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3.
AIDS Rev ; 22(1): 34-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167503

RESUMO

Tremendous progress has been made over the past three decades in the fight against the HIV epidemic; however, children experienced substantial physical and psychosocial effects of HIV infection. To inform services and policy development, we analyzed research growth and current trends in studies on children with HIV/AIDS. A total of 17,598 research papers and reviews in English, which were published on Web of Science, were downloaded. VOSviewer was used to generate an author keyword cooccurrence network and a network illustrating the connection among countries by shared coauthorships. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to identify research domains emerging from the abstracts' contents. The number of papers and their impacts had grown significantly in the past decade. The majority of study settings were in African countries. Research topics related to HIV in children were robust in areas of prevention of mother-to-child transmission and HIV and comorbidities treatments. Although psychosocial and behavioral disorders were recognized in previous studies, the number of interventions in these fields is still limited or not sustained. This study presents the global research trends and interests, points out research gaps of available publications and suggests several implications for services and intervention programs for children infected with HIV/AIDS. While preventions of mother-to-child transmission have been extensively studied, more efforts should be made to fulfill the lack of research on young people who are at risk of being infected or who are already infected with HIV. System thinking approach is needed in the design and implementation of future studies.

5.
Bull Menninger Clin ; : 1-19, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196377

RESUMO

Aside from depression and anxiety, less is known about the relationship of problematic smartphone use (PSU) to other psychopathology-related variables. The authors' aim was to test previously neglected variables in relation to PSU: rumination and excessive reassurance seeking behavior (ERSB). The authors recruited 295 college students for a web-based survey of smartphone use frequency, PSU, depression and anxiety, ruminative thinking, and ERSB. The authors tested linear regression and mediation models, assessing rumination and ERSB as mediating associations between depression/anxiety severity with PSU, adjusting for age, sex, and smartphone use frequency. Results demonstrate that ERSB was significantly related to PSU severity, and ERSB mediated the association between rumination and PSU. Furthermore, the combination of rumination and ERSB mediated relations between both depression and anxiety severity with PSU. Results provide evidence for ERSB as an important variable in understanding relationships between psychopathology symptoms and PSU severity among college students.

6.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(2): e16030, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHeath)-based HIV and sexual health promotion among men who have sex with men (MSM) is feasible in low- and middle-income settings. However, many currently available mHealth tools on the market were developed by the private sector for profit and have limited input from MSM communities. OBJECTIVE: A health hackathon is an intensive contest that brings together participants from multidisciplinary backgrounds to develop a proposed solution for a specific health issue within a short period. The purpose of this paper was to describe a hackathon event that aimed to develop an mHealth tool to enhance health care (specifically HIV prevention) utilization among Chinese MSM, summarize characteristics of the final prototypes, and discuss implications for future mHealth intervention development. METHODS: The hackathon took place in Guangzhou, China. An open call for hackathon participants was advertised on 3 Chinese social media platforms, including Blued, a popular social networking app among MSM. All applicants completed a Web-based survey and were then scored. The top scoring applicants were grouped into teams based on their skills and content area expertise. Each team was allowed 1 month to prepare for the hackathon. The teams then came together in person with on-site expert mentorship for a 72-hour hackathon contest to develop and present mHealth prototype solutions. The judging panel included experts in psychology, public health, computer science, social media, clinical medicine, and MSM advocacy. The final prototypes were evaluated based on innovation, usability, and feasibility. RESULTS: We received 92 applicants, and 38 of them were selected to attend the April 2019 hackathon. A total of 8 teams were formed, including expertise in computer science, user interface design, business or marketing, clinical medicine, and public health. Moreover, 24 participants self-identified as gay, and 3 participants self-identified as bisexual. All teams successfully developed a prototype tool. A total of 4 prototypes were designed as a mini program that could be embedded within a popular Chinese social networking app, and 3 prototypes were designed as stand-alone apps. Common prototype functions included Web-based physician searching based on one's location (8 prototypes), health education (4 prototypes), Web-based health counseling with providers or lay health volunteers (6 prototypes), appointment scheduling (8 prototypes), and between-user communication (2 prototypes). All prototypes included strategies to ensure privacy protection for MSM users, and some prototypes offered strategies to ensure privacy of physicians. The selected prototypes are undergoing pilot testing. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of using a hackathon to create mHealth intervention tools. This suggests a different pathway to developing mHealth interventions and could be relevant in other settings.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210042

RESUMO

Quality of life (QOL) has been considered as an important outcome indicator in holistic care for HIV-infected people, especially as HIV/AIDS transforms from a fatal illness to a chronic condition. This study aimed to identify trends and emerging topics among research concerning the QOL of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The analyzed data were English papers published from 1996 to 2017, searched and extracted from the Web of Science Core Collection. Collaborations between countries and the correlation between the keywords were visualized by VOSviewer while the abstracts' content was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis and Jaccard's' similarity index. There has been an increase in both the number of publications and citations. The United Nations of America leads in terms of paper volume. The cross-nation collaborations are mainly regional. Despite a rather comprehensive coverage of topics relating to QOL in PLWHA, there has evidently been a lack of studies focusing on socio-cultural factors and their impacts on the QOL of those who are HIV-infected. Further studies should consider investigating the role of socio-cultural factors, especially where long-term treatment is involved. Policy-level decisions are recommended to be made based on the consideration of cultural factors, while collaborations between developed and developing nations, in particular in HIV/AIDS-ridden countries, are strongly recommended.

9.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Depression symptom questionnaires are not for diagnostic classification. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores ≥10 are nonetheless often used to estimate depression prevalence. We compared PHQ-9 ≥10 prevalence to Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID) major depression prevalence and assessed whether an alternative PHQ-9 cutoff could more accurately estimate prevalence. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Individual participant data meta-analysis of datasets comparing PHQ-9 scores to SCID major depression status. RESULTS: A total of 9,242 participants (1,389 SCID major depression cases) from 44 primary studies were included. Pooled PHQ-9 ≥10 prevalence was 24.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.8%, 28.9%); pooled SCID major depression prevalence was 12.1% (95% CI: 9.6%, 15.2%); and pooled difference was 11.9% (95% CI: 9.3%, 14.6%). The mean study-level PHQ-9 ≥10 to SCID-based prevalence ratio was 2.5 times. PHQ-9 ≥14 and the PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithm provided prevalence closest to SCID major depression prevalence, but study-level prevalence differed from SCID-based prevalence by an average absolute difference of 4.8% for PHQ-9 ≥14 (95% prediction interval: -13.6%, 14.5%) and 5.6% for the PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithm (95% prediction interval: -16.4%, 15.0%). CONCLUSION: PHQ-9 ≥10 substantially overestimates depression prevalence. There is too much heterogeneity to correct statistically in individual studies.

10.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057275

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: The adoption of digital capture of pathology slides as whole slide images (WSI) for educational and research applications has proven utility. OBJECTIVE.­: To compare pathologists' primary diagnoses derived from WSI versus the standard microscope. Because WSIs differ in format and method of observation compared with the current standard glass slide microscopy, this study is critical to potential clinical adoption of digital pathology. DESIGN.­: The study enrolled a total of 2045 cases enriched for more difficult diagnostic categories and represented as 5849 slides were curated and provided for diagnosis by a team of 19 reading pathologists separately as WSI or as glass slides viewed by light microscope. Cases were reviewed by each pathologist in both modalities in randomized order with a minimum 31-day washout between modality reads for each case. Each diagnosis was compared with the original clinical reference diagnosis by an independent central adjudication review. RESULTS.­: The overall major discrepancy rates were 3.64% for WSI review and 3.20% for manual slide review diagnosis methods, a difference of 0.44% (95% CI, -0.15 to 1.03). The time to review a case averaged 5.20 minutes for WSI and 4.95 minutes for glass slides. There was no specific subset of diagnostic category that showed higher rates of modality-specific discrepancy, though some categories showed greater discrepancy than others in both modalities. CONCLUSIONS.­: WSIs are noninferior to traditional glass slides for primary diagnosis in anatomic pathology.

12.
J Community Psychol ; 48(3): 977-993, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951296

RESUMO

Domestic workers comprise roughly one-fourth of the total number of overseas Filipino workers (OFWs). They leave the Philippines primarily to provide financial assistance to their families they leave behind. Most of the existing studies investigated the problems they experience at work and with their families. Some studies focused on how they cope with these problems. However, little is known about the narrative identities of this group of labor migrants. This study addresses this gap by identifying the narrative identities of the community of Filipino domestic workers in Macao Special Administrative Region, China. This study utilized qualitative interviews to plot the identities into a three-part timeline: Premigration, during migration, and imagined future. Results show that, before migration, the community of domestic workers identifies as hands-on mothers and inadequate mothers. During migration, work- and family-related identities are present: Modern-day slave, inadequate, fighter, self-sacrificing, employer's family, and hands-on mother. In an imagined future, the community of domestic workers identifies as successful retired OFWs, reconciled life partners, hands-on mothers, and inadequate mothers. Findings highlight the multiple, interacting identities in community narratives and their corresponding effects on experiences. Implications on policies and programs for this labor migrant group are discussed.

14.
AIDS Behav ; 24(2): 418-427, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840160

RESUMO

Transnational migrant workers are known to be at high risk for HIV/STIs. This study estimated the point prevalence of HIV/syphilis and examined correlates of HIV/syphilis testing uptake among female migrant domestic workers in Macao, China. Data was obtained from 1363 female Filipino domestic workers who were offered free rapid HIV and syphilis testing. A mixed methods analysis was undertaken to examine correlates of testing and themes about reasons for not testing. Among 1164 women tested, there were no cases of HIV/syphilis observed and 199 (14.6%) refused HIV/syphilis testing. Greater social integration (aOR 1.12; 95% CI 1.02-1.24), having more than one sexual partner (aOR 1.65; 95% CI 1.02-2.65), and longer working hours on the testing day (aOR 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-1.00), were associated with testing uptake. Among those who tested, the majority (> 70%) had never tested before, suggesting the need to improve testing outreach. Qualitative themes about reasons for not testing included low perceived need and insufficient time. Individual and structural testing barriers should be reduced to optimize HIV/STI testing in migrant populations.

15.
Psychother Psychosom ; 89(1): 25-37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening for major depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) can be done using a cutoff or the PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithm. Many primary studies publish results for only one approach, and previous meta-analyses of the algorithm approach included only a subset of primary studies that collected data and could have published results. OBJECTIVE: To use an individual participant data meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of two PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithms for detecting major depression and compare accuracy between the algorithms and the standard PHQ-9 cutoff score of ≥10. METHODS: Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, Web of Science (January 1, 2000, to February 7, 2015). Eligible studies that classified current major depression status using a validated diagnostic interview. RESULTS: Data were included for 54 of 72 identified eligible studies (n participants = 16,688, n cases = 2,091). Among studies that used a semi-structured interview, pooled sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) were 0.57 (0.49, 0.64) and 0.95 (0.94, 0.97) for the original algorithm and 0.61 (0.54, 0.68) and 0.95 (0.93, 0.96) for a modified algorithm. Algorithm sensitivity was 0.22-0.24 lower compared to fully structured interviews and 0.06-0.07 lower compared to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Specificity was similar across reference standards. For PHQ-9 cutoff of ≥10 compared to semi-structured interviews, sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) were 0.88 (0.82-0.92) and 0.86 (0.82-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: The cutoff score approach appears to be a better option than a PHQ-9 algorithm for detecting major depression.

16.
Top Stroke Rehabil ; 27(1): 75-80, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566117

RESUMO

Objective: This meta-analysis systematically analyzed and compared oral health between stroke patients and controls.Data source: The electronic databases of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Medline and Web of Science were independently searched by two authors from their inception to 14 June 2018.Study selection: Eleven studies comparing oral health between stroke patients (n = 1,742) and controls (n = 1,193) were analyzed.Data extraction: The full texts of the 11 studies were independently reviewed. Data on oral health were independently extracted by two authors.Data synthesis: Mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and synthesized using fixed or random-effects models, as appropriate. Compared to controls, stroke patients had poorer oral health: they had more Dental Caries (5 studies; MD = 2.89, 95% CI: 0.91-4.88, p= .04), but less Remaining Teeth scores (6 studies; MD = -2.93, 95% CI: -3.91, -1.95; p < .00001). Both the Plaque Index (3 studies; MD = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.28; p < .00001) and Gingival Index scores (4 studies; MD = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.30; p < .00001) were significantly higher in stroke patients, indicating worse periodontal status.Conclusions: Stroke patients had poorer overall oral health status compared to controls. Given the importance of oral health to overall health, further research on screening for oral health problems after stroke should be conducted and effective management strategies should be devised and implemented.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 265: 590-594, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common among older adults. The epidemiology of MDD is greatly influenced by sociocultural and economic factors. This study examined the 1-month and lifetime prevalence of MDD and its socio-demographic correlates in older adults living in Hebei province, an agricultural area of China. METHODS: Multistage, stratified, random sampling was administered between April and August 2016. The diagnosis of MDD was established with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) Axis I Disorders. RESULTS: A total of 3911 participants were enrolled. The 1-month and lifetime prevalence of MDD in older adults was 2.0% (95%CI: 1.6-2.4%) and 3.4% (95%CI: 2.8-4.0%), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender [P < 0.001, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.6, 95%CI: 1.53-4.53], presence of comorbid major medical conditions (P < 0.001, aOR = 4.8, 95%CI: 2.17-10.39) and family history of psychiatric disorders (P = 0.013, aOR = 3.4, 95%CI: 1.30-8.96) were independently and significantly associated with higher odds of MDD. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MDD in older adults in Hebei province, China, was lower than most findings in China and other countries. Nevertheless, continued surveillance of elderly depression in China along with the development of primary, secondary and tertiary preventative interventions for the elderly with MDD is indicated.

18.
J Affect Disord ; 263: 491-499, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing attention has been paid to maternal prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms (depression thereafter), but little is known about the prevalence of paternal prenatal and postpartum depression. To fill this gap, the current study meta-analyzed the worldwide prevalence of prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers. METHODS: Studies that reported paternal depression occurring between the first trimester and the first postpartum year were identified by searching both international (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and EMBASE) and Chinese (WanFang and CNKI) databases between their inception date and July 1, 2018. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Forty-seven studies with 20,728 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of prenatal depression in fathers was 9.76% in all three trimesters, 13.59% in the first, 11.31% in the second and 10.12% in the third trimester. The prevalence of postpartum depression was 8.75% within a whole year, 8.98% within one-month, 7.82% between one- and three months, 9.23% between three months and six months and 8.40% between six months to twelve months after child-birth. The prevalence of paternal postpartum depression was moderated by year of publication, study area, age of fathers of ≥18 years, quality assessment score and mean age (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis found that the prevalence of prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers was relatively common. Regular screening, effective prevention and appropriate treatment need to be implemented in this population.

20.
J Affect Disord ; 263: 129-133, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have estimated the prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorder (BP) in agricultural areas of China. This study examined the one-month and lifetime prevalence of BP, its subtypes and socio-demographic factors in the adult population of Hebei province, a predominantly agricultural area of China. METHODS: A multistage, stratified, cluster random sampling method was used to estimate the prevalence and correlates of BP in adults in Hebei province, China. The expanded version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition (SCID-I/P/C) were administered to establish the diagnosis of BP. RESULTS: A total of 20,884 participants were screened. The weighted lifetime prevalence of BP, BP type I (BP-I), type II (BP-II), and BP not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) were 0.20% (95% CI: 0.14-0.26%), 0.13% (95% CI: 0.08-0.18%), 0.03% (95% CI: 0.009-0.06%) and 0.03% (95% CI: 0.009-0.06%), respectively. The weighted one-month prevalence estimates were 0.12% (95% CI: 0.08-0.17%) for BP, 0.07% (95% CI: 0.04-0.11%) for BP-I, 0.03% (95% CI: 0.006-0.05%) for BP-II, and 0.02% (95% CI: 0.003-0.04%) for BP-NOS. Multiple Poisson regression analysis revealed that positive family history of any psychiatric disorder (P<0.001, OR=6.48, 95% CI: 2.53-16.56) was significantly associated with greater risk of BP. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of BP in Hebei province appears lower than in most areas of China and other countries. Continued surveillance of BP in China along with the development of primary and tertiary preventative interventions for psychiatric disorders is indicated.

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