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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1119, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602930

RESUMO

Regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg) prevent tumor clearance by conventional T cells (Tconv) comprising a major obstacle of cancer immune-surveillance. Hitherto, the mechanisms of Treg repertoire formation in human cancers remain largely unclear. Here, we analyze Treg clonal origin in breast cancer patients using T-Cell Receptor and single-cell transcriptome sequencing. While Treg in peripheral blood and breast tumors are clonally distinct, Tconv clones, including tumor-antigen reactive effectors (Teff), are detected in both compartments. Tumor-infiltrating CD4+ cells accumulate into distinct transcriptome clusters, including early activated Tconv, uncommitted Teff, Th1 Teff, suppressive Treg and pro-tumorigenic Treg. Trajectory analysis suggests early activated Tconv differentiation either into Th1 Teff or into suppressive and pro-tumorigenic Treg. Importantly, Tconv, activated Tconv and Treg share highly-expanded clones contributing up to 65% of intratumoral Treg. Here we show that Treg in human breast cancer may considerably stem from antigen-experienced Tconv converting into secondary induced Treg through intratumoral activation.

2.
Semin Immunol ; : 101432, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277153

RESUMO

The homology groups of a topological space provide us with information about its connectivity and the number and type of holes in it. This type of information can find practical applications in describing the intrinsic structure of an image, as well as in identifying equivalence classes in collections of images. When computing homological characteristics, the existence and strength of the relationships between each pair of points in the topological space are studied. The practical use of this approach begins by building a topological space from the image, in which the computation of the homology groups can be carried out in a feasible time. Once the homological properties are obtained, what follows is the task of translating such information into operations such as image segmentation. This work presents a technique for denoising persistent diagrams and reconstructing the shape of segmented objects using the remaining classes on the diagram. A case study for the segmentation of cell nuclei in histological images is used for demonstration purposes. With this approach: a) topological denoising is achieved by aggregating trivial classes on the persistence diagram, and b) a growing seed algorithm uses the information obtained during the construction of the persistence diagram for the reconstruction of the segmented cell structures.

3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(12): 6933-6939, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Chemokine receptor inhibition is an immunotherapy that modulates the innate arm of the immune system. Previous work in microsatellite-stable metastatic colorectal cancer showed an exploitive loop that could be successfully targeted via C-C-motive-chemokine-receptor 5 (CCR5) specific blocking, resulting in a selective anti-tumoral activation of macrophages. In the respective trial (MARACON trial, NCT01736813) the peripheral blood laboratory markers and cytokine values were measured over time. Little is known on their role as biomarkers or stratification parameters in immunotherapy trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Systematic analyses of key laboratory parameters are presented, highlighting specific dynamics of lymphocyte and monocyte percentages, lactate dehydrogenase as well as interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels as parameters of a systemic inflammatory readout. RESULTS: Specific dynamical changes of lymphocyte and monocyte compositions were noted between different patients, showing a stabilization (or increase) versus decreased numbers over time for monocytes. While lactate dehydrogenase, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 showed almost uniformly rising levels over time, the systemic monocyte patterns prompted a further evaluation. Stabilized or increasing monocyte percentages were associated with improved overall survival (Kaplan Meier analysis, p=0.025) and with induced overt radiologic necrosis in patients. CONCLUSION: The observed association between monocyte dynamics and imaging findings as well as overall survival suggests that analyses of dynamical parameters in the peripheral blood should be implemented in immunotherapy trials.

4.
Semin Immunol ; : 101411, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168423

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment is an interacting heterogeneous collection of cancer cells, resident as well as infiltrating host cells, secreted factors, and extracellular matrix proteins. With the growing importance of immunotherapies, it has become crucial to be able to characterize the composition and the functional orientation of the microenvironment. The development of novel computational image analysis methodologies may enable the robust quantification and localization of immune and related biomarker-expressing cells within the microenvironment. The aim of the review is to concisely highlight a selection of current and significant contributions pertinent to methodological advances coupled with biomedical or translational applications. A further aim is to concisely present computational advances that, to our knowledge, have currently very limited use for the assessment of the microenvironment but have the potential to enhance image analysis pipelines; on this basis, an example is shown for the detection and segmentation of cells of the microenvironment using a published pipeline and a public dataset. Finally, a general proposal is presented on the conceptual design of automation-optimized computational image analysis workflows in the biomedical and clinical domain.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2719-2728, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. METHODS: In a prospective German cohort of 3,593 colorectal cancer patients, we assessed the association of 771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 58 Treg-related genes with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated because tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2,047 colorectal cancer patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium (ISACC). RESULTS: A significant association of the TGFBR3 SNP rs7524066 with more favorable colorectal cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.94; P value: 0.0033] was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two IL7 SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as TGFBR3 and IL7 was shown to be associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. IMPACT: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.

6.
Trials ; 21(1): 828, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary objectives • To assess overall survival, and the overall survival rate at 28 56 and 84 days. • To assess SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • To assess the percentage of patients that required mechanical ventilation. • To assess time from randomisation until discharge. TRIAL DESIGN: Randomised, open-label, multicenter phase II trial, designed to assess the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) following treatment with anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma or standard of care. PARTICIPANTS: High-risk patients >18 years of age hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 10-15 university medical centres will be included. High-risk is defined as SARS-CoV-2 positive infection with Oxygen saturation at ≤ 94% at ambient air with additional risk features as categorised in 4 groups: • Group 1, pre-existing or concurrent hematological malignancy and/or active cancer therapy (incl. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) within the last 24 months or less. • Group 2, chronic immunosuppression not meeting the criteria of group 1. • Group 3, age ≥ 50 - 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2 and at least one of these criteria: Lymphopenia < 0.8 x G/l and/or D-dimer > 1µg/mL. • Group 4, age ≥ 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2. Observation time for all patients is expected to be at least 3 months after entry into the study. Patients receive convalescent plasma for two days (day 1 and day 2) or standard of care. For patients in the standard arm, cross over is allowed from day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. Nose/throat swabs for determination of viral load are collected at day 0 and day 1 (before first CP administration) and subsequently at day 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28 or until discharge. Serum for SARS-Cov-2 diagnostic is collected at baseline and subsequently at day 3, 7, 14 and once during the follow-up period (between day 35 and day 84). There is a regular follow-up of 3 months. All discharged patients are followed by regular phone calls. All visits, time points and study assessments are summarized in the Trial Schedule (see full protocol Table 1). All participating trial sites will be supplied with study specific visit worksheets that list all assessments and procedures to be completed at each visit. All findings including clinical and laboratory data are documented by the investigator or an authorized member of the study team in the patient's medical record and in the electronic case report forms (eCRFs). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: This trial will analyze the effects of convalescent plasma from recovered subjects with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in high-risk patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients at high risk for a poor outcome due to underlying disease, age or condition as listed above are eligible for enrollment. In addition, eligible patients have a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and O2 saturation ≤ 94% while breathing ambient air. Patients are randomised to receive (experimental arm) or not receive (standard arm) convalescent plasma in two bags (238 - 337 ml plasma each) from different donors (day 1, day 2). A cross over from the standard arm into the experimental arm is possible after day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoints: The main purpose of the study is to assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven-point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary endpoints: • Overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation until death from any cause 28-day, 56-day and 84-day overall survival rates. • SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • Requirement mechanical ventilation at any time during hospital stay (yes/no). • Time until discharge from randomisation. • Viral load, changes in antibody titers and cytokine profiles are analysed in an exploratory manner using paired non-parametric tests (before - after treatment). RANDOMISATION: Upon confirmation of eligibility (patients must meet all inclusion criteria and must not meet exclusion criteria described in section 5.3 and 5.4 of the full protocol), the clinical site must contact a centralized internet randomization system ( https://randomizer.at/ ). Patients are randomized using block randomisation to one of the two arms, experimental arm or standard arm, in a 1:1 ratio considering a stratification according to the 4 risk groups (see Participants). BLINDING (MASKING): The study is open-label, no blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total number of 174 patients is required for the entire trial, n=87 per group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2 dated 09/07/2020. A recruitment period of approximately 9 months and an overall study duration of approximately 12 months is anticipated. Recruitment of patients starts in the third quarter of 2020. The study duration of an individual patient is planned to be 3 months. After finishing all study-relevant procedures, therapy, and follow-up period, the patient is followed in terms of routine care and treated if necessary. Total trial duration: 18 months Duration of the clinical phase: 12 months First patient first visit (FPFV): 3rd Quarter 2020 Last patient first visit (LPFV): 2nd Quarter 2021 Last patient last visit (LPLV): 3rd Quarter 2021 Trial Report completed: 4th Quarter 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2020-001632-10, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001632-10/DE , registered on 04/04/2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). The eCRF is attached (Additional file 3).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Plasma/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Convalescença , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco Ajustado , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6367-6373, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The presence of TLS (tertiary lymphoid structures) is detectable in the microenvironment of human cancers and linked to better patient outcomes. The role of TLS in colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) is unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients with CRCLM were reviewed (n=33) and corresponding tissue samples (n=21) were obtained. Whole slide imaging analyses on immunohistochemical staining of immune cell infiltrates and TLS were correlated to clinical outcomes (including chemotherapy response) and other parameters. RESULTS: Neither the size (p=0.6) nor the quantity (p=0.47) of TLS was associated with the clinical course. When considering spatial differences, TLS in the invasive margin (IM) were associated with progression-free survival (p=0.03), while TLS in the LM (liver metastasis) were not. Also, TLS in the IM were associated with the presence of CD3+ T cells, which itself was prognostically favorable (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: TLS in the IM are associated with good prognosis in CRCLM, but not chemotherapy response.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
8.
Br J Cancer ; 123(10): 1469-1470, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843683

RESUMO

Microbiome composition can impact disease courses and also immunotherapy outcomes in solid tumours. It is still unclear how the microbiome might impact treatments in oncology, but also how modulation via antibiotics might interfere. Elegant work now identified interleukin-9 and dysbiosis as relevant factors, providing some answers for these questions.

9.
Semin Nucl Med ; 50(5): 389-398, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768003

RESUMO

New scientific insights in cancer biology and immunobiology have changed the clinical practice of medical oncology in recent years. The molecular stratification of solid tumors has led to improved clinical outcomes and is a key part in the diagnostic workup. Beyond mutational spectra (like Rat sarcoma [RAS] mutations or tumor mutational burden), the investigation of the immunological microenvironment has attracted more efforts. Especially as immunotherapies have changed the standard treatment for some solid tumors dramatically and have become an important part of routine oncology, also for gastrointestinal tumors. Still only a subgroup of patients benefits from immunotherapy in gastrointestinal tumors with prominent examples from colorectal, pancreatic or gastric cancer. Not only microsatellite instability as a marker for response to immunotherapy has shown its utility, there plenty of other approaches currently being investigated to better stratify and understand the microenvironment. But these insights have not translated into clinical utility. Reasons for this are limited technical capabilities for stratification and for coping with heterogeneity of tumor cells and the microenvironment as such. So the situation for gastrointestinal tumors has shown mainly progress for a subgroup of immunotherapy-receptive tumors (eg, microsatellite instability), but advances for the remaining majority have been in the area of stratification and combinatorial therapies, including approaches without chemotherapy. Molecular stratification (eg, B-Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma [BRAF] V600E mutation in colorectal cancer or NRG1 fusions in Kirsten-rat sarcoma (KRAS) Wild-Type Pancreatic Cancer) has clearly improved the possibilities for directed therapies, but there is a plethora of clinical situations where further developments are needed to improve patient care. Finding these areas and identifying the technical approach to unravel the complexities is the next decisive step. Here the recent advances are summarized and an outlook on possible diagnostic and treatment options in areas of unmet need is given with the context of new molecular imaging possibilities and cutting edge advances in nuclear medicine.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 147(9): 2373-2386, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319674

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has been implicated in the initiation of several cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether it also plays a role in CRC prognosis is unclear. We assessed the associations of two oxidative stress biomarkers (Diacron's reactive oxygen metabolites [d-ROMs] and total thiol level [TTL]) with CRC prognosis. CRC patients who were diagnosed in 2003 to 2012 and recruited into a population-based study in Germany (n = 3361) were followed for up to 6 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the associations of d-ROMs and TTL (measured from blood samples collected shortly after CRC diagnosis) with overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression. Particularly pronounced associations of higher d-ROMs with lower survival were observed in stage IV patients, with patients in the highest (vs lowest) tertile having much lower OS (HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.14-2.04) and DSS (HR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.20-2.17). For TTL, strong inverse associations of TTL with mortality were observed within all stages. In patients of all stages, those in the highest (vs lowest) quintile had substantially higher OS (HR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.38-0.62) and DSS (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.39-0.69). The addition of these biomarkers to models that included age, sex, tumor stage and subsite significantly improved the prediction of CRC prognosis. The observed strong associations of higher d-ROMs and lower TTL levels with poorer prognosis even in stage IV patients suggest that oxidative stress contributes significantly to premature mortality in CRC patients and demonstrate a large potential of these biomarkers in enhancing the prediction of CRC prognosis beyond tumor stage.

11.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 86(9): 1836-1848, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207164

RESUMO

AIM: Preclinical evidence suggests that oxidized macrophage migration inhibitory factor (oxMIF) may be involved in carcinogenesis. This phase 1 study (NCT01765790) assessed the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and antitumour activity of imalumab, an oxMIF inhibitor, in patients with advanced cancer using '3 + 3' dose escalation. METHODS: In Schedule 1, patients with solid tumours received doses from 1 to 50 mg/kg IV every 2 weeks. In Schedule 2, patients with metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma, non-small-cell lung, or ovarian cancer received weekly doses of 10 or 25 mg/kg IV (1 cycle = 28 days). Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, dose-limiting toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. RESULTS: Fifty of 68 enrolled patients received imalumab. The most common treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) included fatigue (10%) and vomiting (6%); four grade 3 serious TRAEs (two patients) occurred. The dose-limiting toxicity was allergic alveolitis (one patient, 50 mg/kg every 2 weeks). The maximum tolerated and biologically active doses were 37.5 mg/kg every 2 weeks and 10 mg/kg weekly, respectively. Of 39 assessed patients, 13 had stable disease (≥4 months in 8 patients). CONCLUSIONS: Imalumab had a maximum tolerated dose of 37.5 mg/kg every 2 weeks in patients with advanced solid tumours, with a biologically active dose of 10 mg/kg weekly. Further investigation will help define the role of oxMIF as a cancer treatment target.

12.
Br J Cancer ; 121(6): 431-433, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395951

RESUMO

Machine learning is an exciting technology with broad application in big data analysis, as well as increasingly in specialised healthcare. As a diagnostic tool in tissue workup and pathology, it has the potential for personalised and stratified approaches, but the limitations and pitfalls need to be better understood and characterised especially in this critical area of medical care.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Oncologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Patologia Clínica , Humanos , Prognóstico
13.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(9): e1626193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428524

RESUMO

Multiple reports have highlighted the importance of the local immunological cellular composition (i.e. the density of effector T cells and macrophage polarization state) in predicting clinical outcome in advanced metastatic stage of colorectal cancer. However, in spite of the general association between a high effector T cell density and improved outcome, our recent work has revealed a specific lymphocyte-driven cancer cell-supporting signal. Indeed, lymphocyte-derived CCL5 supports CCR5-positive tumor cell proliferation and thereby fosters tumor growth in metastatic liver lesions. Upon systematic analysis of CCR5 expression by tumor cells using immunohistochemistry, we observed that the intensity of CCR5 increases with primary tumor size and peaks in T4 tumors. In liver metastases however, though CCR5 expression intensity is globally heightened compared to primary tumors, alterations in the expression patterns appear, leading to "patchiness" of the stain. CCR5 patchiness is, therefore, a signature of liver metastases in our cohort (n = 97 specimens) and relates to globally decreased expression intensity, but does not influence the extent of the response to CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc in patients. Moreover, CCR5 patchiness relates to a poor immune landscape characterized by a low cytotoxic-to-regulatory T cell ratio at the invasive margin and enriched cellular and molecular markers of macrophage M2 polarization. Finally, because higher numbers of PD-1- and CTLA-4-positive cells surround tumors with patchy CCR5 expression, one can speculate that these tumors potentially respond to immune checkpoint blockade. This hypothesis is corroborated by the prolonged disease-free survival and disease-specific survival observed in patients with low gene expression of CCR5 in metastases from two publically available cohorts. These observations highlight the complex role of the CCL5-CCR5 axis in CRC metastatic progression and warrant further investigations.

14.
Cancer Res ; 79(19): 4801-4807, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292161

RESUMO

Experiments of nature have revealed the peculiar importance of the G-protein-coupled receptor, C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), in human disease since ancient times. The resurgence of interest in heterotypic signals in the onset and progression of tumorigenesis has led to the current focus on CCR5 as an exciting new therapeutic target for metastatic cancer with clinical trials now targeting breast and colon cancer. The eutopic expression of CCR5 activates calcium signaling and thereby augments regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation and migration to sites of inflammation. The misexpression of CCR5 in epithelial cells, induced upon oncogenic transformation, hijacks this migratory phenotype. CCR5 reexpression augments resistance to DNA-damaging agents and is sufficient to induce cancer metastasis and "stemness". Recent studies suggest important cross-talk between CCR5 signaling and immune checkpoint function. Because CCR5 on Tregs serves as the coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry, CCR5-targeted therapeutics used in HIV, [small molecules (maraviroc and vicriviroc) and a humanized mAb (leronlimab)], are now being repositioned in clinical trials as cancer therapeutics. As CCR5 is expressed on a broad array of tumors, the opportunity for therapeutic repositioning and the rationale for combination therapy approaches are reviewed herein.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptores CCR5/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Receptores CCR5/imunologia
15.
Nat Med ; 25(7): 1054-1056, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160815

RESUMO

Microsatellite instability determines whether patients with gastrointestinal cancer respond exceptionally well to immunotherapy. However, in clinical practice, not every patient is tested for MSI, because this requires additional genetic or immunohistochemical tests. Here we show that deep residual learning can predict MSI directly from H&E histology, which is ubiquitously available. This approach has the potential to provide immunotherapy to a much broader subset of patients with gastrointestinal cancer.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Humanos , Imunoterapia
16.
Br J Cancer ; 120(9): 871-882, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936499

RESUMO

Significant progress in the development of new immunotherapies has led to successful clinical trials for malignant melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer; however, for the majority of solid tumours of the gastrointestinal tract, little or no progress has been seen. The efficacy of immunotherapies is limited by the complexities of a diverse set of immune cells, and interactions between the tumour cells and all other cells in the local microenvironment of solid tumours. A large fraction of immune cells present in and around solid tumours derive from the innate arm of the immune system and using these cells against tumours offers an alternative immunotherapeutic option, especially as current strategies largely harness the adaptive arm of the immune system. This option is currently being investigated and attempts at using the innate immune system for gastrointestinal cancers are showing initial results. Several important factors, including cytokines, chemotherapeutics and the microbiome, influence the plasticity and functionality of innate (myeloid) cells in the microenvironment, and this complexity of regulation has limited translation into successful trials so far. In this review, current concepts of the immunobiology of the innate arm in the tumour microenvironment are presented in the context of clinical translation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
17.
Breast Care (Basel) ; 14(1): 53-59, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019444

RESUMO

Background: In the field of breast cancer tumor biology, triple-negative breast cancer patients are the main focus of current clinical trials exploring the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors due to higher frequencies of somatic mutations, neoantigens, and resulting tumor-specific T-cell reactivity. Case Report: Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old woman with metastatic luminal breast cancer that rapidly responded to monotherapy with pembrolizumab, a monoclonal anti-PD-1 antibody. This patient obtained a partial clinical response within the first cycle of treatment and an ongoing durable complete remission after 12 weeks. Except for a transient immune-related thyreoiditis, there were no side effects observed offering remarkable quality of life to the patient. To evaluate the underlying mechanisms, we performed immunohistochemistry, explored the mutational landscape by whole-exome sequencing, and identified potential T-cell epitopes by prediction of neoantigens with high affinity binding to one of the patient's HLA. Briefly, we found a strong infiltration of CD8+ T cells without staining for PD-L1 in the tumor stroma. Exome sequencing revealed an enormous frequency of somatic and tumor-specific alterations, mainly C>T/G>A transitions. The mutational pattern was further linked to genome instability and deficient mismatch repair supported by the loss of MSH6 protein expression and therefore leading to susceptibility to immune checkpoint blockade. Conclusion: Within the overall goal to establish operating procedures for breast cancer immunotherapy, we propose to re-evaluate testing for deficient mismatch repair and to further intensify the search for biomarkers predictive for the success of immune checkpoint modulation including all tumor biologic subtypes of breast cancer.

18.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 1795-1803, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863185

RESUMO

Purpose: Smurf2 is a member of the homologous to E6-AP carboxyl terminus family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Changes in their expression pattern are known to contribute to tumorigenesis. Smurf2 plays a decisive role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration and exhibits a dual role in cancer - functioning as both oncogene and tumor suppressor. Dysregulation of Smurf2 in different cancer types has been described, besides colorectal cancer (CRC). We therefore examined the expression and oncogenic potential of Smurf2 in human CRC patients. Materials and methods: Expression levels of Smurf2 were analyzed via qRT-PCR in CRC specimens and healthy mucosa from 98 patients who had undergone surgery due to CRC. Spatial expression of Smurf2 was additionally studied by immunohistochemistry. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Smurf2 was applied for migration and invasion assays in DLD-1 and SW-480 cells. Results: Smurf2 was significantly overexpressed in CRC tissue compared to corresponding healthy colon mucosa. Smurf2 expression levels differed significantly between microsatellite instable (MSI) and microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC. In patients suffering from MSS CRC, high tumoral expression of Smurf2 was significantly associated with impaired overall survival. Consistently, in vitro analysis revealed that knockdown of Smurf2 reduced the invasive and migratory potential of MSS CRC cells. Conclusion: Smurf2 expression is upregulated in CRC specimens and affects survival dependent on patients' MSI status. Moreover, Smurf2 supports cancer cell migration and invasion, collectively suggesting an oncogenic function in CRC.

19.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002730, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For virtually every patient with colorectal cancer (CRC), hematoxylin-eosin (HE)-stained tissue slides are available. These images contain quantitative information, which is not routinely used to objectively extract prognostic biomarkers. In the present study, we investigated whether deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can extract prognosticators directly from these widely available images. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We hand-delineated single-tissue regions in 86 CRC tissue slides, yielding more than 100,000 HE image patches, and used these to train a CNN by transfer learning, reaching a nine-class accuracy of >94% in an independent data set of 7,180 images from 25 CRC patients. With this tool, we performed automated tissue decomposition of representative multitissue HE images from 862 HE slides in 500 stage I-IV CRC patients in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort, a large international multicenter collection of CRC tissue. Based on the output neuron activations in the CNN, we calculated a "deep stroma score," which was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model (hazard ratio [HR] with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99 [1.27-3.12], p = 0.0028), while in the same cohort, manual quantification of stromal areas and a gene expression signature of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were only prognostic in specific tumor stages. We validated these findings in an independent cohort of 409 stage I-IV CRC patients from the "Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening" (DACHS) study who were recruited between 2003 and 2007 in multiple institutions in Germany. Again, the score was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR 1.63 [1.14-2.33], p = 0.008), CRC-specific OS (HR 2.29 [1.5-3.48], p = 0.0004), and relapse-free survival (RFS; HR 1.92 [1.34-2.76], p = 0.0004). A prospective validation is required before this biomarker can be implemented in clinical workflows. CONCLUSIONS: In our retrospective study, we show that a CNN can assess the human tumor microenvironment and predict prognosis directly from histopathological images.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Aprendizado Profundo , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Corantes , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS) , Feminino , Hematoxilina , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Reto/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Eur Surg Res ; 60(1-2): 1-12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a poor prognosis. BTCs are characterized by a prominent desmoplastic reaction which possibly contributes to the aggressive phenotype of this tumor. The desmoplastic reaction includes excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins such as periostin, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), thrombospondin-1, as well as accumulation of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and immune cells, secreting growth factors and cytokines including transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß. In the present study, we investigated the expression of SPARC in BTC as well as its possible regulation by TGF-ß. METHODS: Expression levels of Sparc, TGF-ß1 and its receptor ALK5 were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR in 6 biliary tract cell lines as well as 1 immortalized cholangiocyte cell line (MMNK-1). RNAs from tumor samples of 7 biliary tract cancer patients were analyzed for expression of Sparc, TGF-ß type II receptor (TbRII) as well as Twist and ZO-1. MMNK-1 cells were stimulated with TGF-ß for 24 h, and Sparc, ZO-1 and E-Cadherin expressions were determined. The presence of SPARC protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in tumor specimens from 10 patients. RESULTS: When comparing basal Sparc transcript levels in diverse BTC cell lines to MMNK-1 cells, we found that it was strongly downregulated in all cancer cell lines. The remaining expression levels were higher in highly differentiated cell lines (CCSW1, MZChA1, MZChA2 and TFK-1) than in less differentiated and undifferentiated ones (BDC, SKChA1). Expression of Sparc in BTC patient samples showed a significant positive correlation with expression of the epithelial marker ZO-1. In contrast, the mesenchymal marker Twist and the TbRII showed a trend of negative correlation with expression of Sparc in these samples. TGF-ß exposure significantly downregulated Sparc expression in MMNK-1 cholangiocytes in vitro in parallel to downregulation of epithelial markers (E-Cadherin and ZO-1). Finally, SPARC immunostaining was performed in 10 patient samples, and the correlation between absence of SPARC and survival times was analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: These data imply that a decrease in SPARC expression is correlated with dedifferentiation of BTC cells resulting in enhanced EMT being possibly mediated by TGF-ß. Thereby SPARC levels might be a marker for individual prognosis of a patient, and strategies aiming at inhibition of SPARC downregulation might have potential for new future therapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Osteonectina/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Osteonectina/análise , Osteonectina/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/análise
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