Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 8 de 8
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007654, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369554

RESUMO

The 2013-2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa was the largest and deadliest outbreak to date. Here we conducted a serological study to examine the antibody levels in survivors and the seroconversion in close contacts who took care of Ebola-infected individuals, but did not develop symptoms of Ebola virus disease. In March 2017, we collected blood samples from 481 individuals in Makeni, Sierra Leone: 214 survivors and 267 close contacts. Using commercial, quantitative ELISAs, we tested the plasma for IgG-specific antibodies against three major viral antigens: GP, the only viral glycoprotein expressed on the virus surface; NP, the most abundant viral protein; and VP40, a major structural protein of Zaire ebolavirus. We also determined neutralizing antibody titers. In the cohort of Ebola survivors, 97.7% of samples (209/214) had measurable antibody levels against GP, NP, and/or VP40. Of these positive samples, all but one had measurable neutralizing antibody titers against Ebola virus. For the close contacts, up to 12.7% (34/267) may have experienced a subclinical virus infection as indicated by detectable antibodies against GP. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether these close contacts truly experienced subclinical infections and whether these asymptomatic infections played a role in the dynamics of transmission.

2.
J Virol ; 93(8)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728263

RESUMO

The human B cell response to natural filovirus infections early after recovery is poorly understood. Previous serologic studies suggest that some Ebola virus survivors exhibit delayed antibody responses with low magnitude and quality. Here, we sought to study the population of individual memory B cells induced early in convalescence. We isolated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from memory B cells from four survivors treated for Ebola virus disease (EVD) 1 or 3 months after discharge from the hospital. At the early time points postrecovery, the frequency of Ebola-specific B cells was low and dominated by clones that were cross-reactive with both Ebola glycoprotein (GP) and with the secreted GP (sGP) form. Of 25 MAbs isolated from four donors, only one exhibited neutralization activity. This neutralizing MAb, designated MAb EBOV237, recognizes an epitope in the glycan cap of the surface glycoprotein. In vivo murine lethal challenge studies showed that EBOV237 conferred protection when given prophylactically at a level similar to that of the ZMapp component MAb 13C6. The results suggest that the human B cell response to EVD 1 to 3 months postdischarge is characterized by a paucity of broad or potent neutralizing clones. However, the neutralizing epitope in the glycan cap recognized by EBOV237 may play a role in the early human antibody response to EVD and should be considered in rational design strategies for new Ebola virus vaccine candidates.IMPORTANCE The pathogenesis of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans is complex, and the mechanisms contributing to immunity are poorly understood. In particular, it appears that the quality and magnitude of the human B cell response early after recovery from EVD may be reduced compared to most viral infections. Here, we isolated human monoclonal antibodies from B cells of four survivors of EVD at 1 or 3 months after hospital discharge. Ebola-specific memory B cells early in convalescence were low in frequency, and the antibodies they encoded demonstrated poor neutralizing potencies. One neutralizing antibody that protected mice from lethal infection, EBOV237, was identified in the panel of 25 human antibodies isolated. Recognition of the glycan cap epitope recognized by EBOV237 suggests that this antigenic site should be considered in vaccine design and treatment strategies for EVD.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(9): 3919-3928, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808769

RESUMO

Ebola virus disease (EVD) often leads to severe and fatal outcomes in humans with early supportive care increasing the chances of survival. Profiling the human plasma lipidome provides insight into critical illness as well as diseased states, as lipids have essential roles as membrane structural components, signaling molecules, and energy sources. Here we show that the plasma lipidomes of EVD survivors and fatalities from Sierra Leone, infected during the 2014-2016 Ebola virus outbreak, were profoundly altered. Focusing on how lipids are associated in human plasma, while factoring in the state of critical illness, we found that lipidome changes were related to EVD outcome and could identify states of disease and recovery. Specific changes in the lipidome suggested contributions from extracellular vesicles, viremia, liver dysfunction, apoptosis, autophagy, and general critical illness, and we identified possible targets for therapies enhancing EVD survival.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Surtos de Doenças , Ebolavirus/genética , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/sangue , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/patologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 24(2): 221-233.e5, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092199

RESUMO

The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic highlighted the need for effective vaccines and therapeutics to limit and prevent outbreaks. Host antibodies against EBOV are critical for controlling disease, and recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can protect from infection. However, antibodies mediate an array of antiviral functions including neutralization as well as engagement of Fc-domain receptors on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis or NK cell-mediated killing of infected cells. Thus, to understand the antibody features mediating EBOV protection, we examined specific Fc features associated with protection using a library of EBOV-specific mAbs. Neutralization was strongly associated with therapeutic protection against EBOV. However, several neutralizing mAbs failed to protect, while several non-neutralizing or weakly neutralizing mAbs could protect. Antibody-mediated effector functions, including phagocytosis and NK cell activation, were associated with protection, particularly for antibodies with moderate neutralizing activity. This framework identifies functional correlates that can inform therapeutic and vaccine design strategies against EBOV and other pathogens.

5.
Cell ; 174(4): 938-952.e13, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096313

RESUMO

Antibodies are promising post-exposure therapies against emerging viruses, but which antibody features and in vitro assays best forecast protection are unclear. Our international consortium systematically evaluated antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV) using multidisciplinary assays. For each antibody, we evaluated epitopes recognized on the viral surface glycoprotein (GP) and secreted glycoprotein (sGP), readouts of multiple neutralization assays, fraction of virions left un-neutralized, glycan structures, phagocytic and natural killer cell functions elicited, and in vivo protection in a mouse challenge model. Neutralization and induction of multiple immune effector functions (IEFs) correlated most strongly with protection. Neutralization predominantly occurred via epitopes maintained on endosomally cleaved GP, whereas maximal IEF mapped to epitopes farthest from the viral membrane. Unexpectedly, sGP cross-reactivity did not significantly influence in vivo protection. This comprehensive dataset provides a rubric to evaluate novel antibodies and vaccine responses and a roadmap for therapeutic development for EBOV and related viruses.

6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 22(6): 817-829.e8, 2017 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154144

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is complex. EVD is characterized by high levels of virus replication and dissemination, dysregulated immune responses, extensive virus- and host-mediated tissue damage, and disordered coagulation. To clarify how host responses contribute to EVD pathophysiology, we performed multi-platform 'omics analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma from EVD patients. Our results indicate that EVD molecular signatures overlap with those of sepsis, imply that pancreatic enzymes contribute to tissue damage in fatal EVD, and suggest that Ebola virus infection may induce aberrant neutrophils whose activity could explain hallmarks of fatal EVD. Moreover, integrated biomarker prediction identified putative biomarkers from different data platforms that differentiated survivors and fatalities early after infection. This work reveals insight into EVD pathogenesis, suggests an effective approach for biomarker identification, and provides an important community resource for further analysis of human EVD severity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/patologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/fisiopatologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteoma/análise , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/química , Plasma/química
7.
Analyst ; 142(3): 442-448, 2017 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28091625

RESUMO

The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of great concern, and systems biology approaches to infectious disease research can advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can take place only subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements. This single-sample metabolite, protein and lipid extraction (MPLEx) method resulted in complete inactivation of clinically important bacterial and viral pathogens with exposed lipid membranes, including Yersinia pestis, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni in pure culture, and Yersinia pestis, Campylobacter jejuni, and West Nile, MERS-CoV, Ebola, and influenza H7N9 viruses in infection studies. In addition, >99% inactivation, which increased with solvent exposure time, was also observed for pathogens without exposed lipid membranes including community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile spores and vegetative cells, and adenovirus type 5. The overall pipeline of inactivation and subsequent proteomic, metabolomic, and lipidomic analyses was evaluated using a human epithelial lung cell line infected with wild-type and mutant influenza H7N9 viruses, thereby demonstrating that MPLEx yields biomaterial of sufficient quality for subsequent multi-omics analyses. Based on these experimental results, we believe that MPLEx will facilitate systems biology studies of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and multi-omics measurements from a single specimen with high success for pathogens with exposed lipid membranes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/análise , Metabolômica , Proteômica , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas , Inativação de Vírus
8.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7491, 2015 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26082035

RESUMO

Avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype pose a serious global health threat due to the high mortality (>60%) associated with the disease caused by these viruses and the lack of protective antibodies to these viruses in the general population. The factors that enable avian H5N1 influenza viruses to replicate in humans are not completely understood. Here we use a high-throughput screening approach to identify novel mutations in the polymerase genes of an avian H5N1 virus that confer efficient polymerase activity in mammalian cells. Several of the identified mutations (which have previously been found in natural isolates) increase viral replication in mammalian cells and virulence in infected mice compared with the wild-type virus. The identification of amino-acid mutations in avian H5N1 influenza virus polymerase complexes that confer increased replication and virulence in mammals is important for the identification of circulating H5N1 viruses with an increased potential to infect humans.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mutação , Replicação Viral
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA