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1.
Int J Biometeorol ; 62(3): 449-457, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030696

RESUMO

There is a strong connection between space weather and fluctuations in technological systems. Some studies also suggest a statistical connection between space weather and subsequent fluctuations in the physiology of living creatures. This connection, however, has remained controversial and difficult to demonstrate. Here we present support for a response of human physiology to forcing from the explosive onset of the largest of space weather events-space storms. We consider a case study with over 16 years of high temporal resolution measurements of human blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart rate variability to search for associations with space weather. We find no statistically significant change in human blood pressure but a statistically significant drop in heart rate during the main phase of space storms. Our empirical findings shed light on how human physiology may respond to exogenous space weather forcing.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Frequência Cardíaca , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos
2.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 115(7): 995-1003, 2013 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23869060

RESUMO

Leptin, a hormone mainly produced by fat cells, shows cell-specific effects to regulate feeding and metabolic activities. We propose that an important feature of metabolic dysregulation resulting in obesity is the loss of the circadian rhythm of biopotentials. This was tested in the pan-leptin receptor knockout (POKO) mice newly generated in our laboratory. In the POKO mice, leptin no longer induced pSTAT-3 signaling after intracerebroventricular injection. Three basic phenotypes were observed: the heterozygotes had similar weight and adiposity as the wild-type (WT) mice (>60% of the mice); the homozygotes were either fatter (∼30%), or rarely leaner (<5%) than the WT mice. By early adulthood, the POKO mice had higher average body weight and adiposity than their respective same-sex WT littermate controls, and this was consistent among different batches. The homozygote fat POKO showed significant reduction of midline estimating statistic of rhythm of circadian parameters, and shifts of ultradian rhythms. The blunted circadian rhythm of these extremely obese POKO mice was also seen in their physical inactivity, longer feeding bouts, and higher food intake. The extent of obesity correlated with the blunted circadian amplitude, accumulative metabolic and locomotor activities, and the severity of hyperphagia. This contrasts with the heterozygote POKO mice which showed little obesity and metabolic disturbance, and only subtle changes of the circadian rhythm of metabolic activity without alterations in feeding behavior. The results provide a novel aspect of leptin resistance, almost manifesting as an "all or none" phenomenon.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Magreza/metabolismo , Magreza/fisiopatologia
3.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 305(3): H279-94, 2013 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23709604

RESUMO

Chronobiology is the study of biological rhythms. Chronomics investigates interactions with environmental cycles in a genetically coded autoresonance of the biosphere with wrangling space and terrestrial weather. Analytical global and local methods applied to human blood pressure records of around-the-clock measurements covering decades detect physiological-physical interactions, a small yet measurable response to solar and terrestrial magnetism. The chronobiological and chronomic interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (C-ABPM) records in the light of time-specified reference values derived from healthy peers matched by sex and age identify vascular variability anomalies (VVAs) for an assessment of cardio-, cerebro-, and renovascular disease risk. Even within the conventionally accepted normal range, VVAs have been associated with a statistically significant increase in risk. Long-term C-ABPM records help to "know ourselves," serving for relief of psychological and other strain once transient VVAs are linked to the source of a load, prompting adjustment of one's lifestyle for strain reduction. Persistent circadian VVAs can be treated, sometimes by no more than a change in timing of the daily administration of antihypertensive medication. Circadian VVA assessment is an emergency worldwide, prompted in the United States by 1,000 deaths per day every day from problems related to blood pressure. While some heads of state met under United Nation and World Health Organization sponsorship to declare that noncommunicable diseases are a slow-motion disaster, a resolution has been drafted to propose C-ABPM as an added tool complementing purely physical environmental monitoring to contribute also to the understanding of social and natural as well as personal cataclysms.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Ritmo Circadiano , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cronoterapia Farmacológica , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Magnetismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Atividade Solar , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tempo (Meteorologia)
4.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; 35(4): 257-66, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23541237

RESUMO

Timing can greatly affect the response to a stimulus, including antihypertensive medications. Herein, we assess the response of 30 patients to losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (L/H), administered for at least 1 month at a given circadian stage to each patient, this stage being changed during consecutive spans to cover six treatment times from awakening to bedtime at approximately 3-hour intervals. At the end of each stage, each patient underwent a 7-day around-the-clock ambulatory blood pressure (BP) profile, analyzed chronobiologically. A larger reduction of the midline estimating statistic of rhythm (MESOR; a rhythm-adjusted mean) of diastolic BP was achieved by L/H administration in the early morning for more patients (P < .05), while treatment upon awakening was the best choice for most patients to reduce the circadian amplitude of BP the most (P < .01). The optimal treatment time varied considerably among patients, however. Special attention should be given to the effect on the circadian amplitude since treatment can increase it above a threshold, beyond which there is a marked increase in cardiovascular disease risk. The results indicate the desirability to individualize the optimization of the antihypertensive effect of L/H by timing along the circadian scale.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Cronoterapia Farmacológica , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroclorotiazida/administração & dosagem , Losartan/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Medicina de Precisão
6.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 112(8): 1410-8, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22323652

RESUMO

Leptin, a polypeptide hormone produced mainly by adipocytes, has diverse effects in both the brain and peripheral organs, including suppression of feeding. Other than mediating leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier, the role of the endothelial leptin receptor remains unclear. We recently generated a mutant mouse strain lacking endothelial leptin receptor signaling, and showed that there is an increased uptake of leptin by brain parenchyma after its delivery by in situ brain perfusion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that endothelial leptin receptor mutation confers partial resistance to diet-induced obesity. These ELKO mice had similar body weight and percent fat as their wild-type littermates when fed with rodent chow, but blood concentrations of leptin were significantly elevated. In response to a high-fat diet, wild-type mice had a greater gain of body weight and fat than ELKO mice. As shown by metabolic chamber measurement, the ELKO mice had higher oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and heat dissipation, although food intake was similar to that of the wild-type mice and locomotor activity was even reduced. This indicates that the partial resistance to diet-induced obesity was mediated by higher metabolic activity in the ELKO mice. Since neuronal leptin receptor knockout mice show obesity and diabetes, the results suggest that endothelial leptin signaling shows opposite effects from that of neuronal leptin signaling, with a facilitatory role in diet-induced obesity.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Receptores para Leptina/deficiência , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
7.
Glob Adv Health Med ; 1(2): 66-123, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23710422

RESUMO

To detect vascular variability anomalies (VVAs), a blood pressure and heart rate profile around the clock for at least 7 days is a start. As a minimum, measurement every 60 or preferably 30 minutes for a week is needed, to be continued if abnormality is found, to assess the about 24-hour (circadian) variability that exists in all individuals. As a first dividend, one then also obtains a glimpse of 2 of the very many longer-than-circadian periodicities, the biological half-week and week. Certainly if we can have sensors and computer chips in our cars that continuously monitor the pressure over a tire's life, we should be able to do the same job for ourselves for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Healthcare today emphasizes wellness with recommendations for exercise and a proper diet, yet these evaluations may not be adequate. BP may be measured at a visit to the doctor or before an exercise session, along with measuring body weight and performing a physical exam. The seeds of disease are planted long before they are visible, and what appears to be normal from a conventional point of view may in fact actually be abnormal. Hidden alterations of physiological function, masked by the body's remarkable adaptive capabilities, may become visible through a new diagnostic and therapeutic realm-chronobiology-that reveals hitherto unseen abnormalities. The tools of chronobiology may yield additional dividends, such as the detection of physiological "loads" related to stress and stress relief and the undesirable effcts of space weather upon personal events such as sudden cardiac death, societal events like terrorism and war, and natural disasters. Chronobiologi cally interpreted automatic ambulatory BP and heart rate (HR) monitoring (C-ABPM) may detect the antecedents of these types of events. C-ABPM is of interest in preventive cardiology, since it reveals new diagnoses as vascular variability anomalies (VVAs) and renders previous conventional diagnoses more reliable, such as that of an elevated BP. These VVAs include MESOR (midline-estimating statistic of rhythm)-hypertension, an elevation of the MESOR, which is diagnosed, like all other VVAs, only after I or preferably several replications of 7-day around-the-clock BP monitoring with available, affordable, and unobtrusive instrumentation. The recommendation for continuous C-ABPM recognizes several principles that constitute inseparably intertwined contributors to severe cardio-, cerebro- and renovascular diease. C-ABPM gauges wear and tear of genetics, physical loads, and in particular mental stress placed upon individuals from "womb to tomb" by daily life, including weather in extraterrestrial space as well as that on earth, as a continuous surveillance paradigm preventing us from flying blind to a change from less than 5% to near 100% in the risk of a stroke within 6 years.

8.
World Heart J ; 4(4): 263-287, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24860279

RESUMO

Seven of the eight authors of this report each performed physiologic self-surveillance, some around the clock for decades. We here document the presence of long cycles (decadals, including circaundecennians) in the time structure of systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Because of the non-stationary nature in time and space of these and other physiologic and environmental periodic components that, like the wind, can appear and disappear in a given or other geographic location at one or another time, they have been called "Aeolian". The nonlinear estimation of the uncertainties of the periods (τs) of two or more variables being compared has been used to determine whether these components are congruent or not, depending on whether their CIs (95% confidence intervals) overlap or not. Among others, congruence has been found for components with τs clustering around 10 years in us and around us. There is a selective assortment among individuals, variables and cycle characteristics (mean and circadian amplitude and acrophase). Apart from basic interest, like other nonphotic solar signatures such as transyears with periods slightly longer than one year or about 33-year Brückner-Egeson-Lockyer (BEL) cycles, about 10-year and longer cycles present in 7 of 7 self-monitoring individuals are of interest in the diagnosis of Vascular Variability Anomalies (VVAs), including MESOR-hypertension, and others. Some of the other VVAs, such as a circadian overswing, i.e., CHAT (Circadian Hyper-Aplitude-Tension), or an excessive pulse pressure, based on repeated 7-day around-the-clock records, can represent a risk of severe cardiovascular events, greater than that of a high BP. The differential diagnosis of physiologic cycles, infradians (components with a τ longer than 28 hours) as well as circadians awaits the collection of reference values for the infradian parameters of the cycles described herein. Just as in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats during the weeks after weaning CHAT precedes an elevation of the BP MESOR, a decadal overswing seems to precede the occurrence of high BP in two of the subjects here examined. Only around-the-clock monitoring in health for the collection of reference values will allow on their basis the differential diagnosis of the onsets of a circadian versus a circadecadal overswing in BP and the specification whether, and if so, when to initiate hypotensive non-drug or drug treatment.

9.
Open Nutraceuticals J ; 3: 100-111, 2011 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21814536

RESUMO

Evidence on time-dependent effects of drugs and nutrition is succinctly reviewed in order to illustrate and advocate investigations of the timing of nutriceuticals. Emphasis is placed on the merits of coordinated, individually, inferentially, statistically examined sets of N-of-1 studies.

10.
J Mol Neurosci ; 43(3): 412-23, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20981579

RESUMO

We have shown that TNFα specifically activates the interleukin-15 (IL15) system in cerebral endothelial cells composing the blood-brain barrier. To determine the functions of cerebral IL15 signaling in inflammation, we first treated mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and determined the expression of the three receptor subtypes of IL15. Robust time-dependent upregulation occurred in all subunits. We then tested whether IL15Rα knockout (KO) affected the maintenance of body temperature and activity level after a single dose of LPS. Circadian telemetry data were analyzed by the cosinor method. Both wild-type and KO mice had clear 24-h rhythms of basal temperature and activity. KO mice had a significantly higher midline estimating statistic of rhythm (MESOR; approximating 24 h mean) of temperature and delayed 24-h acrophase (peak) of activity than the wild-type mice. LPS disrupted the circadian rhythm of activity more severely in the KO group. Besides a decrease in MESOR and 24-h amplitude of activity after LPS, the KO mice showed a significant reduction of MESOR, amplitude, and changed acrophase for temperature on the second of 2 days. The disrupted circadian rhythm of temperature and activity in the KO mice after LPS suggests that upregulated IL15 receptors may serve a beneficial role to counteract the consequences of neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Inflamação/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-15/imunologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/imunologia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-15/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Telemetria
11.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 9: 58, 2010 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20868493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, although perceived to be high, is often difficult to demonstrate in disease free (healthy) obese adults. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in circadian blood pressure variability (CBPV) and endothelial function (EF) may be early correlates of cardiometabolic disorders. METHODS: Asymptomatic men and women in 3 groups: normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10) and obese (n = 15) were evaluated. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded over 7 days: every 30 minutes during the day and every 60 minutes during the night, by automatic ambulatory monitoring. Resting EF was assessed in a fasting state between 8-10 AM by brachial ultrasound. Anthropometric and cardiometabolic indicators were measured and correlations with CBPV and EF were investigated. RESULTS: The 3 groups had (Mean(SD)) BMI: 22.6(1.6), 27(3) and 34(5) kg/m2, respectively, weight: 64(16), 79(14), 95(16) kg and waist circumference: 79(9), 93(10), 107(13) cm. None in normal-weight or overweight groups had abnormal CBPV, while 8 of 15 obese adults had one or more CBPV abnormities (p < 0.05). Obese adults with CBPV abnormalities had elevated hs-CRP (15.3(9.3) mg/L), fibrinogen (593(97) mg/dl), fasting serum glucose (102(16) mg/dL), and cardiac risk ratios (Total-C/HDL-C: 5.2(1.9), LDL-C/HDL-C: 3.1(1.4)). Adults in the 3 respective groups who did not have CBPV abnormalities had flow-mediated brachial artery dilatation (FMD) of 0.22(0.06); 0.20(0.04), 0.23(0.02) mm over resting diameter. Obese participants with CBPV abnormalities (Mesor-hypotension, circadian hyper amplitude tension, elevated pulse pressure), had attenuated FMD at 78, 52, and 56% of resting reference diameter (means 0.18(0.07), 0.12(0.08), and 0.13(0.05) mm; p < 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic obese adults with abnormal CBPV and EF exhibit unfavorable cardiometabolic profiles.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Obesidade , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
12.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett ; 31(3): 319-24, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20588236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause peroxydation of lipids, proteins and deoxyribonucleic acids with subsequent cell damage. The hydroxyl radical (OH*) represents a measure of global oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radicals are short-lived; they form an important part of radical chemistry nonetheless. The measure of total antioxidant system (TAS) can give useful information about the extent of defence capable of counteracting the oxidative damage. Pregnancy is an important condition that favors oxidative stress in the fetus. Clinical studies indicate a protective mechanism against O2 toxicity in the human feto-placental unit. AIM: This study reports the OH* and TAS concentrations in mother and fetus at birth to evaluate the role of the placenta against fetal oxidative stress. METHODS: Blood samples were collected at delivery from 45 healthy women at term and from their newborns. The maternal and neonatal OH* and TAS concentrations were compared by paired Student t-test. RESULTS: OH* was higher in maternal blood than in cord blood (573.75+/- 170.0 UCarr/l vs 40.08+/-33.37 UCarr/l) (p<0.01); TAS concentrations did not differ between the two groups (1.11+/-0.09 mmol/l vs 1.17+/-0.12 mmol/l). Multiple regression analyses: maternal and neonatal OH* decreases with maternal age; only maternal TAS and OH* are related to gestational age in a nonlinear fashion. Female infants showed higher values of maternal and neonatal TAS as compared to male infants. CONCLUSION: TA protective role of the placenta against oxidative damage is in keeping with a large enough gradient of ROS (between mother and fetus) and the passage of TAS from mother to fetus.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Radical Hidroxila/sangue , Parto/sangue , Placenta/fisiologia , Adulto , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Parto/metabolismo , Gravidez
13.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 338(1-2): 203-13, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20091094

RESUMO

Diabetes may shift clock gene expression within peripheral organs. However, little is known about the effect of diabetes on the gastrointestinal molecular clock. We therefore investigated the effect of diabetes on gastrointestinal clock gene expression. As peripheral clock gene expression is strongly driven by food intake, we also determined the effect of STZ-induced diabetes on patterns of food intake. The effects of acute (1 week) and chronic (12 weeks) STZ-induced diabetes on period (per) genes in the stomach body, proximal and distal colon, liver, kidney, and lung of C57BL/6J mice were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Food intake studies were completed using automated feeding equipment. Rhythmicity in expression of per2 and per3 persisted in all organs. However, per2 and per3 expression of STZ-injected mice was generally phase delayed within the gastrointestinal tract but not within the kidney or lung as compared with vehicle-injected mice. The phase delay was most pronounced for per2 in the proximal colon at 12 weeks. Food intake was rhythmic with larger circadian amplitude for diabetic mice than for control mice. Thus, STZ-induced diabetes differentially alters peripheral per expression. STZ-induced diabetes does not alter the circadian phase of food intake. Alterations in clock gene expression in a mouse model of diabetes are most pronounced in those organs that are intimately associated with food processing and metabolism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas CLOCK , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Criptocromos/genética , Criptocromos/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
14.
J Mol Neurosci ; 41(2): 315-21, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20012227

RESUMO

Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a cytokine produced in the normal brain that acts on its specific receptor IL-15Ralpha and co-receptors IL-2Rbeta and IL-2Rgamma in neuronal cells. The functions of the cerebral IL-15 system, however, are not yet clear. To test the hypothesis that IL-15Ralpha regulates metabolic activity and body temperature, we quantified the specific metabolic phenotype of IL-15Ralpha knockout mice. These normal-appearing mice were leaner with lower fat composition. During the entire circadian cycle, the knockout mice had a significantly higher acrophase in locomotor activity and heat dissipation. During the light phase, there was significantly greater food intake, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production. The difference in the dark and light phases suggests that IL-15Ralpha participates in circadian rhythm regulation. The higher oxygen consumption in the light phase indicates adaptive thermogenesis in the knockout mice. The body temperature of the receptor knockout mice was significantly higher than the control in the light phase, and this was mainly caused by a large difference occurring between 0600 and 0900 h. In addition to the metabolic chamber studies and circadian rhythm analyses, qPCR of hypothalamic homogenates indicated higher mRNA expression of orexin and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 cation channels. Consistent with a direct role of IL-15Ralpha in the hypothalamus, IL-15 treatment of the wild-type mice induced c-Fos expression in the preoptic area. We conclude that activation of hypothalamic neurons by IL-15 in mice contributes to thermoregulation and modifies the metabolic phenotype.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Receptores de Interleucina-15 , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Orexinas , Consumo de Oxigênio , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-15/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
15.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 298(2): G143-50, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19926812

RESUMO

Human bowel movements usually occur during the day and seldom during the night, suggesting a role for a biological clock in the regulation of colonic motility. Research has unveiled molecular and physiological mechanisms for biological clock function in the brain; less is known about peripheral rhythmicity. This study aimed to determine whether clock genes such as period 1 (per1) and period2 (per2) modulate rhythmic changes in colonic motility. Organ bath studies, intracolonic pressure measurements, and stool studies were used to examine measures of colonic motility in wild-type and per1per2 double-knockout mice. To further examine the mechanism underlying rhythmic changes in circular muscle contractility, additional studies were completed in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) knockout mice. Intracolonic pressure changes and stool output in vivo, and colonic circular muscle contractility ex vivo, are rhythmic with greatest activity at the start of night in nocturnal wild-type mice. In contrast, rhythmicity in these measures was absent in per1per2 double-knockout mice. Rhythmicity was also abolished in colonic circular muscle contractility of wild-type mice in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and in nNOS knockout mice. These findings suggest that rhythms in colonic motility are regulated by both clock genes and a nNOS-mediated inhibitory process and suggest a connection between these two mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Colo/fisiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Animais , Relógios Biológicos/genética , Colo/inervação , Escuridão , Defecação/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Liso/inervação , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo
16.
Biologist (London) ; 56(4): 209-214, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20671935

RESUMO

We monitor our streets to prevent assault and rodents to develop drugs, but not those for whom the drugs are intended. It took over half a century to begin to monitor blood sugar values in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. Monitoring blood pressure is equally timely and technically feasible for individual home- and website-based personalised care. It also serves basic science and someday perhaps the management of societal illnesses.

17.
Gastroenterology ; 135(6): 2019-29, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18848557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal epithelial cells and the myenteric plexus of the mouse gastrointestinal tract contain a circadian clock-based intrinsic time-keeping system. Because disruption of the biological clock has been associated with increased susceptibility to colon cancer and gastrointestinal symptoms, we aimed to identify rhythmically expressed genes in the mouse distal colon. METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to identify genes that were rhythmically expressed over a 24-hour light/dark cycle. The transcripts were then classified according to expression pattern, function, and association with physiologic and pathophysiologic processes of the colon. RESULTS: A circadian gene expression pattern was detected in approximately 3.7% of distal colonic genes. A large percentage of these genes were involved in cell signaling, differentiation, and proliferation and cell death. Of all the rhythmically expressed genes in the mouse colon, approximately 7% (64/906) have been associated with colorectal cancer formation (eg, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 [Bcl2]) and 1.8% (18/906) with various colonic functions such as motility and secretion (eg, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). CONCLUSIONS: A subset of genes in the murine colon follows a rhythmic expression pattern. These findings may have significant implications for colonic physiology and pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Colo/metabolismo , Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Western Blotting , Proliferação de Células , Colo/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise em Microsséries , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
19.
J Exp Ther Oncol ; 7(4): 263-73, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19227006

RESUMO

Prompted by a recent report of the possible carcinogenic effect of shiftwork focusing on the disruption of circadian rhythms, we review studies involving shifts in schedule implemented at varying intervals in unicells, insects and mammals, including humans. Results indicate the desirability to account for a broader-than-circadian view. They also suggest the possibility of optimizing schedule shifts by selecting intervals between consecutive shifts associated with potential side-effects such as an increase in cancer risk. Toward this goal, marker rhythmometry is most desirable. The monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate present the added benefit of assessing cardiovascular disease risks resulting not only from an elevated blood pressure but also from abnormal variability in blood pressure and/or heart rate of normotensive as well as hypertensive subjects.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias/patologia , Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Clin Interv Aging ; 3(4): 749-60, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19281067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythm stage affects many outcomes, including those of mental aging. METHODS: Estimations of 1 minute approximately 5 times/day for a year, 25 years apart, by a healthy male biomedical scientist (RBS), are analyzed by the extended cosinor. RESULTS: Cycles of a half-week, a week, approximately 30 days, a half-year and a year, in self-assessed 1-minute estimation by RBS between 25 and 60 years of age in health, are mapped for the first time, compared and opposite effects are found. For RBS at 60 vs at 25 years of age, it takes less time in the morning around 10:30 (P < 0.001), but not in the evening around 19:30 (P = 0.956), to estimate 1 minute. DISCUSSION: During the intervening decades, the time of estimating 1 minute differed greatly, dependent on circadian stage, being a linear decrease in the morning and increase in the evening, the latter modulated by a -33.6-year cycle. CONCLUSION: Circadian and infradian rhythm mapping is essential for a scrutiny of effects of aging. A approximately 30-day and a circannual component apparent at 25 years of age are not found later; cycles longer than a year are detected. Rhythm stages await tests as markers for timing therapy in disease.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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