Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 576
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7372, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795715

RESUMO

CLEC16A is implicated in multiple autoimmune diseases. We generated an inducible whole-body knockout (KO), Clec16aΔUBC mice to address the role of CLEC16A loss of function. KO mice exhibited loss of adipose tissue and severe weight loss in response to defective autophagic flux and exaggerated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and robust cytokine storm. KO mice were glucose tolerant and displayed a state of systemic inflammation with elevated antibody levels, including IgM, IgA, Ig2b and IgG3, significantly reduced circulating insulin levels in the presence of normal food consumption. Metabolic analysis revealed disturbances in the lipid profile, white adipose decreasing concomitantly with enhanced inflammatory response, and energy wasting. Mechanistically, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers excessive hormone sensitive lipases (HSL) mediated lipolysis which contributes to adipose inflammation via activation of JAK-STAT, stress kinases (ERK1/2, P38, JNK), and release of multiple proinflammatory mediators. Treatment with a JAK-STAT inhibitor (tofacitinib) partially rescued the inflammatory lipodystrophic phenotype and improved survival of Clec16aΔUBC mice by silencing cytokine release and modulating ER stress, lipolysis, mitophagy and autophagy. These results establish a mechanistic link between CLEC16A, lipid metabolism and the immune system perturbations. In summary, our Clec16aΔUBC mouse model highlights multifaceted roles of Clec16a in normal physiology, including a novel target for weight regulation and mutation-induced pathophysiology.

2.
Hum Genet ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811546

RESUMO

Teebi hypertelorism syndrome (THS; OMIM 145420) is a rare craniofacial disorder characterized by hypertelorism, prominent forehead, short nose with broad or depressed nasal root. Some cases of THS have been attributed to SPECC1L variants. Homozygous variants in CDH11 truncating the transmembrane and intracellular domains have been implicated in Elsahy-Waters syndrome (EWS; OMIM 211380) with hypertelorism. We report THS due to CDH11 heterozygous missense variants on 19 subjects from 9 families. All affected residues in the extracellular region of Cadherin-11 (CHD11) are highly conserved across vertebrate species and classical cadherins. Six of the variants that cluster around the EC2-EC3 and EC3-EC4 linker regions are predicted to affect Ca2+ binding that is required for cadherin stability. Two of the additional variants [c.164G > C, p.(Trp55Ser) and c.418G > A, p.(Glu140Lys)] are also notable as they are predicted to directly affect trans-homodimer formation. Immunohistochemical study demonstrates that CDH11 is strongly expressed in human facial mesenchyme. Using multiple functional assays, we show that five variants from the EC1, EC2-EC3 linker, and EC3 regions significantly reduced the cell-substrate trans adhesion activity and one variant from EC3-EC4 linker results in changes in cell morphology, focal adhesion, and migration, suggesting dominant negative effect. Characteristic features in this cohort included depressed nasal root, cardiac and umbilical defects. These features distinguished this phenotype from that seen in SPECC1L-related hypertelorism syndrome and CDH11-related EWS. Our results demonstrate heterozygous variants in CDH11, which decrease cell-cell adhesion and increase cell migratory behavior, cause a form of THS, as termed CDH11-related THS.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805976

RESUMO

RNA-seq has been a powerful method to detect the differentially expressed genes/long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients; however, due to overfitting problems differentially expressed targets (DETs) cannot be used properly as biomarkers. This study used machine learning to reduce gene/non-coding RNA features. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlpfc) RNA-seq data from 254 individuals was obtained from the CommonMind consortium. The average predictive accuracy for SCZ patients was 67% based on coding genes, and 96% based on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Machine learning is a powerful algorithm to reduce functional biomarkers in SCZ patients. The lncRNAs capture the characteristics of SCZ tissue more accurately than mRNA as the former regulate every level of gene expression, not limited to mRNA levels.

4.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671795

RESUMO

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with poorly understood molecular mechanisms that results in significant impairment in children. In this study, we sought to assess the role of rare recurrent variants in non-European populations and outside of coding regions. We generated whole genome sequence (WGS) data on 875 individuals, including 205 ADHD cases and 670 non-ADHD controls. The cases included 116 African Americans (AA) and 89 European Americans (EA), and the controls included 408 AA and 262 EA. Multiple novel rare recurrent variants were identified in exonic regions, functionally classified as stop-gains and frameshifts for known ADHD genes. Deletion in introns of the protocadherins families and the ncRNA HGB8P were identified in two independent EA ADHD patients. A meta-analysis of the two ethnicities for differential ADHD recurrent variants compared to controls shows a small number of overlaps. These results suggest that rare recurrent variants in noncoding regions may be involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD in children of both AA and EA ancestry; thus, WGS could be a powerful discovery tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of ADHD.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677556

RESUMO

AIMS : Our objective was to better understand the genetic bases of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a leading cause of systolic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS : We conducted the largest genome-wide association study performed so far in DCM, with 2719 cases and 4440 controls in the discovery population. We identified and replicated two new DCM-associated loci on chromosome 3p25.1 [lead single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs62232870, P = 8.7 × 10-11 and 7.7 × 10-4 in the discovery and replication steps, respectively] and chromosome 22q11.23 (lead SNP rs7284877, P = 3.3 × 10-8 and 1.4 × 10-3 in the discovery and replication steps, respectively), while confirming two previously identified DCM loci on chromosomes 10 and 1, BAG3 and HSPB7. A genetic risk score constructed from the number of risk alleles at these four DCM loci revealed a 27% increased risk of DCM for individuals with 8 risk alleles compared to individuals with 5 risk alleles (median of the referral population). In silico annotation and functional 4C-sequencing analyses on iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes identify SLC6A6 as the most likely DCM gene at the 3p25.1 locus. This gene encodes a taurine transporter whose involvement in myocardial dysfunction and DCM is supported by numerous observations in humans and animals. At the 22q11.23 locus, in silico and data mining annotations, and to a lesser extent functional analysis, strongly suggest SMARCB1 as the candidate culprit gene. CONCLUSION : This study provides a better understanding of the genetic architecture of DCM and sheds light on novel biological pathways underlying heart failure.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1827, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758187

RESUMO

Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy is a dominantly inherited disease caused by a leucine to glutamine variant of human cystatin C (hCC). L68Q-hCC forms amyloid deposits in brain arteries associated with micro-infarcts, leading ultimately to paralysis, dementia and death in young adults. To evaluate the ability of molecules to interfere with aggregation of hCC while informing about cellular toxicity, we generated cells that produce and secrete WT and L68Q-hCC and have detected high-molecular weight complexes formed from the mutant protein. Incubations of either lysate or supernatant containing L68Q-hCC with reducing agents glutathione or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) breaks oligomers into monomers. Six L68Q-hCC carriers taking NAC had skin biopsies obtained to determine if hCC deposits were reduced following NAC treatment. Remarkably, ~50-90% reduction of L68Q-hCC staining was observed in five of the treated carriers suggesting that L68Q-hCC is a clinical target for reducing agents.

7.
Pain ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729212

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Identifying genetic risk factors for lumbar spine disorders may lead to knowledge regarding underlying mechanisms and the development of new treatments. We conducted a genome-wide association study involving 100,811 participants with genotypes and longitudinal electronic health record data from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network and Geisinger Health. Cases and controls were defined using validated algorithms and clinical diagnostic codes. Electronic health record-defined phenotypes included low back pain requiring healthcare utilization (LBP-HC), lumbosacral radicular syndrome (LSRS), and lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Genome-wide association study used logistic regression with additive genetic effects adjusting for age, sex, site-specific factors, and ancestry (principal components). A fixed-effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis was conducted. Genetic variants of genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) were carried forward for replication in an independent sample from UK Biobank. Phenotype prevalence was 48.8% for LBP-HC, 19.8% for LSRS, and 7.9% for LSS. No variants were significantly associated with LBP-HC. One locus was associated with LSRS (lead variant rs146153280:C>G, odds ratio [OR] = 1.17 for G, P = 2.1 × 10-9), but was not replicated. Another locus on chromosome 2 spanning GFPT1, NFU1, and AAK1 was associated with LSS (lead variant rs13427243:G>A, OR = 1.10 for A, P = 4.3 × 10-8) and replicated in UK Biobank (OR = 1.11, P = 5.4 × 10-5). This was the first genome-wide association study meta-analysis of lumbar spinal disorders using electronic health record data. We identified 2 novel associations with LSRS and LSS; the latter was replicated in an independent sample.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1873, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767149

RESUMO

Clustering is a critical step in single cell-based studies. Most existing methods support unsupervised clustering without the a priori exploitation of any domain knowledge. When confronted by the high dimensionality and pervasive dropout events of scRNA-Seq data, purely unsupervised clustering methods may not produce biologically interpretable clusters, which complicates cell type assignment. In such cases, the only recourse is for the user to manually and repeatedly tweak clustering parameters until acceptable clusters are found. Consequently, the path to obtaining biologically meaningful clusters can be ad hoc and laborious. Here we report a principled clustering method named scDCC, that integrates domain knowledge into the clustering step. Experiments on various scRNA-seq datasets from thousands to tens of thousands of cells show that scDCC can significantly improve clustering performance, facilitating the interpretability of clusters and downstream analyses, such as cell type assignment.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , RNA-Seq/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Camundongos , Transcriptoma/genética
10.
Cell Rep ; 34(13): 108917, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789113

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in tumor immunity and comprise of subsets that have distinct phenotype, function, and ontology. Transcriptomic analyses of human medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain cancer, showed that medulloblastomas (MBs) with activated sonic hedgehog signaling (SHH-MB) have significantly more TAMs than other MB subtypes. Therefore, we examined MB-associated TAMs by single-cell RNA sequencing of autochthonous murine SHH-MB at steady state and under two distinct treatment modalities: molecular-targeted inhibitor and radiation. Our analyses reveal significant TAM heterogeneity, identify markers of ontologically distinct TAM subsets, and show the impact of brain microenvironment on the differentiation of tumor-infiltrating monocytes. TAM composition undergoes dramatic changes with treatment and differs significantly between molecular-targeted and radiation therapy. We identify an immunosuppressive monocyte-derived TAM subset that emerges with radiation therapy and demonstrate its role in regulating T cell and neutrophil infiltration in MB.

11.
BioData Min ; 14(1): 16, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In genome-wide association studies the extent and impact of confounding due to population structure have been well recognized. Inadequate handling of such confounding is likely to lead to spurious associations, hampering replication, and the identification of causal variants. Several strategies have been developed for protecting associations against confounding, the most popular one is based on Principal Component Analysis. In contrast, the extent and impact of confounding due to population structure in gene-gene interaction association epistasis studies are much less investigated and understood. In particular, the role of nonlinear genetic population substructure in epistasis detection is largely under-investigated, especially outside a regression framework. METHODS: To identify causal variants in synergy, to improve interpretability and replicability of epistasis results, we introduce three strategies based on a model-based multifactor dimensionality reduction approach for structured populations, namely MBMDR-PC, MBMDR-PG, and MBMDR-GC. RESULTS: Simulation results comparing the performance of various approaches show that in the presence of population structure MBMDR-PC and MBMDR-PG consistently better control type I error rate at the nominal level than MBMDR-GC. Moreover, our proposed three methods of population structure correction outperform MDR-SP in terms of statistical power. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate through extensive simulation studies the effect of various degrees of genetic population structure and relatedness on epistasis detection and propose appropriate remedial measures based on linear and nonlinear sample genetic similarity.

12.
Blood ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569577

RESUMO

Patients with familial platelet disorder with a predisposition to myeloid malignancy (FPDMM) harbor germline monoallelic mutations in a key hematopoietic transcription factor RUNX1. Previous studies of FPDMM have focused on megakaryocyte (Mk) differentiation, and platelet production and signaling. However, the effects of RUNX1 haploinsufficiency on hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and subsequent megakaryopoiesis remains incomplete. To address this issue, we studied induced-pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived HPCs (iHPCs) and Mks (iMks) from both patient-derived lines and a wildtype line modified to be RUNX1 haploinsufficient (RUNX1+/-), each compared to their isogenic wildtype control. All RUNX1+/- lines showed decreased iMk yield and depletion of a Mk-biased iHPC subpopulation. To investigate global and local gene expression changes underlying this iHPC shift, single-cell RNA sequencing was performed on sorted FPDMM and control iHPCs. We defined several cell subpopulations in the Mk-biased iHPCs. Analyses of gene sets upregulated in FPDMM iHPCs indicated enrichment for response to stress, regulation of signal transduction and immune signaling-related gene sets. Immunoblotting studies in FPDMM iMks were consistent with these findings, but also identified augmented baseline c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, known to be activated by transforming growth factor (TGF) ß1 and cellular stressors. These findings were confirmed in adult human CD34+-derived stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) transduced with lentiviral RUNX1 short-hairpin (sh) RNA to mimic RUNX1+/-. In both iHPCs and CD34+-derived HSPCs, targeted inhibitors of JNK and TGFß1 pathways corrected the megakaryopoietic defect. We propose that such intervention may correct the thrombocytopenia seen in affected FPDMM patients.

13.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 133, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Not all cells in a given individual are identical in their genomic makeup. Mosaicism describes such a phenomenon where a mixture of genotypic states in certain genomic segments exists within the same individual. Mosaicism is a prevalent and impactful class of non-integer state copy number variation (CNV). Mosaicism implies that certain cell types or subset of cells contain a CNV in a segment of the genome while other cells in the same individual do not. Several studies have investigated the impact of mosaicism in single patients or small cohorts but no comprehensive scan of mosaic CNVs has been undertaken to accurately detect such variants and interpret their impact on human health and disease. RESULTS: We developed a tool called Montage to improve the accuracy of detection of mosaic copy number variants in a high throughput fashion. Montage directly interfaces with ParseCNV2 algorithm to establish disease phenotype genome-wide association and determine which genomic ranges had more or less than expected frequency of mosaic events. We screened for mosaic events in over 350,000 samples using 1% allele frequency as the detection limit. Additionally, we uncovered disease associations of multiple phenotypes with mosaic CNVs at several genomic loci. We additionally investigated the allele imbalance observations genome-wide to define non-diploid and non-integer copy number states. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel algorithm presents an efficient tool with fast computational runtime and high levels of accuracy of mosaic CNV detection. A curated mosaic CNV callset of 3716 events in 2269 samples is presented with comparability to previous reports and disease phenotype associations. The new algorithm can be freely accessed via: https://github.com/CAG-CNV/MONTAGE .

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(4): 1266-1269, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547761

RESUMO

TTC21B encodes the protein IFT139, a critical component of the retrograde transport system within the primary cilium. Biallelic, pathogenic TTC21B variants are associated with classic ciliopathy syndromes, including nephronophthisis, Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, and Joubert Syndrome, with ciliopathy-spectrum traits such as biliary dysgenesis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and situs inversus, and also with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We report a 9-year-old male with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis requiring kidney transplant, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and biliary dysgenesis, found by research-based exome sequencing to have biallelic pathogenic TTC21B variants. A sibling with isolated heterotaxy was found to harbor the same variants. This case highlights the phenotypic spectrum and unpredictable manifestations of TTC21B-related disease, and also reports the first association between TTC21B and heterotaxy, nominating TTC21B as an important new heterotaxy gene.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 69, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479212

RESUMO

Neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BIP), and major depressive disorder (MDD) share common clinical presentations, suggesting etiologic overlap. A substantial proportion of SNP-based heritability for neuropsychiatric disorders is attributable to genetic components, and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) focusing on individual diseases have identified multiple genetic loci shared between these diseases. Here, we aimed at identifying novel genetic loci associated with individual neuropsychiatric diseases and genetic loci shared by neuropsychiatric diseases. We performed multi-trait joint analyses and meta-analysis across five neuropsychiatric disorders based on their summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC), and further carried out a replication study of ADHD among 2726 cases and 16299 controls in an independent pediatric cohort. In the multi-trait joint analyses, we found five novel genome-wide significant loci for ADHD, one novel locus for BIP, and ten novel loci for MDD. We further achieved modest replication in our independent pediatric dataset. We conducted fine-mapping and functional annotation through an integrative multi-omics approach and identified causal variants and potential target genes at each novel locus. Gene expression profile and gene-set enrichment analysis further suggested early developmental stage expression pattern and postsynaptic membrane compartment enrichment of candidate genes at the genome-wide significant loci of these neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore, through a multi-omics approach, we identified novel genetic loci associated with the five neuropsychiatric disorders which may help to better understand the underlying molecular mechanism of neuropsychiatric diseases.

16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 168, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420026

RESUMO

Increasingly, clinical phenotypes with matched genetic data from bio-bank linked electronic health records (EHRs) have been used for pleiotropy analyses. Thus far, pleiotropy analysis using individual-level EHR data has been limited to data from one site. However, it is desirable to integrate EHR data from multiple sites to improve the detection power and generalizability of the results. Due to privacy concerns, individual-level patients' data are not easily shared across institutions. As a result, we introduce Sum-Share, a method designed to efficiently integrate EHR and genetic data from multiple sites to perform pleiotropy analysis. Sum-Share requires only summary-level data and one round of communication from each site, yet it produces identical test statistics compared with that of pooled individual-level data. Consequently, Sum-Share can achieve lossless integration of multiple datasets. Using real EHR data from eMERGE, Sum-Share is able to identify 1734 potential pleiotropic SNPs for five cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pleiotropia Genética , Comunicação , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Privacidade
17.
Int Heart J ; 62(1): 127-134, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455984

RESUMO

Mutations in the sarcomeric protein filamin C (FLNC) gene have been linked to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), as they have been determined to increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death. Thus, in this study, we identified a novel missense mutation of FLNC in a Chinese family with HCM, and, interestingly, a second novel truncating mutation of MYLK2 was discobered in one family member with different phenotype.We performed whole-exome sequencing in a Chinese family with HCM of unknown cause. To determine and confirm the function of a novel mutation of FLNC, we introduced the mutant and wild-type gene into AC16 cells (human cardiomyocytes): we then used western blotting to analyze the expression of FLNC in subcellular fractions, and confocal microscope to observe the subcellular distribution of the protein.As per our findings, we were able to identify a novel missense single nucleotide variant (FLNC c.G5935A [p.A1979T]) in the family, which segregates with the disease. FLNC expression levels were observed to be equivalent in both wild-type and p.A1979T cardiomyocytes. However, the expression of the mutant protein has resulted in cytoplasmic protein aggregations, in contrast to wild-type FLNC, which was distributed in the cytoplasm and did not form aggregates. Unexpectedly, a second truncating mutation, NM_033118:exon8:c.G1138T:p.E380X of the MYLK2 gene, was identified in the mother of the proband with dilated cardiomyopathy, which was not found in other subjects.We then identified the FLNC A1979T mutation as a novel pathogenic variant associated with HCM in a Chinese family as well as a second causal mutation in a family member with a distinct phenotype. The possibility that there is more than one causal mutation in cardiomyopathy warrants clinical attention, especially for patients with atypical clinical features.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Filaminas/genética , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/genética , Adulto , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/ultraestrutura , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Fibrilação Ventricular/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Ventricular/mortalidade , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
18.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone accrual impacts lifelong skeletal health, but genetic discovery has been primarily limited to cross-sectional study designs and hampered by uncertainty about target effector genes. Here, we capture this dynamic phenotype by modeling longitudinal bone accrual across 11,000 bone scans in a cohort of healthy children and adolescents, followed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and variant-to-gene mapping with functional follow-up. RESULTS: We identify 40 loci, 35 not previously reported, with various degrees of supportive evidence, half residing in topological associated domains harboring known bone genes. Of several loci potentially associated with later-life fracture risk, a candidate SNP lookup provides the most compelling evidence for rs11195210 (SMC3). Variant-to-gene mapping combining ATAC-seq to assay open chromatin with high-resolution promoter-focused Capture C identifies contacts between GWAS loci and nearby gene promoters. siRNA knockdown of gene expression supports the putative effector gene at three specific loci in two osteoblast cell models. Finally, using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, we confirm that the immediate genomic region harboring the putative causal SNP influences PRPF38A expression, a location which is predicted to coincide with a set of binding sites for relevant transcription factors. CONCLUSIONS: Using a new longitudinal approach, we expand the number of genetic loci putatively associated with pediatric bone gain. Functional follow-up in appropriate cell models finds novel candidate genes impacting bone accrual. Our data also raise the possibility that the cell fate decision between osteogenic and adipogenic lineages is important in normal bone accrual.

19.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated triglycerides (TG) are associated with, and may be causal for, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and co-morbidities such as type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Pathogenic variants in APOA5 and APOC3 as well as risk SNVs in other genes [APOE (rs429358, rs7412), APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster (rs964184), INSR (rs7248104), CETP (rs7205804), GCKR (rs1260326)] have been shown to affect TG levels. Knowledge of genetic causes for elevated TG may lead to early intervention and targeted treatment for CVD. We previously identified linkage and association of a rare, highly conserved missense variant in SLC25A40, rs762174003, with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in a single large family, and replicated this association with rare, highly conserved missense variants in a European American and African American sample. METHODS: Here, we analyzed a longitudinal mixed-ancestry cohort (European, African and Asian ancestry, N = 8966) from the Electronic Medical Record and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We tested associations between median TG and the genes of interest, using linear regression, adjusting for sex, median age, median BMI, and the first two principal components of ancestry. RESULTS: We replicated the association between TG and APOC3, APOA5, and risk variation at APOE, APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster, and GCKR. We failed to replicate the association between rare, highly conserved variation at SLC25A40 and TG, as well as for risk variation at INSR and CETP. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis using data from electronic health records presents challenges that need to be overcome. Although large amounts of genotype data is becoming increasingly accessible, usable phenotype data can be challenging to obtain. We were able to replicate known, strong associations, but were unable to replicate moderate associations due to the limited sample size and missing drug information.

20.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429424

RESUMO

Copy number variations (CNVs) are an important class of variations contributing to the pathogenesis of many disease phenotypes. Detecting CNVs from genomic data remains difficult, and the most currently applied methods suffer from an unacceptably high false positive rate. A common practice is to have human experts manually review original CNV calls for filtering false positives before further downstream analysis or experimental validation. Here, we propose DeepCNV, a deep learning-based tool, intended to replace human experts when validating CNV calls, focusing on the calls made by one of the most accurate CNV callers, PennCNV. The sophistication of the deep neural network algorithm is enriched with over 10 000 expert-scored samples that are split into training and testing sets. Variant confidence, especially for CNVs, is a main roadblock impeding the progress of linking CNVs with the disease. We show that DeepCNV adds to the confidence of the CNV calls with an optimal area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.909, exceeding other machine learning methods. The superiority of DeepCNV was also benchmarked and confirmed using an experimental wet-lab validation dataset. We conclude that the improvement obtained by DeepCNV results in significantly fewer false positive results and failures to replicate the CNV association results.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...