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1.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; : e12784, 2020 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ECG changes after revascularization predicts improved outcome for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Worst lead residual (WLR) ST deviation and resolution of worst lead ST elevation (rST elevation) are simple measures that can be obtained early after PCI. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether simple ECG measures, obtained one hour following PCI, could predict cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived myocardial salvage index (MSI), infarct size (IS), and microvascular obstruction (MVO) in patients with STEMI included in the MITOCARE trial. METHODS: The MITOCARE trial included 165 patients with a first-time STEMI presenting within six hours of symptom onset. The current analysis included patients that had an ECG recorded at baseline and one hour after PCI and underwent CMR imaging after 3-5 days. Independent core laboratories determined WLR ST deviation, rST elevation, and the CMR variables (MSI, IS, and MVO). RESULTS: 83 patients with a mean age of 61 years were included. 83.1% were males and 41% had anterior infarctions. In logistic regression models, WLR ST deviation was a statistically significant predictor of IS (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8) and MVO (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.2), but not of MSI (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5-1.2). rST elevation showed a trend toward a significant association with IS (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-1.0), but not with the other CMR variables. CONCLUSION: WLR ST deviation one hour after PCI was a predictor of IS and MVO. WLR ST deviation, a measure easily obtained from ECGs following PCI, may provide important prognostic information in patients with STEMI.

2.
Am Heart J ; 215: 83-90, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after acute myocardial infarction (MI) increases risk of cardiovascular (CV) hospitalizations, but evidence regarding its association with non-CV outcome is scarce. We investigated the association between LVEF and adjudicated cause-specific hospitalizations following MI complicated with low LVEF or overt heart failure (HF). METHODS: In an individual patient data meta-analysis of 19,740 patients from 3 large randomized trials, Fine and Gray competing risk modeling was performed to study the association between LVEF and hospitalization types. RESULTS: The most common cause of hospitalization was non-CV (n = 2,368 for HF, n = 1,554 for MI, and n = 3,703 for non-CV). All types of hospitalizations significantly increased with decreasing LVEF. The absolute risk increase associated with LVEF ≪25% (vs LVEF ≫35%) was 15.5% (95% CI 13.4-17.5) for HF, 4.7% (95% CI 3.0-6.4) for MI, and 10.4% (95% CI 8.0-12.8) for non-CV hospitalization. On a relative scale, after adjusting for confounders, each 5-point decrease in LVEF was associated with an increased risk of HF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.12-1.18), MI (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), and non-CV hospitalization (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: In a high-risk population with complicated acute MI, the absolute risk increase in non-CV hospitalizations associated with LVEF ≪25% was two thirds of the absolute risk increase in HF hospitalizations and twice the absolute risk increase in MI hospitalizations. LVEF was an independent predictor of all types of hospitalization and appears as an integrative marker of sicker patient status.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
4.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 5(4): 210-215, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192939

RESUMO

AIMS: Clopidogrel is commonly used even after expiring patents. The brand clopidogrel (BC) was dealt by single company, while numerous manufacturers produce generic clopidogrel (GC). There are no convincing data to compare the safety of different formulations. Therefore, the data yielded from international, uniform, government-mandated registries may be useful. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed primary causative adverse events (PCAE) after BC and GC in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). The outcomes were divided into death, cardiac, thrombotic/embolic, haemorrhagic, and rash/dermal complications. These primary endpoints were then examined by proportional reporting ratios (PRR) and chi-square (χ2). Among total FAERS (n = 9 466 679) reports, overall BC (n = 88 863) cases were more common than after GC (n = 36 559). When triaged by PCAE role, BC (n = 18 328) was also more abundant than GC (n = 3987). The reported death rates were more than doubled after BC [18.4% vs. 7.0%; PRR = 0.38; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.32-0.43; χ2=369.7; P<0.0001] for total FAERS, and consistent for late 2010-2017 (17.6% vs. 7.0% PRR = 0.40; 95% CI 0.37-0.45; χ2=286.2; P<0.004) PCAE cases. In contrast, GC trended to co-report more cardiac (14.6% vs. 13.3%; PRR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.0-1.25; χ2=3.5; P<0.06). The haemorrhagic (40.9% vs. 32.3%; PRR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.33-1.57; χ2=75.8; P<0.0001), and rash/dermal (5.4% vs. 4.6%; PRR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.0-1.44; χ2=3.75; P<0.05) events were also more common for GC. Thrombotic/embolic events were reported equally (at 7.0%) after each formulation. CONCLUSION: The PCAE profiles differ with BC and GC in FAERS. While deaths reports were higher, the rates of cardiac, haemorrhagic, and skin complications were less common for BC. Despite expected reporting bias, this may indicate that the manufacturers of GC are reluctant to report deaths to the FDA. However, the overall adverse event profile suggests potentially better safety of BC over GC formulations.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 272: 260-266, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for specific modes of death in patients with heart failure (HF) or left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction (MI) may help to avert events. We sought to evaluate LV ejection fraction (LVEF) as a prognosticator of specific death modes. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an individual patient data meta-analysis of four merged trials (CAPRICORN, EPHESUS, OPTIMAAL, and VALIANT), Cox modelling was performed to study the association between baseline LVEF from 19,740 patients and types of death during follow-up. Over a median follow-up of 707 days 3419 deaths occurred. The distribution pattern for mode of death was similar across categories (LVEF < 25%, LVEF 25-35%, and LVEF > 35%). In multivariable models, the risk of all types of death increased with decreasing LVEF. If compared to LVEF > 35%, LVEF < 25% was associated with a 113% increased risk of sudden death (hazard ratio (HR) 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-2.98), a 170% increased risk of HF death (HR 2.70, 95% CI 1.83-3.98), a 66% increased risk of other cardiovascular (CV) death (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.14-2.42), and a 90% increased risk of non CV death (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.15-3.14). CONCLUSION: In patients with HF or LV dysfunction after acute MI, low LVEF is a ubiquitous risk marker associated with death regardless of type. The different modes of death are fairly equally represented throughout the categories of LVEF and sudden death remains a significant mode of death also in patients with LVEF > 35%.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
7.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 23(6): e12580, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anterolateral myocardial infarction (MI) is traditionally defined on the electrocardiogram by ST-elevation (STE) in I, aVL, and the precordial leads. Traditional literature holds STE in lead aVL to be associated with occlusion proximal to the first diagonal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. However, concomitant ischemia of the inferior myocardium may theoretically lead to attenuation of STE in aVL. We compared segmental distribution of myocardial area at risk (MaR) in patients with and without STE in aVL. METHODS: We identified patients in the MITOCARE study presenting with a first acute MI and new STE in two contiguous anterior leads from V1 to V6 , with or without aVL STE. Patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 3-5 days after acute infarction for quantitative assessment of MaR. RESULTS: A total of 32 patients met inclusion criteria; 13 patients with and 19 without STE in lead aVL. MaR > 20% at the basal anterior segment was seen in 54% of patients with aVL STE, and 11% of those without (p = 0.011). MaR > 20% at the apical inferior segment was seen in 62% and 95% of patients with and without aVL STE, respectively (p = 0.029). The total MaR was not different between groups (44% ± 10% and 39% ± 8.3% respectively, p = 0.15). CONCLUSION: Patients with anterior STEMI and concomitant STE in aVL have less MaR in the apical inferior segment and more MaR in the basal anterior segment.


Assuntos
Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Gadolínio , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Anterior/etiologia , Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Anterior/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Dinamarca , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
8.
J Electrocardiol ; 51(4): 563-568, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is traditionally defined on the electrocardiogram (ECG) by ST elevation (STE) in leads V1-V3, with or without involvement of lead V4. It is commonly taught that such infarcts affect the basal anteroseptal myocardial segment. While there are suggestions in the literature that Q waves limited to V1-V4 represent predominantly apical infarction, none have evaluated anteroseptal ST elevation territories. We compared the distribution of the myocardium at risk (MaR) in STEMI patients presenting with STE limited to V1-V4 and those with more extensive STE (V1-V6). METHODS: We identified patients in the MITOCARE study presenting with a first acute STEMI and new STE in at least two contiguous anterior leads from V1 to V6. Patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging three to five days after acute infarction. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients met inclusion criteria. In patients with STE in V1-V4 (n = 20), myocardium at risk (MaR) > 50% was seen in 0%, 85%, 75%, 100%, and 90% in the basal anteroseptal, mid anteroseptal, apical anterior, apical septal segments, and apex, respectively. The group with STE in V1-V6 (n = 12), MaR > 50% was seen in 8%, 83%, 83%, 92%, and 83% of the same segments. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with acute STEMI and STE in leads V1-V4, exhibit MaR in predominantly apical territories and rarely in the basal anteroseptum. We found no evidence to support existence of isolated basal anteroseptal or septal STEMI. "Anteroapical" infarction is a more precise description than "anteroseptal" infarction for acute STEMI patients exhibiting STE in V1-V4.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
9.
J Electrocardiol ; 51(2): 195-202, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Terminal "QRS distortion" on the electrocardiogram (ECG) (based on Sclarovsky-Birnbaum's Grades of Ischemia Score) is a sign of severe ischemia, associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In addition, ECG indices of the acuteness of ischemia (based on Anderson-Wilkins Acuteness Score) indicate myocardial salvage potential. We assessed whether severe ischemia with or without acute ischemia is predictive of infarct size (IS), myocardial salvage index (MSI) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in anterior versus inferior infarct locations. METHODS: In STEMI patients, the severity and acuteness scores were obtained from the admission ECG. Based on the ECG patients were assigned with severe or non-severe ischemia and acute or non-acute ischemia. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed 2-6days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). LVEF was measured by echocardiography 30days after pPCI. RESULTS: ECG analysis of 85 patients with available CMR resulted in 20 (23%) cases with severe and non-acute ischemia, 43 (51%) with non-severe and non-acute ischemia, 17 (20%) with non-severe and acute ischemia, and 5 (6%) patients with severe and acute ischemia. In patients with anterior STEMI (n=35), ECG measures of severity and acuteness of ischemia identified significant and stepwise differences in myocardial damage and function. Patients with severe and non-acute ischemia had the largest IS, smallest MSI and lowest LVEF. In contrast, no difference was observed in patients with inferior STEMI (n=50). CONCLUSIONS: The applicability of ECG indices of severity and acuteness of myocardial ischemia to estimate myocardial damage and salvage potential in STEMI patients treated with pPCI, is confined to anterior myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Electrocardiol ; 51(2): 218-223, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29103621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In traditional literature, it appears that "anteroseptal" MIs with Q waves in V1-V3 involve basal anteroseptal segments although studies have questioned this belief. METHODS: We studied patients with first acute anterior Q-wave (>30ms) MI. All underwent late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). RESULTS: Those with Q waves in V1-V2 (n=7) evidenced LGE >50% in 0%, 43%, 43%, 57%, and 29% of the basal anteroseptal, mid anteroseptal, apical anterior, apical septal segments, and apex, respectively. Patients with Q waves in V1-V3 (n=14), evidenced involvement was 14%, 43%, 43%, 50%, and 7% of the same respective segments. In those with extensive anterior Q waves (n=7), involvement was 0%, 71%, 57%, 86%, and 86%. CONCLUSIONS: Q-wave MI in V1-V2/V3 primarily involves mid- and apical anterior and anteroseptal segments rather than basal segments. Data do not support existence of isolated basal anteroseptal or septal infarction. "Anteroapical infarction" is a more appropriate term than "anteroseptal infarction."


Assuntos
Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Anterior/classificação , Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Terminologia como Assunto , Idoso , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Gadolínio , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Electrocardiol ; 50(6): 725-731, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28918213

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The myocardium at risk (MaR) represents the quantitative ischemic area destined to myocardial infarction (MI) if no reperfusion therapy is initiated. Different ECG scores for MaR have been developed, but there is no consensus as to which should be preferred. OBJECTIVE: Comparisons of ECG scores and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) for determining MaR. METHODS: MaR was determined by 3 different ECG scores, and by CMR in ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) patients from the MITOCARE cardioprotection trial. The Aldrich score (AL) is based on the number of leads with ST-elevation for anterior MI and the sum of ST-segment elevation for inferior MI on the admission ECG. The van Hellemond score (VH) considers both the ischemic and infarcted component of the MaR by adding the AL and the QRS score, which is an estimate of final infarct size. The Hasche score is based on the maximal possible infarct size determined from the QRS score on the baseline ECG. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients (85% male, mean age 61years) met STEMI criteria on their admission ECG and underwent CMR within 3-5days after STEMI. Mean MaR by CMR was 41.2±10.2 and 30.3±7.2 for anterior and inferior infarcts, respectively. For both anterior and inferior infarcts the Aldrich (18.2±5.1 and 18.6±6.0) and Hasche (25.3±9.8 and 26.4±8.8) scores significantly underestimated MaR compared to MaR measured by CMR. In contrast, MaR by the van Hellemond score (37.0±14.2 and 31.7±12.8) was comparable to CMR. CONCLUSION: We tested the performance of the electrocardiographic estimation of myocardium area at risk by Aldrich, Hasche and van Hellemond ECG scores in comparison to MaR measured by CMR in STEMI patients. MaR by the van Hellemond score and CMR were comparable, while Aldrich and Hasche underestimated MaR.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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