, 4.7 [95% CI, 2.7-8.2]; P < .001). NGS, performed in 22 patients, showed that 64% and 45% harbored tumor protein P53 and phosphatase and tensin homolog alterations, respectively. Microsatellite instability high status was identified in 3 patients. CONCLUSION: Metastatic ChRCC patients with SF had worse outcomes compared with those without SF. Median TTR < 3 months for this subgroup supports close surveillance after nephrectomy for localized tumors. Lack of benefit with various systemic regimens warrants studying underlying biology and investigating novel agents.

12.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040082

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Small renal masses (SRMs; tumors <4 cm) encompass a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Genomic profiling has the potential to improve risk stratification and personalize treatment selection. OBJECTIVE: Herein, we review the evidence regarding the utility, challenges, and potential implications of genomic profiling in the management of SRMs. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Pertinent publications available on PubMed database pertaining to kidney cancer, tumor size, genomics, and clinical management were reviewed. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Compared with larger tumors, SRMs range from benign to lethal, necessitating strategies for improved treatment selection. Recent advances in the molecular characterization of renal cell carcinoma have improved our understanding of the disease; however, utility of these tools for the management of SRMs is less clear. While intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) reduces the accuracy and reliability of sequencing, relative genomic uniformity of SRMs somewhat lessens the impact of ITH. Therefore, renal mass biopsy of SRMs represents an appealing opportunity to evaluate how incorporation of molecular profiles may improve management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Ongoing research into the genomic landscape of SRMs has advanced our understanding of the spectrum of disease aggressiveness and may hold promise in matching disease biology to treatment intensity. PATIENT SUMMARY: Small renal masses are a clinical challenge, as they range from benign to lethal. Genomic profiling may eventually improve treatment selection, but more research is needed.

13.
Eur Urol ; 76(3): 398-403, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between acute kidney injury (AKI) and long-term renal function is controversial. The influence of AKI duration on functional recovery after partial nephrectomy has never been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between AKI and renal function 1yr after partial nephrectomy, and whether this relationship is affected by the duration of AKI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed the data of 1893 patients treated by partial nephrectomy for a single cT1 N0 M0 renal mass. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We defined three outcomes of interest: (1) recovery of at least 90% of baseline function 1yr after partial nephrectomy, (2) percentage change of 1-yr renal function compared with baseline function, and (3) chronic kidney disease (CKD) upstaging. AKI was defined according to the RIFLE criteria and recorded up to the 7th postoperative day. The association between AKI and each endpoint of interest was examined using regression models after adjustment for common predictors of renal function. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 388 (20%) patients experienced AKI after surgery. The rate of patients recovering 90% of baseline function was lower in the AKI group (30% vs 61%), while the proportion of patients who had CKD upstaging was significantly higher (51% vs 23%; both p<0.0001). At multivariable analysis, AKI was associated with worse renal function 1yr after partial nephrectomy, regardless of the outcome of interest (all p<0.0001). Longer AKI increases the risk of functional deterioration, especially after the 3rd day of injury. The risk of CKD upstaging for an average patient who had 1-3 versus ≥4 d of AKI was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 40%, 52%) versus 67% (95% CI: 55%, 78%; absolute risk increase of 21%; 95% CI: 8%, 34%). CONCLUSIONS: AKI negatively affects long-term functional recovery after partial nephrectomy, and thus, modifiable factors associated with AKI should be identified and corrected preoperatively. The duration of injury is informative, and should be included in the assessment of AKI and in future studies addressing this topic. PATIENT SUMMARY: Proper functional recovery after partial nephrectomy is jeopardized by acute kidney injury (AKI). Inclusion of the dimension of time into classification systems for AKI may be beneficial for postoperative risk stratification.

14.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029560

RESUMO

Our recently reported phase III trial demonstrated that patients undergoing nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥45 ml/min/1.73 m2 who received mannitol had no improvement in renal function at 6 mo compared with those who received placebo. Some authors have suggested that benefit is restricted to subgroups, such as those with comorbidities. We assessed whether preoperative eGFR, or other patient and surgical factors modified the effect of mannitol on postoperative outcomes at 6 mo and with extended follow-up. We also assessed whether mannitol was associated with differences in long-term GFR years after surgery. No significant difference between the mannitol or placebo groups (mean eGFR difference: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: -2.6, 5.3; p = 0.5) was found in the 134 patients with known eGFR at 3 yr after NSS. At both 6 mo and 3 yr, the effect of mannitol was not significantly modified by patient or surgical factors including preoperative eGFR. In summary, we validated our original trial conclusions by finding that intraoperative use of mannitol does not improve either short- or long-term renal function in patients undergoing NSS. Specifically, there is no evidence that comorbidities, including lower preoperative eGFR, modify the effect of mannitol. PATIENT SUMMARY: Use of mannitol at the time of partial nephrectomy does not improve either short- or long-term renal function even in patients with comorbidities, including lower preoperative renal function. The routine use of intraoperative mannitol should be discontinued.

15.
Mod Pathol ; 32(9): 1329-1343, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980040

RESUMO

Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare but highly aggressive type of renal cancer occurring in patients with sickle cell trait or rarely with other hemoglobinopathies. Loss of SMARCB1 protein expression, a core subunit of the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex, has emerged as a key diagnostic feature of these tumors. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this loss remains unclear. We retrospectively identified 20 patients diagnosed with renal medullary carcinoma at two institutions from 1996 to 2017. All patients were confirmed to have sickle cell trait, and all tumors exhibited a loss of SMARCB1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. The status of SMARCB1 locus was examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using 3-color probes, and somatic alterations were detected by targeted next-generation sequencing platforms. FISH analysis of all 20 cases revealed 11 (55%) with concurrent hemizygous loss and translocation of SMARCB1, 6 (30%) with homozygous loss of SMARCB1, and 3 (15%) without structural or copy number alterations of SMARCB1 despite protein loss. Targeted sequencing revealed a pathogenic somatic mutation of SMARCB1 in one of these 3 cases that were negative by FISH. Tumors in the 3 subsets with different FISH findings largely exhibited similar clinicopathologic features, however, homozygous SMARCB1 deletion was found to show a significant association with the solid growth pattern, whereas tumors dominated by reticular/cribriform growth were enriched for SMARCB1 translocation. Taken together, we demonstrate that different molecular mechanisms underlie the loss of SMARCB1 expression in renal medullary carcinoma. Biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1 occurs in a large majority of cases either via concurrent hemizygous loss and translocation disrupting SMARCB1 or by homozygous loss.

16.
Mod Pathol ; 32(9): 1344-1358, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996253

RESUMO

Amplifications of JAK2, PD-L1, and PD-L2 at 9p24.1 lead to constitutive expression of PD-L1. This, coupled with JAK2-activation dependent upregulation of PD-L1 and adaptive/induced expression leads to higher tumor PD-L1 expression and immune evasion. Renal tumors were therefore evaluated for 9p24.1 amplifications. A combination of next generation sequencing-based copy number analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization for JAK2/INSL6 and PD-L1/PD-L2 and immunohistochemistry for phospho-STAT3 (downstream target of JAK2), PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 was performed. In this study we interrogated a "Discovery" cohort of 593 renal tumors, a "Validation" cohort of 398 high-grade renal tumors, The Cancer Genome Atlas (879 cases) and other public datasets (846 cases). 9p24.1 amplifications were significantly enriched in renal tumors with sarcomatoid transformation (5.95%, 15/252) when compared to all histologic subtypes in the combined "Discovery", "Validation" and public datasets (16/2636, 0.6%, p < 0.00001). Specifically, 9p24.1 amplifications amongst sarcomatoid tumors in public datasets, the "Discovery" and "Validation" cohorts were 7.7% (6/92), 15.1% (5/33), and 3.1% (4/127), respectively. Herein, we describe 13 cases and amplification status for these was characterized using next generation sequencing (n = 9) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (n = 10). Correlation with PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (n = 10) revealed constitutive expression (mean H-score: 222/300, n = 10). Analysis of outcomes based on PD-L1 expression in tumor cells performed on 282 cases ("Validation" cohort) did not reveal a significant prognostic effect and was likely reflective of advanced disease. A high incidence of constitutive PD-L1 expression in tumor cells in the "Validation" cohort (H-Score ≥250/300) was noted amongst 83 rhabdoid (6%) and 127 sarcomatoid renal tumors (7.1%). This suggests additional mechanisms of constitutive expression other than amplification events. Importantly, two patients with 9p24.1-amplified sarcomatoid renal tumors showed significant response to immunotherapy. In summary, a subset of renal tumors with sarcomatoid transformation exhibits constitutive PD-L1 overexpression and these patients should be evaluated for enhanced response to immunotherapy.

17.
Elife ; 82019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924768

RESUMO

While genomic sequencing routinely identifies oncogenic alterations for the majority of cancers, many tumors harbor no discernable driver lesion. Here, we describe the exceptional molecular phenotype of a genomically quiet kidney tumor, clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPAP). In spite of a largely wild-type nuclear genome, CCPAP tumors exhibit severe depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and RNA and high levels of oxidative stress, reflecting a shift away from respiratory metabolism. Moreover, CCPAP tumors exhibit a distinct metabolic phenotype uniquely characterized by accumulation of the sugar alcohol sorbitol. Immunohistochemical staining of primary CCPAP tumor specimens recapitulates both the depletion of mtDNA-encoded proteins and a lipid-depleted metabolic phenotype, suggesting that the cytoplasmic clarity in CCPAP is primarily related to the presence of glycogen. These results argue for non-genetic profiling as a tool for the study of cancers of unknown driver.

18.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 202-206, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643254

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatments benefit some patients with metastatic cancers, but predictive biomarkers are needed. Findings in selected cancer types suggest that tumor mutational burden (TMB) may predict clinical response to ICI. To examine this association more broadly, we analyzed the clinical and genomic data of 1,662 advanced cancer patients treated with ICI, and 5,371 non-ICI-treated patients, whose tumors underwent targeted next-generation sequencing (MSK-IMPACT). Among all patients, higher somatic TMB (highest 20% in each histology) was associated with better overall survival. For most cancer histologies, an association between higher TMB and improved survival was observed. The TMB cutpoints associated with improved survival varied markedly between cancer types. These data indicate that TMB is associated with improved survival in patients receiving ICI across a wide variety of cancer types, but that there may not be one universal definition of high TMB.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Carga Tumoral/genética , Carga Tumoral/imunologia
19.
Cancer Discov ; 9(4): 510-525, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622105

RESUMO

Metastasis remains the main reason for renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated mortality. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) impart clinical benefit for most patients with RCC, but the determinants of response are poorly understood. We report an integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis of patients with metastatic clear cell RCC (ccRCC) treated with TKI therapy and identify predictors of response. Patients in the COMPARZ phase III trial received first-line sunitinib or pazopanib with comparable efficacy. RNA-based analyses revealed four distinct molecular subgroups associated with response and survival. Characterization of these subgroups identified mutation profiles, angiogenesis, and macrophage infiltration programs to be powerful predictors of outcome with TKI therapy. Notably, predictors differed by the type of TKI received. Our study emphasizes the clinical significance of angiogenesis and immune tumor microenvironment and suggests that the critical effects its various aspects have on TKI efficacy vary by agent. This has broad implications for optimizing precision treatment of RCC. SIGNIFICANCE: The determinants of response to TKI therapy in metastatic ccRCC remain unknown. Our study demonstrates that key angiogenic and immune profiles of the tumor microenvironment may affect TKI response. These findings have the potential to inform treatment personalization in patients with RCC.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 453.

20.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(12): 1688-1698, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk model is an established prognostic tool for metastatic renal-cell carcinoma that integrates clinical and laboratory data, but is agnostic to tumour genomics. Several mutations, including BAP1 and PBRM1, have prognostic value in renal-cell carcinoma. Using two independent clinical trial datasets of patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma, we aimed to study whether the addition of the mutation status for several candidate prognostic genes to the MSKCC model could improve the model's prognostic performance. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we used available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissue and clinical outcome data from patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma assigned to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the COMPARZ trial (training cohort; n=357) and RECORD-3 trial (validation cohort; n=258). Eligible patients in both trials were treatment-naive; had histologically confirmed, advanced, or metastatic renal-cell carcinoma; and a Karnofsky performance status score of at least 70. For each cohort, data from patients in all treatment groups (sunitinib and pazopanib in the training cohort, and everolimus and sunitinib in the validation cohort) were pooled for this analysis. In the training cohort, tumour tissue was used to evaluate somatic mutations by next-generation sequencing, and the association between cancer-specific outcomes (overall survival, progression-free survival, and overall response) and the mutation status of six genes of interest (BAP1, PBRM1, TP53, TERT, KDM5C, and SETD2) was tested. Only those genes with prognostic value in this setting were added to the MSKCC risk model to create a genomically annotated version. The validation cohort was used to independently test the prognostic value of the annotated model compared with the original MSKCC risk model. FINDINGS: 357 (32%) of 1110 patients assigned to protocol treatment in the COMPARZ study between August, 2008, and September, 2011, were evaluable for mutation status and clinical outcomes in the training cohort. The independent validation cohort included 258 (55%) of 471 evaluable patients, enrolled between October, 2009, and June, 2011, on the RECORD-3 study. In the training cohort, the presence of any mutation in BAP1 or TP53, or both, and absence of any mutation in PBRM1 were prognostic in terms of overall survival (TP53wt/BAP1mut, TP53mut/BAP1wt o TP53mut/BAP1mut vs TP53wt/BAP1wt hazard ratio [HR] 1·57, 95% CI 1·21-2·04; p=0·0008; PBRM1wt vs PBRMmut, HR 1·58, 1·16-2·14; p=0·0035). The mutation status for these three prognostic genes were added to the original MSKCC risk model to create a genomically annotated version. Distribution of participants in the training cohort into the three risk groups of the original MSKCC model changed from 87 (24%) of 357 patients deemed at favourable risk, 217 (61%) at intermediate risk, and 53 (15%) at poor risk, to distribution across four risk groups in the genomically annotated risk model, with 36 (10%) of 357 deemed at favourable risk, 77 (22%) at good risk, 108 (30%) at intermediate risk, and 136 (38%) at poor risk. Addition of genomic information improved model performance for predicting overall survival (C-index: original model, 0·595 [95% CI 0·557-0·634] vs new model, 0·637 [0·595-0·679]) and progression-free survival (0·567 [95% CI 0·529-0·604] vs 0·602 [0·560-0·643]) with adequate discrimination of the proportion of patients who achieved an objective response (Cochran-Armitage one-sided p=0·0014). Analyses in the validation cohort confirmed the superiority of the genomically annotated risk model over the original version. INTERPRETATION: The mutation status of BAP1, PBRM1, and TP53 has independent prognostic value in patients with advanced or metastatic renal-cell carcinoma treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Improved stratification of patients across risk groups by use of a genomically annotated model including the mutational status of these three genes warrants further investigation in prospective trials and could be of use as a model to stratify patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma in clinical trials. FUNDING: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, MSKCC Support Grant/Core Grant, and the J Randall & Kathleen L MacDonald Research Fund.

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