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2.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 15-20, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the BRCA1 variant c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) was associated with an intermediate risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC). This study aimed to assess these cancer risks for R1699Q carriers in a larger cohort, including follow-up of previously studied families, to further define cancer risks and to propose adjusted clinical management of female BRCA1*R1699Q carriers. METHODS: Data were collected from 129 BRCA1*R1699Q families ascertained internationally by ENIGMA (Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium members. A modified segregation analysis was used to calculate BC and OC risks. Relative risks were calculated under both monogenic model and major gene plus polygenic model assumptions. RESULTS: In this cohort the cumulative risk of BC and OC by age 70 years was 20% and 6%, respectively. The relative risk for developing cancer was higher when using a model that included the effects of both the R1699Q variant and a residual polygenic component compared with monogenic model (for BC 3.67 vs 2.83, and for OC 6.41 vs 5.83). CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that BRCA1*R1699Q confers an intermediate risk for BC and OC. Breast surveillance for female carriers based on mammogram annually from age 40 is advised. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered based on family history.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
3.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(9): 1190-1196, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418444

RESUMO

Importance: Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to an increased lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, the relevance of germline variants in other genes from multigene hereditary cancer testing panels is not well defined. Objective: To determine the risks of breast cancer associated with germline variants in cancer predisposition genes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A study population of 65 057 patients with breast cancer receiving germline genetic testing of cancer predisposition genes with hereditary cancer multigene panels. Associations between pathogenic variants in non-BRCA1 and non-BRCA2 predisposition genes and breast cancer risk were estimated in a case-control analysis of patients with breast cancer and Exome Aggregation Consortium reference controls. The women underwent testing between March 15, 2012, and June 30, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Breast cancer risk conferred by pathogenic variants in non-BRCA1 and non-BRCA2 predisposition genes. Results: The mean (SD) age at diagnosis for the 65 057 women included in the analysis was 48.5 (11.1) years. The frequency of pathogenic variants in 21 panel genes identified in 41 611 consecutively tested white women with breast cancer was estimated at 10.2%. After exclusion of BRCA1, BRCA2, and syndromic breast cancer genes (CDH1, PTEN, and TP53), observed pathogenic variants in 5 of 16 genes were associated with high or moderately increased risks of breast cancer: ATM (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 2.22-3.62), BARD1 (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.31-3.63), CHEK2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.31-1.67), PALB2 (OR, 7.46; 95% CI, 5.12-11.19), and RAD51D (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.21-7.88). Conversely, variants in the BRIP1 and RAD51C ovarian cancer risk genes; the MRE11A, RAD50, and NBN MRN complex genes; the MLH1 and PMS2 mismatch repair genes; and NF1 were not associated with increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: This study establishes several panel genes as high- and moderate-risk breast cancer genes and provides estimates of breast cancer risk associated with pathogenic variants in these genes among individuals qualifying for clinical genetic testing.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Hidrolases Anidrido Ácido , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Fenótipo , RNA Helicases/genética , Fatores de Risco
4.
Cancer Res ; 77(11): 2789-2799, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283652

RESUMO

Breast cancer risks conferred by many germline missense variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, often referred to as variants of uncertain significance (VUS), have not been established. In this study, associations between 19 BRCA1 and 33 BRCA2 missense substitution variants and breast cancer risk were investigated through a breast cancer case-control study using genotyping data from 38 studies of predominantly European ancestry (41,890 cases and 41,607 controls) and nine studies of Asian ancestry (6,269 cases and 6,624 controls). The BRCA2 c.9104A>C, p.Tyr3035Ser (OR = 2.52; P = 0.04), and BRCA1 c.5096G>A, p.Arg1699Gln (OR = 4.29; P = 0.009) variant were associated with moderately increased risks of breast cancer among Europeans, whereas BRCA2 c.7522G>A, p.Gly2508Ser (OR = 2.68; P = 0.004), and c.8187G>T, p.Lys2729Asn (OR = 1.4; P = 0.004) were associated with moderate and low risks of breast cancer among Asians. Functional characterization of the BRCA2 variants using four quantitative assays showed reduced BRCA2 activity for p.Tyr3035Ser compared with wild-type. Overall, our results show how BRCA2 missense variants that influence protein function can confer clinically relevant, moderately increased risks of breast cancer, with potential implications for risk management guidelines in women with these specific variants. Cancer Res; 77(11); 2789-99. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Idoso , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Risco
5.
Oncotarget ; 8(11): 18381-18398, 2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28179588

RESUMO

TP53 overexpression is indicative of somatic TP53 mutations and associates with aggressive tumors and poor prognosis in breast cancer. We utilized a two-stage SNP association study to detect variants associated with breast cancer survival in a TP53-dependent manner. Initially, a genome-wide study (n = 575 cases) was conducted to discover candidate SNPs for genotyping and validation in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The SNPs were then tested for interaction with tumor TP53 status (n = 4,610) and anthracycline treatment (n = 17,828). For SNPs interacting with anthracycline treatment, siRNA knockdown experiments were carried out to validate candidate genes.In the test for interaction between SNP genotype and TP53 status, we identified one locus, represented by rs10916264 (p(interaction) = 3.44 × 10-5; FDR-adjusted p = 0.0011) in estrogen receptor (ER) positive cases. The rs10916264 AA genotype associated with worse survival among cases with ER-positive, TP53-positive tumors (hazard ratio [HR] 2.36, 95% confidence interval [C.I] 1.45 - 3.82). This is a cis-eQTL locus for FBXO28 and TP53BP2; expression levels of these genes were associated with patient survival specifically in ER-positive, TP53-mutated tumors. Additionally, the SNP rs798755 was associated with survival in interaction with anthracycline treatment (p(interaction) = 9.57 × 10-5, FDR-adjusted p = 0.0130). RNAi-based depletion of a predicted regulatory target gene, FAM53A, indicated that this gene can modulate doxorubicin sensitivity in breast cancer cell lines.If confirmed in independent data sets, these results may be of clinical relevance in the development of prognostic and predictive marker panels for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Ligases SKP Culina F-Box/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto Jovem
6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 112, 2016 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27836010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers have inherited a single (heterozygous) mutation. Transheterozygotes (TH) who have inherited deleterious mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are rare, and the consequences of transheterozygosity are poorly understood. METHODS: From 32,295 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, we identified 93 TH (0.3 %). "Cases" were defined as TH, and "controls" were single mutations at BRCA1 (SH1) or BRCA2 (SH2). Matched SH1 "controls" carried a BRCA1 mutation found in the TH "case". Matched SH2 "controls" carried a BRCA2 mutation found in the TH "case". After matching the TH carriers with SH1 or SH2, 91 TH were matched to 9316 SH1, and 89 TH were matched to 3370 SH2. RESULTS: The majority of TH (45.2 %) involved the three common Jewish mutations. TH were more likely than SH1 and SH2 women to have been ever diagnosed with breast cancer (BC; p = 0.002). TH were more likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC) than SH2 (p = 0.017), but not SH1. Age at BC diagnosis was the same in TH vs. SH1 (p = 0.231), but was on average 4.5 years younger in TH than in SH2 (p < 0.001). BC in TH was more likely to be estrogen receptor (ER) positive (p = 0.010) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive (p = 0.013) than in SH1, but less likely to be ER positive (p < 0.001) or PR positive (p = 0.012) than SH2. Among 15 tumors from TH patients, there was no clear pattern of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for BRCA1 or BRCA2 in either BC or OC. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that clinical TH phenotypes resemble SH1. However, TH breast tumor marker characteristics are phenotypically intermediate to SH1 and SH2.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Vigilância da População , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Éxons , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
7.
Oncotarget ; 7(49): 80140-80163, 2016 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27792995

RESUMO

There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional candidates for further investigation as disease-causing variants. To investigate whether common variants associated with differential allelic expression were involved in breast cancer susceptibility, a list of genes was established on the basis of their involvement in cancer related pathways and/or mechanisms. Thereafter, using data from a genome-wide map of allelic expression associated SNPs, 313 genetic variants were selected and their association with breast cancer risk was then evaluated in 46,451 breast cancer cases and 42,599 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The associations were evaluated with overall breast cancer risk and with estrogen receptor negative and positive disease. One novel breast cancer susceptibility locus on 4q21 (rs11099601) was identified (OR = 1.05, P = 5.6x10-6). rs11099601 lies in a 135 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing several genes, including, HELQ, encoding the protein HEL308 a DNA dependant ATPase and DNA Helicase involved in DNA repair, MRPS18C encoding the Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S18C and FAM175A (ABRAXAS), encoding a BRCA1 BRCT domain-interacting protein involved in DNA damage response and double-strand break (DSB) repair. Expression QTL analysis in breast cancer tissue showed rs11099601 to be associated with HELQ (P = 8.28x10-14), MRPS18C (P = 1.94x10-27) and FAM175A (P = 3.83x10-3), explaining about 20%, 14% and 1%, respectively of the variance inexpression of these genes in breast carcinomas.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4 , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Canadá , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Helicases/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Sci Rep ; 6: 32512, 2016 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27600471

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have found SNPs at 17q22 to be associated with breast cancer risk. To identify potential causal variants related to breast cancer risk, we performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis that involved genotyping 517 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array (iCOGS) followed by imputation of genotypes for 3,134 SNPs in more than 89,000 participants of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). We identified 28 highly correlated common variants, in a 53 Kb region spanning two introns of the STXBP4 gene, that are strong candidates for driving breast cancer risk (lead SNP rs2787486 (OR = 0.92; CI 0.90-0.94; P = 8.96 × 10(-15))) and are correlated with two previously reported risk-associated variants at this locus, SNPs rs6504950 (OR = 0.94, P = 2.04 × 10(-09), r(2) = 0.73 with lead SNP) and rs1156287 (OR = 0.93, P = 3.41 × 10(-11), r(2) = 0.83 with lead SNP). Analyses indicate only one causal SNP in the region and several enhancer elements targeting STXBP4 are located within the 53 kb association signal. Expression studies in breast tumor tissues found SNP rs2787486 to be associated with increased STXBP4 expression, suggesting this may be a target gene of this locus.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
9.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 23(10): 3232-8, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27338744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deleterious BRCA mutation carriers with breast cancer are at increased risk for additional breast cancer events. This study evaluated the impact that timing of identification of BRCA+ status has on surgical decision and outcome. METHODS: The authors reviewed all BRCA carriers at their institution whose breast cancer was diagnosed between January 1996 and June 2015. Patient surveys, medical records, and institutional databases were used to collect data. Differences in surgical choice were analyzed using the chi-square test, and rates of subsequent breast cancer events were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The study investigated 173 BRCA carriers with breast cancer (100 BRCA1, 73 BRCA2). Of the women with known BRCA mutation before surgery and unilateral stages 0 to 3 breast cancer (n = 63), 12.7 % underwent lumpectomy, 4.8 % underwent unilateral mastectomy (UM), and 82.5 % underwent bilateral mastectomy (BM). These surgical choices differed significantly (p < 0.0001) from those of patients unaware of their mutation at the time of surgery (n = 93) (51.6 % had lumpectomy, 19.4 % had UM, 29 % had BM). Of the patients with BRCA mutation identified after surgery who underwent lumpectomy or UM, 36 (59 %) of 66 underwent delayed BM. The patients with BRCA+ known before diagnosis presented with significantly lower-stage disease (p = 0.02) at diagnosis (69 % stage 0 or 1) than those whose BRCA mutation was identified after cancer diagnosis (40 % stage 0 or 1). CONCLUSIONS: The study findings showed that BRCA mutation status influences surgical decision. The rates of BM were higher for the patients with BRCA mutation known before surgery. Identification of BRCA mutation after surgery frequently leads to subsequent breast surgery. Genetic testing before surgery is important for patients at elevated risk for BRCA mutation.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Mastectomia Segmentar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Mastectomia Profilática , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11375, 2016 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27117709

RESUMO

Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for ∼11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Ciclofilinas/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , tRNA Metiltransferases
11.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 15, 2016 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26857456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and, more commonly, BRCA2 mutations are associated with increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). However, only a paucity of data exists on the pathology of breast cancers (BCs) in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Using the largest available dataset, we determined whether MBCs arising in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers display specific pathologic features and whether these features differ from those of BRCA1/2 female BCs (FBCs). METHODS: We characterised the pathologic features of 419 BRCA1/2 MBCs and, using logistic regression analysis, contrasted those with data from 9675 BRCA1/2 FBCs and with population-based data from 6351 MBCs in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. RESULTS: Among BRCA2 MBCs, grade significantly decreased with increasing age at diagnosis (P = 0.005). Compared with BRCA2 FBCs, BRCA2 MBCs were of significantly higher stage (P for trend = 2 × 10(-5)) and higher grade (P for trend = 0.005) and were more likely to be oestrogen receptor-positive [odds ratio (OR) 10.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 5.15-21.80] and progesterone receptor-positive (OR 5.04; 95 % CI 3.17-8.04). With the exception of grade, similar patterns of associations emerged when we compared BRCA1 MBCs and FBCs. BRCA2 MBCs also presented with higher grade than MBCs from the SEER database (P for trend = 4 × 10(-12)). CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the largest series analysed to date, our results show that BRCA1/2 MBCs display distinct pathologic characteristics compared with BRCA1/2 FBCs, and we identified a specific BRCA2-associated MBC phenotype characterised by a variable suggesting greater biological aggressiveness (i.e., high histologic grade). These findings could lead to the development of gender-specific risk prediction models and guide clinical strategies appropriate for MBC management.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Br J Cancer ; 114(3): 298-304, 2016 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26679376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Luminal A breast cancer defined as hormone receptor positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative is known to be heterogeneous. Previous study showed that luminal A tumours with the expression of basal markers ((cytokeratin (CK) 5 or CK5/6) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)) were associated with poorer prognosis compared with those that stained negative for basal markers. Prompted by this study, we assessed whether tumour characteristics and risk factors differed by basal marker status within luminal A tumours. METHODS: We pooled 5040 luminal A cases defined by immunohistochemistry (4490 basal-negative ((CK5 (or CK5/6))- and EGFR-) and 550 basal-positive ((CK5 (or CK5/6+)) or EGFR+)) from eight studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Case-case comparison was performed using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Tumour characteristics and risk factors did not vary significantly by the expression of basal markers, although results suggested that basal-positive luminal tumours tended to be smaller and node negative, and were more common in women with a positive family history and lower body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Most established breast cancer risk factors were similar in basal-positive and basal-negative luminal A tumours. The non-significant but suggestive differences in tumour features and family history warrant further investigations.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Lobular/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Queratina-5/metabolismo , Queratina-6/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Menarca , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Paridade , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Carga Tumoral
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(11)2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26296642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 1.19) per 10cm increase in height in the meta-analysis of prospective studies. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the odds ratio of breast cancer per 10cm increase in genetically predicted height was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.13 to 1.32) in the first consortium and 1.21 (95% CI = 1.05 to 1.39) in the second consortium. The association was found in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women but restricted to hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Analyses of height-associated variants identified eight new loci associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons, including three loci at 1q21.2, DNAJC27, and CCDC91 at genome-wide significance level P < 5×10(-8). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence that adult height is a risk factor for breast cancer in women and certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height have an important role in the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Estatura , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Breast Cancer Res ; 17: 110, 2015 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26275715

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density is an established breast cancer risk factor with a strong genetic component and can be increased in women using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants that may modify the association between MHT use and mammographic density. METHODS: The study comprised 6,298 postmenopausal women from the Mayo Mammography Health Study and nine studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We selected for evaluation 1327 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing the lowest P-values for interaction (P int) in a meta-analysis of genome-wide gene-environment interaction studies with MHT use on risk of breast cancer, 2541 SNPs in candidate genes (AKR1C4, CYP1A1-CYP1A2, CYP1B1, ESR2, PPARG, PRL, SULT1A1-SULT1A2 and TNF) and ten SNPs (AREG-rs10034692, PRDM6-rs186749, ESR1-rs12665607, ZNF365-rs10995190, 8p11.23-rs7816345, LSP1-rs3817198, IGF1-rs703556, 12q24-rs1265507, TMEM184B-rs7289126, and SGSM3-rs17001868) associated with mammographic density in genome-wide studies. We used multiple linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders to evaluate interactions between SNPs and current use of MHT on mammographic density. RESULTS: No significant interactions were identified after adjustment for multiple testing. The strongest SNP-MHT interaction (unadjusted P int <0.0004) was observed with rs9358531 6.5kb 5' of PRL. Furthermore, three SNPs in PLCG2 that had previously been shown to modify the association of MHT use with breast cancer risk were found to modify also the association of MHT use with mammographic density (unadjusted P int <0.002), but solely among cases (unadjusted P int SNP×MHT×case-status <0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The study identified potential interactions on mammographic density between current use of MHT and SNPs near PRL and in PLCG2, which require confirmation. Given the moderate size of the interactions observed, larger studies are needed to identify genetic modifiers of the association of MHT use with mammographic density.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mama/patologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/anormalidades , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Pós-Menopausa/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade da Mama , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/patologia , Mamografia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 17: 18, 2015 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25849327

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tumor lymphocyte infiltration is associated with clinical response to chemotherapy in estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. To identify variants in immunosuppressive pathway genes associated with prognosis after adjuvant chemotherapy for ER-negative patients, we studied stage I-III invasive breast cancer patients of European ancestry, including 9,334 ER-positive (3,151 treated with chemotherapy) and 2,334 ER-negative patients (1,499 treated with chemotherapy). METHODS: We pooled data from sixteen studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), and employed two independent studies for replications. Overall 3,610 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 133 genes were genotyped as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study, in which phenotype and clinical data were collected and harmonized. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess genetic associations with overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Heterogeneity according to chemotherapy or ER status was evaluated with the log-likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Three independent SNPs in TGFBR2 and IL12B were associated with OS (P <10⁻³) solely in ER-negative patients after chemotherapy (267 events). Poorer OS associated with TGFBR2 rs1367610 (G > C) (per allele hazard ratio (HR) 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22 to 1.95), P = 3.08 × 10⁻4) was not found in ER-negative patients without chemotherapy or ER-positive patients with chemotherapy (P for interaction <10-3). Two SNPs in IL12B (r² = 0.20) showed different associations with ER-negative disease after chemotherapy: rs2546892 (G > A) with poorer OS (HR 1.50 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.86), P = 1.81 × 10⁻4), and rs2853694 (A > C) with improved OS (HR 0.73 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.87), P = 3.67 × 10⁻4). Similar associations were observed with BCSS. Association with TGFBR2 rs1367610 but not IL12B variants replicated using BCAC Asian samples and the independent Prospective Study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary Breast Cancer Study and yielded a combined HR of 1.57 ((95% CI 1.28 to 1.94), P = 2.05 × 10⁻5) without study heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: TGFBR2 variants may have prognostic and predictive value in ER-negative breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings provide further insights into the development of immunotherapeutic targets for ER-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Imunomodulação/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
16.
Breast Cancer Res ; 17: 58, 2015 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25897948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have identified common germline variants nominally associated with breast cancer survival. These associations have not been widely replicated in further studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of previously reported SNPs with breast cancer-specific survival using data from a pooled analysis of eight breast cancer survival genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: A literature review was conducted of all previously published associations between common germline variants and three survival outcomes: breast cancer-specific survival, overall survival and disease-free survival. All associations that reached the nominal significance level of P value <0.05 were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms that had been previously reported as nominally associated with at least one survival outcome were evaluated in the pooled analysis of over 37,000 breast cancer cases for association with breast cancer-specific survival. Previous associations were evaluated using a one-sided test based on the reported direction of effect. RESULTS: Fifty-six variants from 45 previous publications were evaluated in the meta-analysis. Fifty-four of these were evaluated in the full set of 37,954 breast cancer cases with 2,900 events and the two additional variants were evaluated in a reduced sample size of 30,000 samples in order to ensure independence from the previously published studies. Five variants reached nominal significance (P <0.05) in the pooled GWAS data compared to 2.8 expected under the null hypothesis. Seven additional variants were associated (P <0.05) with ER-positive disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although no variants reached genome-wide significance (P <5 x 10(-8)), these results suggest that there is some evidence of association between candidate common germline variants and breast cancer prognosis. Larger studies from multinational collaborations are necessary to increase the power to detect associations, between common variants and prognosis, at more stringent significance levels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Prognóstico
17.
Int J Cancer ; 136(6): E685-96, 2015 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25227710

RESUMO

A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint ) <1.1 × 10(-3) . None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170 cm (OR = 1.22, p = 0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160 cm (OR = 0.83, p = 0.039, pint = 1.9 × 10(-4) ). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 33(4): 304-11, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25452441

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent advances in DNA sequencing have led to the development of breast cancer susceptibility gene panels for germline genetic testing of patients. We assessed the frequency of mutations in 17 predisposition genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, in a large cohort of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) unselected for family history of breast or ovarian cancer to determine the utility of germline genetic testing for those with TNBC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with TNBC (N = 1,824) unselected for family history of breast or ovarian cancer were recruited through 12 studies, and germline DNA was sequenced to identify mutations. RESULTS: Deleterious mutations were identified in 14.6% of all patients. Of these, 11.2% had mutations in the BRCA1 (8.5%) and BRCA2 (2.7%) genes. Deleterious mutations in 15 other predisposition genes were detected in 3.7% of patients, with the majority observed in genes involved in homologous recombination, including PALB2 (1.2%) and BARD1, RAD51D, RAD51C, and BRIP1 (0.3% to 0.5%). Patients with TNBC with mutations were diagnosed at an earlier age (P < .001) and had higher-grade tumors (P = .01) than those without mutations. CONCLUSION: Deleterious mutations in predisposition genes are present at high frequency in patients with TNBC unselected for family history of cancer. Mutation prevalence estimates suggest that patients with TNBC, regardless of age at diagnosis or family history of cancer, should be considered for germline genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Although mutations in other predisposition genes are observed among patients with TNBC, better cancer risk estimates are needed before these mutations are used for clinical risk assessment in relatives.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Commun ; 4: 4999, 2014 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25248036

RESUMO

GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Project data. All but two, strongly correlated SNPs (rs4442975 G/T and rs6721996 G/A) are excluded as candidate causal variants at odds against >100:1. The best functional candidate, rs4442975, is associated with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease with an odds ratio (OR) in Europeans of 0.85 (95% confidence interval=0.84-0.87; P=1.7 × 10(-43)) per t-allele. This SNP flanks a transcriptional enhancer that physically interacts with the promoter of IGFBP5 (encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) and displays allele-specific gene expression, FOXA1 binding and chromatin looping. Evidence suggests that the g-allele confers increased breast cancer susceptibility through relative downregulation of IGFBP5, a gene with known roles in breast cell biology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Proteína 5 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína 5 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Cancer ; 120(13): 2000-5, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24711224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 1996 National Cancer Institute Working Group (NCI-WG 96) guidelines classified disease in individuals who had a B-cell clone with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) immunophenotype as CLL if their absolute lymphocyte count was ≥5 × 10(9)/L. The 2008 International Workshop on CLL guidelines (IWCLL 2008) classified disease as CLL if the absolute B-cell count was ≥5 × 10(9)/L or as monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) if the absolute B-cell count was <5 × 10(9)/L. The objective of the current study of Olmsted County, Minnesota, was to assess the effects of these changes on incidence rates and presentation from 2000 to 2010. METHODS: Using diagnostic indices available through the Rochester Epidemiology Project and the Mayo CLL database, the authors identified all patients with newly diagnosed CLL and high-count MBL from 2000 to 2010. Age-specific and sex-specific incidence rates were determined. RESULTS: According to NCI-WG 96 criteria, there were 115 patients with CLL and 8 patients with MBL during the period studied. Using the IWCLL 2008 classification, there were 79 patients with CLL and 40 patients with MBL. Rai stage distribution (low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk) using NCI-WG 96 criteria was 60.9%, 33.9%, and 5.2%, respectively, compared with 43%, 49.4%, and 7.6%, respectively, using IWCLL 2008 criteria. The age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence rates (per 100,000) for CLL and MBL were 10.0 and 0.66, respectively, using NCI-WG 96 criteria versus 6.8 and 3.5, respectively, using IWCLL 2008 criteria. The median time to treatment according to NCI-WG 96 criteria was 9.2 years versus 6.5 years with IWCLL 2008 criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the IWCLL 2008 guidelines reduced the incidence of CLL, altered the distribution of initial Rai stage at diagnosis, and shortened the median time to treatment.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfocitose/diagnóstico , Linfocitose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Incidência , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Linfocitose/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Estados Unidos
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