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1.
Curr Diab Rep ; 19(11): 116, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686270

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an updated summary of discoveries made to date resulting from genome-wide association study (GWAS) and sequencing studies, and to discuss the latest loci added to the growing repertoire of genetic signals predisposing to type 1 diabetes (T1D). RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic studies have identified over 60 loci associated with T1D susceptibility. GWAS alone does not specifically inform on underlying mechanisms, but in combination with other sequencing and omics-data, advances are being made in our understanding of T1D genetic etiology and pathogenesis. Current knowledge indicates that genetic variation operating in both pancreatic ß cells and in immune cells is central in mediating T1D risk. One of the main challenges is to determine how these recently discovered GWAS-implicated variants affect the expression and function of gene products. Once we understand the mechanism of action for disease-causing variants, we will be well placed to apply targeted genomic approaches to impede the premature activation of the immune system in an effort to ultimately prevent the onset of T1D.

2.
Carcinogenesis ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605138

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB) and malignant cutaneous melanoma (CMM) are neural crest cells (NCC)-derived tumors and may have a shared genetic basis, but this has not been investigated systematically by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We took a three-staged approach to conduct cross-disease meta-analysis of GWAS for NB and CMM (2101 NB cases and 4202 controls; 12 874 CMM cases and 23 203 controls) to identify shared loci. Findings were replicated in 1403 NB cases and 1403 controls of European ancestry and in 636 NB, 508 CMM cases and 2066 controls of Italian origin. We found a cross-association at locus 1p13.2 (rs2153977, odds ratio = 0.91, P = 5.36 × 10-8). We also detected a suggestive (P < 10-7) NB-CMM cross-association at 2q37.1 with opposite effect on cancer risk. Pathway analysis of 110 NB-CMM risk loci with P < 10-4 demonstrated enrichment of biological processes such as cell migration, cell cycle, metabolism and immune response, which are essential of human NCC development, underlying both tumors. In vitro and in silico analyses indicated that the rs2153977-T protective allele, located in an NB and CMM enhancer, decreased expression of SLC16A1 via long-range loop formation and altered a T-box protein binding site. Upon depletion of SLC16A1, we observed a decrease of cellular proliferation and invasion in both NB and CMM cell lines, suggesting its role as oncogene. This is the largest study to date examining pleiotropy across two NC cell-derived tumors identifying 1p13.2 as common susceptibility locus for NB and CMM risk. We demonstrate that combining genome-wide association studies results across cancers with same origins can identify new loci common to neuroblastoma and melanoma arising from tissues which originate from neural crest cells. Our results also show 1p13.2 confer risk to neuroblastoma and melanoma by regulating SLC16A1.

3.
World J Surg ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extent to which obesity and genetics determine postoperative complications is incompletely understood. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study using two population cohorts with electronic health record (EHR) data. The first included 736,726 adults with body mass index (BMI) recorded between 1990 and 2017 at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. The second cohort consisted of 65,174 individuals from 12 institutions contributing EHR and genome-wide genotyping data to the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. Pairwise logistic regression analyses were used to measure the association of BMI categories with postoperative complications derived from International Classification of Disease-9 codes, including postoperative infection, incisional hernia, and intestinal obstruction. A genetic risk score was constructed from 97 obesity-risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms for a Mendelian randomization study to determine the association of genetic risk of obesity on postoperative complications. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, site, and race/principal components. RESULTS: Individuals with overweight or obese BMI (≥25 kg/m2) had increased risk of incisional hernia (odds ratio [OR] 1.7-5.5, p < 3.1 × 10-20), and people with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) had increased risk of postoperative infection (OR 1.2-2.3, p < 2.5 × 10-5). In the eMERGE cohort, genetically predicted BMI was associated with incisional hernia (OR 2.1 [95% CI 1.8-2.5], p = 1.4 × 10-6) and postoperative infection (OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.4-1.9], p = 3.1 × 10-6). Association findings were similar after limitation of the cohorts to those who underwent abdominal procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and Mendelian randomization studies suggest that obesity, as measured by BMI, is associated with the development of postoperative incisional hernia and infection.

4.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 146, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric symptomatology during late childhood and early adolescence tends to persist later in life. In the present longitudinal study, we aimed to identify changes in genome-wide DNA methylation patterns that were associated with the emergence of psychopathology in youths from the Brazilian High-Risk Cohort (HRC) for psychiatric disorders. Moreover, for the differentially methylated genes, we verified whether differences in DNA methylation corresponded to differences in mRNA transcript levels by analyzing the gene expression levels in the blood and by correlating the variation of DNA methylation values with the variation of mRNA levels of the same individuals. Finally, we examined whether the variations in DNA methylation and mRNA levels were correlated with psychopathology measurements over time. METHODS: We selected 24 youths from the HRC who presented with an increase in dimensional psychopathology at a 3-year follow-up as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The DNA methylation and gene expression data were compared in peripheral blood samples (n = 48) obtained from the 24 youths before and after developing psychopathology. We implemented a methodological framework to reduce the effect of chronological age on DNA methylation using an independent population of 140 youths and the effect of puberty using data from the literature. RESULTS: We identified 663 differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and 90 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with the emergence of psychopathology. We observed that 15 DMPs were mapped to genes that were differentially expressed in the blood; among these, we found a correlation between the DNA methylation and mRNA levels of RB1CC1 and a correlation between the CBCL and mRNA levels of KMT2E. Of the DMRs, three genes were differentially expressed: ASCL2, which is involved in neurogenesis; HLA-E, which is mapped to the MHC loci; and RPS6KB1, the gene expression of which was correlated with an increase in the CBCL between the time points. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that changes in DNA methylation and, consequently, in gene expression in the peripheral blood occurred concurrently with the emergence of dimensional psychopathology in youths. Therefore, epigenomic modulations might be involved in the regulation of an individual's development of psychopathology.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 987-995, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587868

RESUMO

NKAP is a ubiquitously expressed nucleoplasmic protein that is currently known as a transcriptional regulatory molecule via its interaction with HDAC3 and spliceosomal proteins. Here, we report a disorder of transcriptional regulation due to missense mutations in the X chromosome gene, NKAP. These mutations are clustered in the C-terminal region of NKAP where NKAP interacts with HDAC3 and post-catalytic spliceosomal complex proteins. Consistent with a role for the C-terminal region of NKAP in embryogenesis, nkap mutant zebrafish with a C-terminally truncated NKAP demonstrate severe developmental defects. The clinical features of affected individuals are highly conserved and include developmental delay, hypotonia, joint contractures, behavioral abnormalities, Marfanoid habitus, and scoliosis. In affected cases, transcriptome analysis revealed the presence of a unique transcriptome signature, which is characterized by the downregulation of long genes with higher exon numbers. These observations indicate the critical role of NKAP in transcriptional regulation and demonstrate that perturbations of the C-terminal region lead to developmental defects in both humans and zebrafish.

6.
J Biomed Inform ; 99: 103293, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of phenotype algorithms requires phenotype engineers to interpret human-readable algorithms and translate the description (text and flowcharts) into computable phenotypes - a process that can be labor intensive and error prone. To address the critical need for reducing the implementation efforts, it is important to develop portable algorithms. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of phenotype algorithms developed in the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network and identified common customization tasks required for implementation. A novel scoring system was developed to quantify portability from three aspects: Knowledge conversion, clause Interpretation, and Programming (KIP). Tasks were grouped into twenty representative categories. Experienced phenotype engineers were asked to estimate the average time spent on each category and evaluate time saving enabled by a common data model (CDM), specifically the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) model, for each category. RESULTS: A total of 485 distinct clauses (phenotype criteria) were identified from 55 phenotype algorithms, corresponding to 1153 customization tasks. In addition to 25 non-phenotype-specific tasks, 46 tasks are related to interpretation, 613 tasks are related to knowledge conversion, and 469 tasks are related to programming. A score between 0 and 2 (0 for easy, 1 for moderate, and 2 for difficult portability) is assigned for each aspect, yielding a total KIP score range of 0 to 6. The average clause-wise KIP score to reflect portability is 1.37 ±â€¯1.38. Specifically, the average knowledge (K) score is 0.64 ±â€¯0.66, interpretation (I) score is 0.33 ±â€¯0.55, and programming (P) score is 0.40 ±â€¯0.64. 5% of the categories can be completed within one hour (median). 70% of the categories take from days to months to complete. The OMOP model can assist with vocabulary mapping tasks. CONCLUSION: This study presents firsthand knowledge of the substantial implementation efforts in phenotyping and introduces a novel metric (KIP) to measure portability of phenotype algorithms for quantifying such efforts across the eMERGE Network. Phenotype developers are encouraged to analyze and optimize the portability in regards to knowledge, interpretation and programming. CDMs can be used to improve the portability for some 'knowledge-oriented' tasks.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 658-668, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474320

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is a cancer of the developing sympathetic nervous system. It is diagnosed in 600-700 children per year in the United States and accounts for 12% of pediatric cancer deaths. Despite recent advances in our understanding of this malignancy's complex genetic architecture, the contribution of rare germline variants remains undefined. Here, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) germline copy number variants (CNVs) in two independent, multi-ethnic cohorts totaling 5,585 children with neuroblastoma and 23,505 cancer-free control children. We identified a 550-kb deletion on chromosome 16p11.2 significantly enriched in neuroblastoma cases (0.39% of cases and 0.03% of controls; p = 3.34 × 10-9). Notably, this CNV corresponds to a known microdeletion syndrome that affects approximately one in 3,000 children and confers risk for diverse developmental phenotypes including autism spectrum disorder and other neurodevelopmental disorders. The CNV had a substantial impact on neuroblastoma risk, with an odds ratio of 13.9 (95% confidence interval = 5.8-33.4). The association remained significant when we restricted our analysis to individuals of European ancestry in order to mitigate potential confounding by population stratification (0.42% of cases and 0.03% of controls; p = 4.10 × 10-8). We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to validate the deletion in paired germline and tumor DNA from 12 cases. Finally, WGS of four parent-child trios revealed that the deletion primarily arose de novo without maternal or paternal bias. This finding expands the clinical phenotypes associated with 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome to include cancer, and it suggests that disruption of the 16p11.2 region may dysregulate neurodevelopmental pathways that influence both neurological phenotypes and neuroblastoma.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3927, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477735

RESUMO

The duration of pregnancy is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors. Here we report a fetal genome-wide association meta-analysis of gestational duration, and early preterm, preterm, and postterm birth in 84,689 infants. One locus on chromosome 2q13 is associated with gestational duration; the association is replicated in 9,291 additional infants (combined P = 3.96 × 10-14). Analysis of 15,588 mother-child pairs shows that the association is driven by fetal rather than maternal genotype. Functional experiments show that the lead SNP, rs7594852, alters the binding of the HIC1 transcriptional repressor. Genes at the locus include several interleukin 1 family members with roles in pro-inflammatory pathways that are central to the process of parturition. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be of great public health importance, since giving birth either before or after the window of term gestation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

9.
Neurobiol Aging ; 82: 10-17, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376729

RESUMO

Research suggested accumulation of tau proteins might lead to the degeneration of functional networks. Studies investigating the impact of genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) on early brain connections might shed light on mechanisms leading to AD development later in life. Here, we aim to investigate whether the polygenic risk score for Alzheimer's disease (AD-PRS) influences the connectivity among regions susceptible to tau pathology during childhood and adolescence. Participants were youth, aged 6-14 years, and recruited in Porto Alegre (discovery sample, n = 332) and São Paulo (replication sample, n = 304), Brazil. Subjects underwent genotyping and 6-min resting state funcional magnetic resonance imaging. Connections between the local maxima of tau pathology networks were used as dependent variables. The AD-PRS was associated with the connectivity between the right precuneus and the right superior temporal gyrus (discovery sample: ß = 0.180, padjusted = 0.036; replication sample: ß = 0.202, p = 0.031). This connectivity was also associated with inhibitory control (ß = 0.157, padjusted = 0.035) and moderated the association between the AD-PRS and both immediate and delayed recall. These findings suggest the AD-PRS may affect brain connectivity in youth, which might impact memory performance and inhibitory control in early life.

10.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Consequently, individuals who are genetically predisposed for high risk of cardiovascular disease would benefit most from prevention and early intervention approaches. Among common health risk factors affecting adult populations, we evaluated 23 cardiovascular disease-related traits, including BMI, glucose levels and lipid profiling to determine their associations with low-frequency recurrent copy number variations (CNV) (population frequency < 5%). RESULTS: We examined 10,619 unrelated subjects of European ancestry from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network who were genotyped with 657,366 markers genome-wide on the Illumina Infinium Quad 660 array. We performed CNV calling based on array marker intensity and evaluated data quality, ancestry stratification, and relatedness to ensure unbiased association discovery. Using a segment-based scoring approach, we assessed the association of all CNVs with each trait. In this large genome-wide analysis of low-frequency CNVs, we observed 11 novel genome-wide significant associations of low-frequency CNVs with major cardiovascular disease traits. CONCLUSION: In one of the largest genome-wide studies for low-frequency recurrent CNVs, we identified 11 loci associated with cardiovascular disease and related traits at the genome-wide significance level that may serve as biomarkers for prevention and early intervention studies in subjects who are at elevated risk. Our study further supports the role of low-frequency recurrent CNVs in the pathogenesis of common complex disease traits.

11.
J Hum Genet ; 64(11): 1091-1095, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451714

RESUMO

This study aimed to obtain a quantitative assessment of the occurrence of contradictory evidence in functional classification of genetic variation, according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines. We analyzed 140,883 genetic variation in the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). The 2014 release of the HGMD dataset before the publication of the ACMG guidelines was used for its independence from the ACMG guidelines. Evidence for benign classification, BS2 (0.37%), was identified among variants classified as pathogenic. For likely pathogenic variation, BP1 (2.99%) and BS2 (0.37%) were identified. PM1 is commonly observed among variants classified as benign (28.45%), while PM2 and PM1 are commonly identified among variants classified as likely benign (48.91% and 42.95%, respectively). Taken together, these observations will inform better approaches to apply the ACMG guidelines.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3644, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409799

RESUMO

B cell development is a highly regulated process involving multiple differentiation steps, yet many details regarding this pathway remain unknown. Sequencing of patients with B cell-restricted immunodeficiency reveals autosomal dominant mutations in TOP2B. TOP2B encodes a type II topoisomerase, an essential gene required to alleviate topological stress during DNA replication and gene transcription, with no previously known role in B cell development. We use Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and knockin and knockout murine models, to demonstrate that patient mutations in TOP2B have a dominant negative effect on enzyme function, resulting in defective proliferation, survival of B-2 cells, causing a block in B cell development, and impair humoral function in response to immunization.

13.
Nat Med ; 25(7): 1116-1122, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263281

RESUMO

The treatment of lymphatic anomaly, a rare devastating disease spectrum of mostly unknown etiologies, depends on the patient manifestations1. Identifying the causal genes will allow for developing affordable therapies in keeping with precision medicine implementation2. Here we identified a recurrent gain-of-function ARAF mutation (c.640T>C:p.S214P) in a 12-year-old boy with advanced anomalous lymphatic disease unresponsive to conventional sirolimus therapy and in another, unrelated, adult patient. The mutation led to loss of a conserved phosphorylation site. Cells transduced with ARAF-S214P showed elevated ERK1/2 activity, enhanced lymphangiogenic capacity, and disassembly of actin skeleton and VE-cadherin junctions, which were rescued using the MEK inhibitor trametinib. The functional relevance of the mutation was also validated by recreating a lymphatic phenotype in a zebrafish model, with rescue of the anomalous phenotype using a MEK inhibitor. Subsequent therapy of the lead proband with a MEK inhibitor led to dramatic clinical improvement, with remodeling of the patient's lymphatic system with resolution of the lymphatic edema, marked improvement in his pulmonary function tests, cessation of supplemental oxygen requirements and near normalization of daily activities. Our results provide a representative demonstration of how knowledge of genetic classification and mechanistic understanding guides biologically based medical treatments, which in our instance was life-saving.

14.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 135, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver illness with a genetically heterogeneous background that can be accompanied by considerable morbidity and attendant health care costs. The pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD is complex with many unanswered questions. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) using both adult and pediatric participants from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network to identify novel genetic contributors to this condition. METHODS: First, a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm was developed, tested, and deployed at each site to identify 1106 NAFLD cases and 8571 controls and histological data from liver tissue in 235 available participants. These include 1242 pediatric participants (396 cases, 846 controls). The algorithm included billing codes, text queries, laboratory values, and medication records. Next, GWASs were performed on NAFLD cases and controls and case-only analyses using histologic scores and liver function tests adjusting for age, sex, site, ancestry, PC, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Consistent with previous results, a robust association was detected for the PNPLA3 gene cluster in participants with European ancestry. At the PNPLA3-SAMM50 region, three SNPs, rs738409, rs738408, and rs3747207, showed strongest association (best SNP rs738409 p = 1.70 × 10- 20). This effect was consistent in both pediatric (p = 9.92 × 10- 6) and adult (p = 9.73 × 10- 15) cohorts. Additionally, this variant was also associated with disease severity and NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) (p = 3.94 × 10- 8, beta = 0.85). PheWAS analysis link this locus to a spectrum of liver diseases beyond NAFLD with a novel negative correlation with gout (p = 1.09 × 10- 4). We also identified novel loci for NAFLD disease severity, including one novel locus for NAS score near IL17RA (rs5748926, p = 3.80 × 10- 8), and another near ZFP90-CDH1 for fibrosis (rs698718, p = 2.74 × 10- 11). Post-GWAS and gene-based analyses identified more than 300 genes that were used for functional and pathway enrichment analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this study demonstrates clear confirmation of a previously described NAFLD risk locus and several novel associations. Further collaborative studies including an ethnically diverse population with well-characterized liver histologic features of NAFLD are needed to further validate the novel findings.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Redes Comunitárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/organização & administração , Genômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transdução de Sinais/genética
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10896, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350437

RESUMO

Genetic analysis of admixed populations raises special concerns with regard to study design and data processing, particularly to avoid population stratification biases. The point mutation responsible for sickle cell anaemia codes for a variant hemoglobin, sickle hemoglobin or HbS, whose presence drives the pathophysiology of disease. Here we propose to explore ancestry and population structure in a genome-wide study with particular emphasis on chromosome 11 in two SCA admixed cohorts obtained from urban populations of Brazil (Pernambuco and São Paulo) and the United States (Pennsylvania). Ancestry inference showed different proportions of European, African and American backgrounds in the composition of our samples. Brazilians were more admixed, had a lower African background (43% vs. 78% on the genomic level and 44% vs. 76% on chromosome 11) and presented a signature of positive selection and Iberian introgression in the HbS region, driving a high differentiation of this locus between the two cohorts. The genetic structures of the SCA cohorts from Brazil and US differ considerably on the genome-wide, chromosome 11 and HbS mutation locus levels.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 283-301, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353023

RESUMO

The RNA polymerase II complex (pol II) is responsible for transcription of all ∼21,000 human protein-encoding genes. Here, we describe sixteen individuals harboring de novo heterozygous variants in POLR2A, encoding RPB1, the largest subunit of pol II. An iterative approach combining structural evaluation and mass spectrometry analyses, the use of S. cerevisiae as a model system, and the assessment of cell viability in HeLa cells allowed us to classify eleven variants as probably disease-causing and four variants as possibly disease-causing. The significance of one variant remains unresolved. By quantification of phenotypic severity, we could distinguish mild and severe phenotypic consequences of the disease-causing variants. Missense variants expected to exert only mild structural effects led to a malfunctioning pol II enzyme, thereby inducing a dominant-negative effect on gene transcription. Intriguingly, individuals carrying these variants presented with a severe phenotype dominated by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay. Conversely, individuals carrying variants expected to result in complete loss of function, thus reduced levels of functional pol II from the normal allele, exhibited the mildest phenotypes. We conclude that subtle variants that are central in functionally important domains of POLR2A cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay through a dominant-negative effect on pol-II-mediated transcription of DNA.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219926, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314787

RESUMO

Conotruncal heart defects (CTDs) are among the most common and severe groups of congenital heart defects. Despite evidence of an inherited genetic contribution to CTDs, little is known about the specific genes that contribute to the development of CTDs. We performed gene-based genome-wide analyses using microarray-genotyped and imputed common and rare variants data from two large studies of CTDs in the United States. We performed two case-parent trio analyses (N = 640 and 317 trios), using an extension of the family-based multi-marker association test, and two case-control analyses (N = 482 and 406 patients and comparable numbers of controls), using a sequence kernel association test. We also undertook two meta-analyses to combine the results from the analyses that used the same approach (i.e. family-based or case-control). To our knowledge, these analyses are the first reported gene-based, genome-wide association studies of CTDs. Based on our findings, we propose eight CTD candidate genes (ARF5, EIF4E, KPNA1, MAP4K3, MBNL1, NCAPG, NDFUS1 and PSMG3). Four of these genes (ARF5, KPNA1, NDUFS1 and PSMG3) have not been previously associated with normal or abnormal heart development. In addition, our analyses provide additional evidence that genes involved in chromatin-modification and in ribonucleic acid splicing are associated with congenital heart defects.

18.
J Pediatr ; 213: 103-109, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of damaging genetic variation in proangiogenic pathways on placental function, complications of pregnancy, fetal growth, and clinical outcomes in pregnancies with fetal congenital heart defect. STUDY DESIGN: Families delivering a baby with a congenital heart defect requiring surgical repair in infancy were recruited. The placenta and neonate were weighed and measured. Hemodynamic variables were recorded from a third trimester (36.4 ± 1.7 weeks) fetal echocardiogram. Exome sequencing was performed on the probands (N = 133) and consented parents (114 parent-child trios, and 15 parent-child duos) and the GeneVetter analysis tool used to identify damaging coding sequence variants in 163 genes associated with the positive regulation of angiogenesis (PRA) (GO:0045766). RESULTS: In total, 117 damaging variants were identified in PRA genes in 133 congenital heart defect probands with 73 subjects having at least 1 variant. Presence of a damaging PRA variant was associated with increased umbilical artery pulsatility index (mean 1.11 with variant vs 1.00 without; P = .01). The presence of a damaging PRA variant was also associated with lower neonatal length and head circumference for age z score at birth (mean -0.44 and -0.47 with variant vs 0.23 and -0.05 without; P = .01 and .04, respectively). During median 3.1 years (IQR 2.0-4.1 years) of follow-up, deaths occurred in 2 of 60 (3.3%) subjects with no PRA variant and in 9 of 73 (12.3%) subjects with 1 or more PRA variants (P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: Damaging variants in proangiogenic genes may impact placental function and are associated with impaired fetal growth in pregnancies involving a fetus with congenital heart defect.

19.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(13): 888-905, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222980

RESUMO

Over 50% of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) have a conotruncal or related cardiac defect (CTRD). We hypothesized that similar genetic variants, developmental pathways and biological functions, contribute to disease risk for CTRD in patients without a 22q11.2 deletion (ND-CTRD) and with a 22q11.2 deletion (DS-CTRD). To test this hypothesis, we performed rare CNV (rCNV)-based analyses on 630 ND-CTRD cases and 602 DS-CTRD cases with comparable cardiac lesions separately and jointly. First, we detected a collection of heart development related pathways from Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology analysis. We then constructed gene regulation networks using unique genes collected from the rCNVs found in the ND-CTRD and DS-CTRD cohorts. These gene networks were clustered and their predicted functions were examined. We further investigated expression patterns of those unique genes using publicly available mouse embryo microarray expression data from single-cell embryos to fully developed hearts. By these bioinformatics approaches, we identified a commonly shared gene expression pattern in both the ND-CTRD and DS-CTRD cohorts. Computational analysis of gene functions characterized with this expression pattern revealed a collection of significantly enriched terms related to cardiovascular development. By our combined analysis of rCNVs in the ND-CTRD and DS-CTRD cohorts, a group of statistically significant shared pathways, biological functions, and gene expression patterns were identified that can be tested in future studies for their biological relevance.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2760, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235787

RESUMO

Heart failure is a leading cause of mortality, yet our understanding of the genetic interactions underlying this disease remains incomplete. Here, we harvest 1352 healthy and failing human hearts directly from transplant center operating rooms, and obtain genome-wide genotyping and gene expression measurements for a subset of 313. We build failing and non-failing cardiac regulatory gene networks, revealing important regulators and cardiac expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). PPP1R3A emerges as a regulator whose network connectivity changes significantly between health and disease. RNA sequencing after PPP1R3A knockdown validates network-based predictions, and highlights metabolic pathway regulation associated with increased cardiomyocyte size and perturbed respiratory metabolism. Mice lacking PPP1R3A are protected against pressure-overload heart failure. We present a global gene interaction map of the human heart failure transition, identify previously unreported cardiac eQTLs, and demonstrate the discovery potential of disease-specific networks through the description of PPP1R3A as a central regulator in heart failure.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Benzenoacetamidas , Células Cultivadas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Piridinas , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
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