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1.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 37(1): 56-61, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335562

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Advances in surface electromyography (sEMG) monitoring allow for long-term data collection in a natural environment, giving objective information that may identify risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and guide clinical decision-making. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure semiology, namely motor tonic and clonic phase duration, may be an important factor in determining the level of seizure control and risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. This study demonstrates a quantitative analysis of sEMG collected with a dedicated wearable device. METHODS: During routine monitoring, 23 generalized tonic-clonic seizures from 19 subjects were simultaneously recorded with video-EEG and sEMG. A continuous wavelet-transform was used to determine the frequency components of sEMG recorded during generalized tonic-clonic seizures. An automated process, incorporating a variant of cross-validation, was created to identify ideal frequencies and magnitude ranges for tonic and clonic phases and determine phase durations. Phase durations determined using sEMG analysis were compared with phase durations determined by independent epileptologists' review of video-EEG. RESULTS: Cross-validation revealed that the optimal frequency bands for tonic and clonic phases are 150 to 270 Hz and 12 to 70 Hz, respectively. The average difference in phase duration calculated using the two methods for tonic and clonic phases and total seizure duration were -0.42 ± 4.94, -5.12 ± 9.68, and -5.11 ± 11.33 seconds, respectively (results presented are TsEMG - TvEEG, µ ± σ). CONCLUSIONS: The automated processing of sEMG presented here accurately identified durations of tonic, clonic, and total motor durations of generalized tonic-clonic seizures similar to durations identified by epileptologists' review of video-EEG.

2.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633740

RESUMO

Importance: Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in electroencephalograms (EEGs) are a biomarker of epilepsy, seizure risk, and clinical decline. However, there is a scarcity of experts qualified to interpret EEG results. Prior attempts to automate IED detection have been limited by small samples and have not demonstrated expert-level performance. There is a need for a validated automated method to detect IEDs with expert-level reliability. Objective: To develop and validate a computer algorithm with the ability to identify IEDs as reliably as experts and classify an EEG recording as containing IEDs vs no IEDs. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 9571 scalp EEG records with and without IEDs were used to train a deep neural network (SpikeNet) to perform IED detection. Independent training and testing data sets were generated from 13 262 IED candidates, independently annotated by 8 fellowship-trained clinical neurophysiologists, and 8520 EEG records containing no IEDs based on clinical EEG reports. Using the estimated spike probability, a classifier designating the whole EEG recording as positive or negative was also built. Main Outcomes and Measures: SpikeNet accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity compared with fellowship-trained neurophysiology experts for identifying IEDs and classifying EEGs as positive or negative or negative for IEDs. Statistical performance was assessed via calibration error and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). All performance statistics were estimated using 10-fold cross-validation. Results: SpikeNet surpassed both expert interpretation and an industry standard commercial IED detector, based on calibration error (SpikeNet, 0.041; 95% CI, 0.033-0.049; vs industry standard, 0.066; 95% CI, 0.060-0.078; vs experts, mean, 0.183; range, 0.081-0.364) and binary classification performance based on AUC (SpikeNet, 0.980; 95% CI, 0.977-0.984; vs industry standard, 0.882; 95% CI, 0.872-0.893). Whole EEG classification had a mean calibration error of 0.126 (range, 0.109-0.1444) vs experts (mean, 0.197; range, 0.099-0.372) and AUC of 0.847 (95% CI, 0.830-0.865). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, SpikeNet automatically detected IEDs and classified whole EEGs as IED-positive or IED-negative. This may be the first time an algorithm has been shown to exceed expert performance for IED detection in a representative sample of EEGs and may thus be a valuable tool for expedited review of EEGs.

3.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633742

RESUMO

Importance: The validity of using electroencephalograms (EEGs) to diagnose epilepsy requires reliable detection of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Prior interrater reliability (IRR) studies are limited by small samples and selection bias. Objective: To assess the reliability of experts in detecting IEDs in routine EEGs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective analysis conducted in 2 phases included as participants physicians with at least 1 year of subspecialty training in clinical neurophysiology. In phase 1, 9 experts independently identified candidate IEDs in 991 EEGs (1 expert per EEG) reported in the medical record to contain at least 1 IED, yielding 87 636 candidate IEDs. In phase 2, the candidate IEDs were clustered into groups with distinct morphological features, yielding 12 602 clusters, and a representative candidate IED was selected from each cluster. We added 660 waveforms (11 random samples each from 60 randomly selected EEGs reported as being free of IEDs) as negative controls. Eight experts independently scored all 13 262 candidates as IEDs or non-IEDs. The 1051 EEGs in the study were recorded at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 2012 and 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome measures were percentage of agreement (PA) and beyond-chance agreement (Gwet κ) for individual IEDs (IED-wise IRR) and for whether an EEG contained any IEDs (EEG-wise IRR). Secondary outcomes were the correlations between numbers of IEDs marked by experts across cases, calibration of expert scoring to group consensus, and receiver operating characteristic analysis of how well multivariate logistic regression models may account for differences in the IED scoring behavior between experts. Results: Among the 1051 EEGs assessed in the study, 540 (51.4%) were those of females and 511 (48.6%) were those of males. In phase 1, 9 experts each marked potential IEDs in a median of 65 (interquartile range [IQR], 28-332) EEGs. The total number of IED candidates marked was 87 636. Expert IRR for the 13 262 individually annotated IED candidates was fair, with the mean PA being 72.4% (95% CI, 67.0%-77.8%) and mean κ being 48.7% (95% CI, 37.3%-60.1%). The EEG-wise IRR was substantial, with the mean PA being 80.9% (95% CI, 76.2%-85.7%) and mean κ being 69.4% (95% CI, 60.3%-78.5%). A statistical model based on waveform morphological features, when provided with individualized thresholds, explained the median binary scores of all experts with a high degree of accuracy of 80% (range, 73%-88%). Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that experts can identify whether EEGs contain IEDs with substantial reliability. Lower reliability regarding individual IEDs may be largely explained by various experts applying different thresholds to a common underlying statistical model.

4.
Epilepsia ; 60(3): 419-428, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) who completed 1 of 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of add-on cannabidiol (CBD) (GWPCARE3, NCT02224560 or GWPCARE4, NCT02224690) were invited to enroll in an open-label extension (OLE) study evaluating the long-term safety and efficacy of CBD (GWPCARE5, NCT02224573). Herein we present an interim analysis of the safety, efficacy, and patient-reported outcomes from this trial. METHODS: Patients received a pharmaceutical formulation of highly purified CBD oral solution (Epidiolex; 100 mg/mL), titrated from 2.5 to 20 mg/kg/d over a 2-week titration period, in addition to their existing medications. Doses could be reduced if not tolerated or increased up to 30 mg/kg/d if thought to be of benefit. RESULTS: This interim analysis was based on a November 2016 data cut. Of 368 patients who completed treatment in GWPCARE3 and GWPCARE4, 366 (99.5%) enrolled in the OLE study (GWPCARE5). Median treatment duration was 38 weeks at a mean modal dose of 23 mg/kg/d. Most patients (92.1%) experienced adverse events (AEs), primarily of mild (32.5%) or moderate (43.4%) severity. The most common AEs were diarrhea (26.8%), somnolence (23.5%), and convulsion (21.3%). Thirty-five patients (9.6%) discontinued treatment due to AEs. Liver transaminase elevations were reported in 37 patients (10.1%), of whom 29 were receiving concomitant valproic acid; 34 cases resolved spontaneously or with dose modification of CBD or concomitant medication. Median reduction from baseline in drop seizure frequency (quantified monthly over 12-week periods) ranged from 48% to 60% through week 48. Median reduction in monthly total seizure frequency ranged from 48% to 57% across all 12-week periods through week 48. Eighty-eight percent of patients/caregivers reported an improvement in the patient's overall condition per the Subject/Caregiver Global Impression of Change scale. SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, long-term add-on CBD treatment had an acceptable safety profile in patients with LGS and led to sustained reductions in seizures.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than one third of children with epilepsy have medically intractable seizures. Promising therapies, including targeted neurostimulation and surgery, depend on accurate localization of the epileptogenic zone. Ictal perfusion Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) can localize the seizure focus noninvasively, with comparable accuracy to that of invasive EEG. However, multiple factors including seizure dynamics may affect its spatial specificity. METHODS: Using subtracted ictal from interictal SPECT and scalp EEG from 118 pediatric epilepsy patients (40 of whom had surgery after the SPECT studies), information theoretic measures of association and advanced statistical models, this study investigated the impact of preictal and ictal brain network dynamics on SPECT focality. RESULTS: Network dynamics significantly impacted the SPECT localization ~30 s before to ~45 s following ictal onset. Distributed early ictal connectivity changes, indicative of a rapidly evolving seizure, were negatively associated with SPECT focality. Spatially localized connectivity changes later in the seizure, indicating slower seizure propagation, were positively associated with SPECT focality. In the first ~60 s of the seizure, significantly higher network connectivity was estimated in an area overlapping with the area of hyperperfusion. Finally, ~75% of patients with Engel class 1a/1b outcomes had SPECTs that were concordant with the resected area. CONCLUSION: Slowly evolving seizures are more likely to be accurately imaged with SPECT, and the identified focus may overlap with brain regions where significant topological changes occur. SIGNIFICANCE: Measures of preictal/early ictal network dynamics may help optimize the SPECT localization, leading to improved surgical and neurostimulation outcomes in refractory epilepsy.

6.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 35(5): 375-380, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to measure the performance of academic and private practice (PP) neurologists in detecting interictal epileptiform discharges in routine scalp EEG recordings. METHODS: Thirty-five EEG scorers (EEGers) participated (19 academic and 16 PP) and marked the location of ETs in 200 30-second EEG segments using a web-based EEG annotation system. All participants provided board certification status, years of Epilepsy Fellowship Training (EFT), and years in practice. The Persyst P13 automated IED detection algorithm was also run on the EEG segments for comparison. RESULTS: Academic EEGers had an average of 1.66 years of EFT versus 0.50 years of EFT for PP EEGers (P < 0.0001) and had higher rates of board certification. Inter-rater agreement for the 35 EEGers was fair. There was higher performance for EEGers in academics, with at least 1.5 years of EFT, and with American Board of Clinical Neurophysiology and American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology-E specialty board certification. The Persyst P13 algorithm at its default setting (perception value = 0.4) did not perform as well at the EEGers, but at substantially higher perception value settings, the algorithm performed almost as well human experts. CONCLUSIONS: Inter-rater agreement among EEGers in both academic and PP settings varies considerably. Practice location, years of EFT, and board certification are associated with significantly higher performance for IED detection in routine scalp EEG. Continued medical education of PP neurologists and neurologists without EFT is needed to improve routine scalp EEG interpretation skills. The performance of automated detection algorithms is approaching that of human experts.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Algoritmos , Diagnóstico por Computador , Hospitais Privados , Humanos , Neurologistas , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Ann Neurol ; 83(6): 1174-1185, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The optimal treatment of nonconvulsive seizures in critically ill patients is uncertain. We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of the antiseizure drugs lacosamide (LCM) and fosphenytoin (fPHT) in this population. METHODS: The TRENdS (Treatment of Recurrent Electrographic Nonconvulsive Seizures) study was a noninferiority, prospective, multicenter, randomized treatment trial of patients diagnosed with nonconvulsive seizures (NCSs) by continuous electroencephalography (cEEG). Treatment was randomized to intravenous (IV) LCM 400mg or IV fPHT 20mg phenytoin equivalents/kg. The primary endpoint was absence of electrographic seizures for 24 hours as determined by 1 blinded EEG reviewer. The frequency with which NCS control was achieved in each arm was compared, and the 90% confidence interval (CI) was determined. Noninferiority of LCM to fPHT was to be concluded if the lower bound of the CI for relative risk was >0.8. RESULTS: Seventy-four subjects were enrolled (37 LCM, 37 fPHT) between August 21, 2012 and December 20, 2013. The mean age was 63.6 years; 38 were women. Seizures were controlled in 19 of 30 (63.3%) subjects in the LCM arm and 16 of 32 (50%) subjects in the fPHT arm. LCM was noninferior to fPHT (p = 0.02), with a risk ratio of 1.27 (90% CI = 0.88-1.83). Treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were similar in both arms, occurring in 9 of 35 (25.7%) LCM and 9 of 37 (24.3%) fPHT subjects (p = 1.0). INTERPRETATION: LCM was noninferior to fPHT in controlling NCS, and TEAEs were comparable. LCM can be considered an alternative to fPHT in the treatment of NCSs detected on cEEG. Ann Neurol 2018;83:1174-1185.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Lacosamida/uso terapêutico , Fenitoína/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ondas Encefálicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia Generalizada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Epilepsia ; 58(11): 1861-1869, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A prospective multicenter phase III trial was undertaken to evaluate the performance and tolerability in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) of an investigational wearable surface electromyographic (sEMG) monitoring system for the detection of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs). METHODS: One hundred ninety-nine patients with a history of GTCSs who were admitted to the EMU in 11 level IV epilepsy centers for clinically indicated video-electroencephalographic monitoring also received sEMG monitoring with a wearable device that was worn on the arm over the biceps muscle. All recorded sEMG data were processed at a central site using a previously developed detection algorithm. Detected GTCSs were compared to events verified by a majority of three expert reviewers. RESULTS: For all subjects, the detection algorithm detected 35 of 46 (76%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-0.87) of the GTCSs, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.03 and a mean false alarm rate (FAR) of 2.52 per 24 h. For data recorded while the device was placed over the midline of the biceps muscle, the system detected 29 of 29 GTCSs (100%, 95% CI = 0.88-1.00), with a detection delay averaging 7.70 s, a PPV of 6.2%, and a mean FAR of 1.44 per 24 h. Mild to moderate adverse events were reported in 28% (55 of 199) of subjects and led to study withdrawal in 9% (17 of 199). These adverse events consisted mostly of skin irritation caused by the electrode patch that resolved without treatment. No serious adverse events were reported. SIGNIFICANCE: Detection of GTCSs using an sEMG monitoring device on the biceps is feasible. Proper positioning of this device is important for accuracy, and for some patients, minimizing the number of false positives may be challenging.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/métodos , Epilepsia Tônico-Clônica/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Tônico-Clônica/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 128(10): 1994-2005, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The presence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is a key finding in the medical workup of a patient with suspected epilepsy. However, inter-rater agreement (IRA) regarding the presence of IED is imperfect, leading to incorrect and delayed diagnoses. An improved understanding of which IED attributes mediate expert IRA might help in developing automatic methods for IED detection able to emulate the abilities of experts. Therefore, using a set of IED scored by a large number of experts, we set out to determine which attributes of IED predict expert agreement regarding the presence of IED. METHODS: IED were annotated on a 5-point scale by 18 clinical neurophysiologists within 200 30-s EEG segments from recordings of 200 patients. 5538 signal analysis features were extracted from the waveforms, including wavelet coefficients, morphological features, signal energy, nonlinear energy operator response, electrode location, and spectrogram features. Feature selection was performed by applying elastic net regression and support vector regression (SVR) was applied to predict expert opinion, with and without the feature selection procedure and with and without several types of signal normalization. RESULTS: Multiple types of features were useful for predicting expert annotations, but particular types of wavelet features performed best. Local EEG normalization also enhanced best model performance. As the size of the group of EEGers used to train the models was increased, the performance of the models leveled off at a group size of around 11. CONCLUSIONS: The features that best predict inter-rater agreement among experts regarding the presence of IED are wavelet features, using locally standardized EEG. Our models for predicting expert opinion based on EEGer's scores perform best with a large group of EEGers (more than 10). SIGNIFICANCE: By examining a large group of EEG signal analysis features we found that wavelet features with certain wavelet basis functions performed best to identify IEDs. Local normalization also improves predictability, suggesting the importance of IED morphology over amplitude-based features. Although most IED detection studies in the past have used opinion from three or fewer experts, our study suggests a "wisdom of the crowd" effect, such that pooling over a larger number of expert opinions produces a better correlation between expert opinion and objectively quantifiable features of the EEG.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/normas , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Neurofisiologia/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neurofisiologia/métodos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software/normas
11.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 34(2): 168-173, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27662336

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of the project is to determine characteristics of academic neurophysiologist EEG interpreters (EEGers), which predict good interrater agreement (IRA) and to determine the number of EEGers needed to develop an ideal standardized testing and training data set for epileptiform transient (ET) detection algorithms. METHODS: A three-phase scoring method was used. In phase 1, 19 EEGers marked the location of ETs in two hundred 30-second segments of EEG from 200 different patients. In phase 2, EEG events marked by at least 2 EEGers were annotated by 18 EEGers on a 5-point scale to indicate whether they were ETs. In phase 3, a third opinion was obtained from EEGers on any inconsistencies between phase 1 and phase 2 scoring. RESULTS: The IRA for the 18 EEGers was only fair. A select group of the EEGers had good IRA and the other EEGers had low IRA. Board certification by the American Board of Clinical Neurophysiology was associated with better IRA performance but other board certifications, years of fellowship training, and years of practice were not. As the number of EEGers used for scoring is increased, the amount of change in the consensus opinion decreases steadily and is quite low as the group size approaches 10. CONCLUSIONS: The IRA among EEGers varies considerably. The EEGers must be tested before use as scorers for ET annotation research projects. The American Board of Clinical Neurophysiology certification is associated with improved performance. The optimal size for a group of experts scoring ETs in EEG is probably in the 6 to 10 range.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Algoritmos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Software
12.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 34(5): e19-e22, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749503

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Digital EEG has brought about greater flexibility in data interpretation but has also resulted in new and unique artifacts. As digital EEG has evolved, an increase in intensive care unit monitoring has occurred, bringing more sources of artifact to light. Aliasing as a result of a combination of compressed time base and display monitor resolution can result in appearance of spurious waveforms that can potentially skew interpretation. METHODS: A portion of a digital EEG from an intensive care unit patient acquired at a sample rate of 1,024 Hz was reviewed at a time base of 15 mm/second on a monitor with a resolution of 1,920 × 1,080. RESULTS: At a time base of 15 mm/second, a 60-Hz artifact resulted in the appearance of a 4-Hz delta artifact that resolved when the time base was changed to a more standard 30 mm/second. CONCLUSIONS: A software malfunction of the digital antialiasing filter for display resulted in the appearance of a novel 4-Hz artifact.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
13.
Epilepsy Res ; 129: 59-66, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ictal SPECT is promising for accurate non-invasive localization of the epileptogenic brain tissue in focal epilepsies. However, high quality ictal scans require meticulous attention to the seizure onset. In a relatively large cohort of pediatric patients, this study investigated the impact of the timing of radiotracer injection, MRI findings and seizure characteristics on ictal SPECT localizations, and the relationship between concordance of ictal SPECT, scalp EEG and resected area with seizure freedom following epilepsy surgery. METHODS: Scalp EEG and ictal SPECT studies from 95 patients (48 males and 47 females, median age=11years, (25th, 75th) quartiles=(6.0, 14.75) years) with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy and no prior epilepsy surgery were reviewed. The ictal SPECT result was examined as a function of the radiotracer injection delay, seizure duration, epilepsy etiology, cerebral lobe of seizure onset identified by EEG and MRI findings. Thirty two patients who later underwent epilepsy surgery had postoperative seizure freedom data at <1, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Sixty patients (63.2%) had positive SPECT localizations - 51 with a hyperperfused region that was concordant with the cerebral lobe of seizure origin identified by EEG and 9 with discordant localizations. Of these, 35 patients (58.3%) had temporal and 25 (41.7%) had extratemporal seizures. The ictal SPECT result was significantly correlated with the injection delay (p<0.01) and cerebral lobe of seizure onset (specifically frontal versus temporal; p=0.02) but not MRI findings (p=0.33), epilepsy etiology (p≥0.27) or seizure duration (p=0.20). Concordance of SPECT, scalp EEG and resected area was significantly correlated with seizure freedom at 6 months after surgery (p=0.04). SIGNIFICANCE: Ictal SPECT holds promise as a powerful source imaging tool for presurgical planning in pediatric epilepsies. To optimize the SPECT result the radiotracer injection delay should be minimized to≤25s, although the origin of seizure onset (specifically temporal versus frontal) also significantly impacts the localization.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Convulsões/diagnóstico por imagem , Convulsões/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Epilepsy Behav ; 64(Pt A): 51-56, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27732916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The three important questions in video-EEG monitoring are (1) whether it is productive to monitor patients with low outpatient seizure frequency, (2) whether rapid down-titration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during EMU admission helps generate more recorded seizures, and (3) how long a patient who has not yet had a seizure should be monitored in the EMU. This study aimed to answer these three questions. METHODS: Preadmission seizure frequency, times of AED administration, and times of seizure occurrence were collected on all adult patients admitted to the EMU at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) between 2012 and 2014 - a total of 439 patients. The correlations between EMU seizure frequency and both (1) preadmission seizure frequency and (2) rate of antiepileptic drug (AED) down-titration were evaluated. The time of occurrence of seizures was evaluated. RESULTS: There was no correlation between patient-reported outpatient seizure frequency and EMU seizure frequency. In patients who were tapered off AEDs during monitoring, the rate of AED taper correlated with the EMU seizure frequency. Patients whose AEDs were more quickly tapered had higher EMU seizure frequencies. In order to record a first event in patients of unknown seizure type, approximately 3.5days of EMU monitoring was required. SIGNIFICANCE: Clinicians should not hesitate to admit patients with low preadmission seizure frequency to the EMU since many of these patients will have a seizure during monitoring. Faster AED down-titration in the EMU increases EMU seizure frequency. In patients who have not yet had a seizure in the EMU, monitoring should continue for at least four days.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Convulsões/fisiopatologia
15.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 33(4): 317-9, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27482787

RESUMO

Digital EEG recording systems are now widely available and relatively inexpensive. They offer multiple advantages over previous analog/paper systems, such as higher fidelity recording, signal postprocessing, automated detection, and efficient data storage. This document provides guidance for the creation of digital EEG recordings including (1) documentation of patient information, (2) notation of information during the recording, (3) digital signal acquisition parameters during the recording, (4) storage of digital information, and (5) display of digital EEG signals.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/normas , Aplicações da Informática Médica , Neurofisiologia/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Humanos , Estados Unidos
17.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 33(4): 301-2, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27482792

RESUMO

This revision to the EEG Guidelines is an update incorporating current EEG technology and practice. "Standards of practice in clinical electroencephalography" (previously Guideline 4) has been removed. It is currently undergoing revision through collaboration among multiple medical societies and will become part of "Qualifications and Responsibilities of Personnel Performing and Interpreting Clinical Neurophysiology Procedures." The remaining guidelines are reordered and renumbered.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/normas , Neurofisiologia/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
Neurology ; 87(9): 935-44, 2016 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27466474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of quantitative EEG (QEEG) for electrographic seizure identification in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Six-hour EEG epochs chosen from 15 patients underwent transformation into QEEG displays. Each epoch was reviewed in 3 formats: raw EEG, QEEG + raw, and QEEG-only. Epochs were also analyzed by a proprietary seizure detection algorithm. Nine neurophysiologists reviewed raw EEGs to identify seizures to serve as the gold standard. Nine other neurophysiologists with experience in QEEG evaluated the epochs in QEEG formats, with and without concomitant raw EEG. Sensitivity and false-positive rates (FPRs) for seizure identification were calculated and median review time assessed. RESULTS: Mean sensitivity for seizure identification ranged from 51% to 67% for QEEG-only and 63%-68% for QEEG + raw. FPRs averaged 1/h for QEEG-only and 0.5/h for QEEG + raw. Mean sensitivity of seizure probability software was 26.2%-26.7%, with FPR of 0.07/h. Epochs with the highest sensitivities contained frequent, intermittent seizures. Lower sensitivities were seen with slow-frequency, low-amplitude seizures and epochs with rhythmic or periodic patterns. Median review times were shorter for QEEG (6 minutes) and QEEG + raw analysis (14.5 minutes) vs raw EEG (19 minutes; p = 0.00003). CONCLUSIONS: A panel of QEEG trends can be used by experts to shorten EEG review time for seizure identification with reasonable sensitivity and low FPRs. The prevalence of false detections confirms that raw EEG review must be used in conjunction with QEEG. Studies are needed to identify optimal QEEG trend configurations and the utility of QEEG as a screening tool for non-EEG personnel. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE REVIEW: This study provides Class II evidence that QEEG + raw interpreted by experts identifies seizures in patients in the ICU with a sensitivity of 63%-68% and FPR of 0.5 seizures per hour.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Algoritmos , Eletroencefalografia , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 33(6): 530-537, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27300074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a prototype battery-powered dry electrode system (DES) EEG recording headset in Veteran patients by comparing it with standard EEG. METHODS: Twenty-one Veterans had both a standard electrode system recording and DES recording in nine different patient states at the same encounter. Setup time, patient comfort, and subject preference were measured. Three experts performed technical quality rating of each EEG recording in a blinded fashion using the web-based EEGnet system. Power spectra were compared between DES and standard electrode system recordings. RESULTS: The average time for DES setup was 5.7 minutes versus 21.1 minutes for standard electrode system. Subjects reported that the DES was more comfortable during setup. Most subjects (15 of 21) preferred the DES. On a five-point scale (1-best quality to 5-worst quality), the technical quality of the standard electrode system recordings was significantly better than for the DES recordings, at 1.25 versus 2.41 (P < 0.0001). But experts found that 87% of the DES EEG segments were of sufficient technical quality to be interpretable. CONCLUSIONS: This DES offers quick and easy setup and is well tolerated by subjects. Although the technical quality of DES recordings was less than standard EEG, most of the DES recordings were rated as interpretable by experts. SIGNIFICANCE: This DES, if improved, could be useful for a telemedicine approach to outpatient routine EEG recording within the Veterans Administration or other health system.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletroencefalografia , Eletrodos , Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Análise Espectral , Veteranos
20.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 33(5): 403-413, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26808620

RESUMO

The lack of interoperability between information networks is a significant source of cost in health care. Standardized data formats decrease health care cost, improve quality of care, and facilitate biomedical research. There is no common standard digital format for storing clinical neurophysiologic data. This review proposes a new standard file format for neurophysiology data (the bulk of which is video-electroencephalographic data), entitled the Multiscale Electrophysiology Format, version 3 (MEF3), which is designed to address many of the shortcomings of existing formats. MEF3 provides functionality that addresses many of the limitations of current formats. The proposed improvements include (1) hierarchical file structure with improved organization; (2) greater extensibility for big data applications requiring a large number of channels, signal types, and parallel processing; (3) efficient and flexible lossy or lossless data compression; (4) industry standard multilayered data encryption and time obfuscation that permits sharing of human data without the need for deidentification procedures; (5) resistance to file corruption; (6) facilitation of online and offline review and analysis; and (7) provision of full open source documentation. At this time, there is no other neurophysiology format that supports all of these features. MEF3 is currently gaining industry and academic community support. The authors propose the use of the MEF3 as a standard format for neurophysiology recording and data exchange. Collaboration between industry, professional organizations, research communities, and independent standards organizations is needed to move the project forward.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Neurofisiologia/métodos , Neurofisiologia/normas , Software/normas , Humanos
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