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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11623, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406173

RESUMO

Telomere shortening has been associated with multiple age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. In order to gain insight into the metabolic processes driving the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with age-related diseases, we investigated the association between LTL and serum metabolite levels in 7,853 individuals from seven independent cohorts. LTL was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the levels of 131 serum metabolites were measured with mass spectrometry in biological samples from the same blood draw. With partial correlation analysis, we identified six metabolites that were significantly associated with LTL after adjustment for multiple testing: lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C17:0 (lysoPC a C17:0, p-value = 7.1 × 10-6), methionine (p-value = 9.2 × 10-5), tyrosine (p-value = 2.1 × 10-4), phosphatidylcholine diacyl C32:1 (PC aa C32:1, p-value = 2.4 × 10-4), hydroxypropionylcarnitine (C3-OH, p-value = 2.6 × 10-4), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C38:4 (PC ae C38:4, p-value = 9.0 × 10-4). Pathway analysis showed that the three phosphatidylcholines and methionine are involved in homocysteine metabolism and we found supporting evidence for an association of lipid metabolism with LTL. In conclusion, we found longer LTL associated with higher levels of lysoPC a C17:0 and PC ae C38:4, and with lower levels of methionine, tyrosine, PC aa C32:1, and C3-OH. These metabolites have been implicated in inflammation, oxidative stress, homocysteine metabolism, and in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, two major drivers of morbidity and mortality.

2.
Endocrinology ; 160(7): 1731-1742, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125048

RESUMO

Most patients with pancreatic cancer present with advanced disease and die within the first year after diagnosis. Predictive biomarkers that signal the presence of pancreatic cancer in an early stage are desperately needed. We aimed to identify new and validate previously found plasma metabolomic biomarkers associated with early stages of pancreatic cancer. Prediagnostic blood samples from individuals who were to receive a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer between 1 month and 17 years after sampling (N = 356) and age- and sex-matched controls (N = 887) were collected from five large population cohorts (HUNT2, HUNT3, FINRISK, Estonian Biobank, Rotterdam Study). We applied proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics on the Nightingale platform. Logistic regression identified two interesting hits: glutamine (P = 0.011) and histidine (P = 0.012), with Westfall-Young family-wise error rate adjusted P values of 0.43 for both. Stratification in quintiles showed a 1.5-fold elevated risk for the lowest 20% of glutamine and a 2.2-fold increased risk for the lowest 20% of histidine. Stratification by time to diagnosis suggested glutamine to be involved in an earlier process (2 to 5 years before diagnosis), and histidine in a process closer to the actual onset (<2 years). Our data did not support the branched-chain amino acids identified earlier in several US cohorts as potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Thus, although we identified glutamine and histidine as potential biomarkers of biological interest, our results imply that a study at this scale does not yield metabolomic biomarkers with sufficient predictive value to be clinically useful per se as prognostic biomarkers.

3.
Am J Nephrol ; 49(3): 193-202, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum urea level is a heritable trait, commonly used as a diagnostic marker for kidney function. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in East-Asian populations identified a number of genetic loci related to serum urea, however there is a paucity of data for European populations. METHODS: We performed a two-stage meta-analysis of GWASs on serum urea in 13,312 participants, with independent replication in 7,379 participants of European ancestry. RESULTS: We identified 6 genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 6 loci, of which 2 were novel (POU2AF1 and ADAMTS9-AS2). Replication of East-Asian and Scottish data provided evidence for an additional 8 loci. SNPs tag regions previously associated with anthropometric traits, serum magnesium, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, as well as expression quantitative trait loci for genes preferentially expressed in kidney and gastro-intestinal tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide insights into the genetic underpinnings of urea metabolism, with potential relevance to kidney function.

4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 22, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selection of interesting regions from genome wide association studies (GWAS) is typically performed by eyeballing of Manhattan Plots. This is no longer possible with thousands of different phenotypes. There is a need for tools that can automatically detect genomic regions that correspond to what the experienced researcher perceives as peaks worthwhile of further study. RESULTS: We developed Manhattan Harvester, a tool designed for "peak extraction" from GWAS summary files and computation of parameters characterizing various aspects of individual peaks. We present the algorithms used and a model for creating a general quality score that evaluates peaks similarly to that of a human researcher. Our tool Cropper utilizes a graphical interface for inspecting, cropping and subsetting Manhattan Plot regions. Cropper is used to validate and visualize the regions detected by Manhattan Harvester. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that our tools fill the current void in automatically screening large number of GWAS output files in batch mode. The interesting regions are detected and quantified by various parameters by Manhattan Harvester. Cropper offers graphical tools for in-depth inspection of the regions. The tools are open source and freely available.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Genômica/métodos , Software , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420678

RESUMO

Pharmacogenomics aims to tailor pharmacological treatment to each individual by considering associations between genetic polymorphisms and adverse drug effects (ADEs). With technological advances, pharmacogenomic research has evolved from candidate gene analyses to genome-wide association studies. Here, we integrate deep whole-genome sequencing (WGS) information with drug prescription and ADE data from Estonian electronic health record (EHR) databases to evaluate genome- and pharmacome-wide associations on an unprecedented scale. We leveraged WGS data of 2240 Estonian Biobank participants and imputed all single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) with allele counts over 2 for 13,986 genotyped participants. Overall, we identified 41 (10 novel) loss-of-function and 567 (134 novel) missense variants in 64 very important pharmacogenes. The majority of the detected variants were very rare with frequencies below 0.05%, and 6 of the novel loss-of-function and 99 of the missense variants were only detected as single alleles (allele count = 1). We also validated documented pharmacogenetic associations and detected new independent variants in known gene-drug pairs. Specifically, we found that CTNNA3 was associated with myositis and myopathies among individuals taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory oxicams and replicated this finding in an extended cohort of 706 individuals. These findings illustrate that population-based WGS-coupled EHRs are a useful tool for biomarker discovery.

6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15249, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323304

RESUMO

Using targeted NMR spectroscopy of 227 fasting serum metabolic traits, we searched for novel metabolic signatures of renal function in 926 type 2 diabetics (T2D) and 4838 non-diabetic individuals from four independent cohorts. We furthermore investigated longitudinal changes of metabolic measures and renal function and associations with other T2D microvascular complications. 142 traits correlated with glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after adjusting for confounders and multiple testing: 59 in diabetics, 109 in non-diabetics with 26 overlapping. The amino acids glycine and phenylalanine and the energy metabolites citrate and glycerol were negatively associated with eGFR in all the cohorts, while alanine, valine and pyruvate depicted opposite association in diabetics (positive) and non-diabetics (negative). Moreover, in all cohorts, the triglyceride content of different lipoprotein subclasses showed a negative association with eGFR, while cholesterol, cholesterol esters (CE), and phospholipids in HDL were associated with better renal function. In contrast, phospholipids and CEs in LDL showed positive associations with eGFR only in T2D, while phospholipid content in HDL was positively associated with eGFR both cross-sectionally and longitudinally only in non-diabetics. In conclusion, we provide a wide list of kidney function-associated metabolic traits and identified novel metabolic differences between diabetic and non-diabetic kidney disease.

7.
Nat Genet ; 50(6): 834-848, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808027

RESUMO

Refractive errors, including myopia, are the most frequent eye disorders worldwide and an increasingly common cause of blindness. This genome-wide association meta-analysis in 160,420 participants and replication in 95,505 participants increased the number of established independent signals from 37 to 161 and showed high genetic correlation between Europeans and Asians (>0.78). Expression experiments and comprehensive in silico analyses identified retinal cell physiology and light processing as prominent mechanisms, and also identified functional contributions to refractive-error development in all cell types of the neurosensory retina, retinal pigment epithelium, vascular endothelium and extracellular matrix. Newly identified genes implicate novel mechanisms such as rod-and-cone bipolar synaptic neurotransmission, anterior-segment morphology and angiogenesis. Thirty-one loci resided in or near regions transcribing small RNAs, thus suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. Our results support the notion that refractive errors are caused by a light-dependent retina-to-sclera signaling cascade and delineate potential pathobiological molecular drivers.

8.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(6): 707-722, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identifying circulating metabolites that are associated with cognition and dementia may improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of dementia and provide crucial readouts for preventive and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: We studied 299 metabolites in relation to cognition (general cognitive ability) in two discovery cohorts (N total = 5658). Metabolites significantly associated with cognition after adjusting for multiple testing were replicated in four independent cohorts (N total = 6652), and the associations with dementia and Alzheimer's disease (N = 25,872) and lifestyle factors (N = 5168) were examined. RESULTS: We discovered and replicated 15 metabolites associated with cognition including subfractions of high-density lipoprotein, docosahexaenoic acid, ornithine, glutamine, and glycoprotein acetyls. These associations were independent of classical risk factors including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. Six of the cognition-associated metabolites were related to the risk of dementia and lifestyle factors. DISCUSSION: Circulating metabolites were consistently associated with cognition, dementia, and lifestyle factors, opening new avenues for prevention of cognitive decline and dementia.

10.
PLoS Genet ; 13(4): e1006528, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448500

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by ~30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Exercício , Obesidade/genética , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Epigenômica , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
11.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0170325, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107396

RESUMO

Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data. Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by MixFit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available computer programs and scripts one of which was developed in house (available at: www.geenivaramu.ee/en/tools/mixfit).


Assuntos
Genealogia e Heráldica , Genética Populacional , Estudos de Coortes , Estônia , Finlândia , Humanos
12.
Eur J Nutr ; 56(7): 2379-2391, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27469612

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Milk provides a significant source of calcium, protein, vitamins and other minerals to Western populations throughout life. Due to its widespread use, the metabolic and health impact of milk consumption warrants further investigation and biomarkers would aid epidemiological studies. METHODS: Milk intake assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire was analyzed against fasting blood metabolomic profiles from two metabolomic platforms in females from the TwinsUK cohort (n = 3559). The top metabolites were then replicated in two independent populations (EGCUT, n = 1109 and KORA, n = 1593), and the results from all cohorts were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: Four metabolites were significantly associated with milk intake in the TwinsUK cohort after adjustment for multiple testing (P < 8.08 × 10-5) and covariates (BMI, age, batch effects, family relatedness and dietary covariates) and replicated in the independent cohorts. Among the metabolites identified, the carnitine metabolite trimethyl-N-aminovalerate (ß = 0.012, SE = 0.002, P = 2.98 × 10-12) and the nucleotide uridine (ß = 0.004, SE = 0.001, P = 9.86 × 10-6) were the strongest novel predictive biomarkers from the non-targeted platform. Notably, the association between trimethyl-N-aminovalerate and milk intake was significant in a group of MZ twins discordant for milk intake (ß = 0.050, SE = 0.015, P = 7.53 × 10-4) and validated in the urine of 236 UK twins (ß = 0.091, SE = 0.032, P = 0.004). Two metabolites from the targeted platform, hydroxysphingomyelin C14:1 (ß = 0.034, SE = 0.005, P = 9.75 × 10-14) and diacylphosphatidylcholine C28:1 (ß = 0.034, SE = 0.004, P = 4.53 × 10-16), were also replicated. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and replicated in independent populations four novel biomarkers of milk intake: trimethyl-N-aminovalerate, uridine, hydroxysphingomyelin C14:1 and diacylphosphatidylcholine C28:1. Together, these metabolites have potential to objectively examine and refine milk-disease associations.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Metaboloma , Leite/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Avaliação Nutricional , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Uridina/sangue , Uridina/urina , Valeratos/análise , Valeratos/sangue , Valeratos/urina , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11008, 2016 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27020472

RESUMO

Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error. In Asian populations, three genome-wide significant loci AREG, GABRR1 and PDE10A also exhibit strong interactions with education (P<8.5 × 10(-5)), whereas the interactions are less evident in Europeans. The discovery of these loci represents an important advance in understanding how gene and environment interactions contribute to the heterogeneity of myopia.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Meio Ambiente , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Erros de Refração/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11122, 2016 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27005778

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci linked with complex diseases, for which the molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Comprehensive molecular profiling of circulating metabolites captures highly heritable traits, which can help to uncover metabolic pathophysiology underlying established disease variants. We conduct an extended genome-wide association study of genetic influences on 123 circulating metabolic traits quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics from up to 24,925 individuals and identify eight novel loci for amino acids, pyruvate and fatty acids. The LPA locus link with cardiovascular risk exemplifies how detailed metabolic profiling may inform underlying aetiology via extensive associations with very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism. Genetic fine mapping and Mendelian randomization uncover wide-spread causal effects of lipoprotein(a) on overall lipoprotein metabolism and we assess potential pleiotropic consequences of genetically elevated lipoprotein(a) on diverse morbidities via electronic health-care records. Our findings strengthen the argument for safe LPA-targeted intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Metabolômica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lipoproteínas VLDL/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Diabetes Care ; 38(10): 1858-67, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26251408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metformin is used as a first-line oral treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we aimed to comprehensively investigate the pleiotropic effects of metformin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed both metabolomic and genomic data of the population-based KORA cohort. To evaluate the effect of metformin treatment on metabolite concentrations, we quantified 131 metabolites in fasting serum samples and used multivariable linear regression models in three independent cross-sectional studies (n = 151 patients with T2D treated with metformin [mt-T2D]). Additionally, we used linear mixed-effect models to study the longitudinal KORA samples (n = 912) and performed mediation analyses to investigate the effects of metformin intake on blood lipid profiles. We combined genotyping data with the identified metformin-associated metabolites in KORA individuals (n = 1,809) and explored the underlying pathways. RESULTS: We found significantly lower (P < 5.0E-06) concentrations of three metabolites (acyl-alkyl phosphatidylcholines [PCs]) when comparing mt-T2D with four control groups who were not using glucose-lowering oral medication. These findings were controlled for conventional risk factors of T2D and replicated in two independent studies. Furthermore, we observed that the levels of these metabolites decreased significantly in patients after they started metformin treatment during 7 years' follow-up. The reduction of these metabolites was also associated with a lowered blood level of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Variations of these three metabolites were significantly associated with 17 genes (including FADS1 and FADS2) and controlled by AMPK, a metformin target. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that metformin intake activates AMPK and consequently suppresses FADS, which leads to reduced levels of the three acyl-alkyl PCs and LDL-C. Our findings suggest potential beneficial effects of metformin in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Angiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Jejum/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Feminino , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
16.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7208, 2015 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26068415

RESUMO

Metabolites are small molecules involved in cellular metabolism, which can be detected in biological samples using metabolomic techniques. Here we present the results of genome-wide association and meta-analyses for variation in the blood serum levels of 129 metabolites as measured by the Biocrates metabolomic platform. In a discovery sample of 7,478 individuals of European descent, we find 4,068 genome- and metabolome-wide significant (Z-test, P < 1.09 × 10(-9)) associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and metabolites, involving 59 independent SNPs and 85 metabolites. Five of the fifty-nine independent SNPs are new for serum metabolite levels, and were followed-up for replication in an independent sample (N = 1,182). The novel SNPs are located in or near genes encoding metabolite transporter proteins or enzymes (SLC22A16, ARG1, AGPS and ACSL1) that have demonstrated biomedical or pharmaceutical importance. The further characterization of genetic influences on metabolic phenotypes is important for progress in biological and medical research.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos
17.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0119752, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25811787

RESUMO

We tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in a non BMI-stratified overall sample were performed. The former did not uncover any novel locus with a major main effect, but supported modulation of effects for some known and potentially new urate loci. The latter highlighted a SNP at RBFOX3 reaching genome-wide significant level (effect size 0.014, 95% CI 0.008-0.02, Pinter= 2.6 x 10-8). Two top loci in interaction term analyses, RBFOX3 and ERO1LB-EDARADD, also displayed suggestive differences in main effect size between the lean and obese strata. All top ranking loci for urate effect differences between BMI categories were novel and most had small magnitude but opposite direction effects between strata. They include the locus RBMS1-TANK (men, Pdifflean-overweight= 4.7 x 10-8), a region that has been associated with several obesity related traits, and TSPYL5 (men, Pdifflean-overweight= 9.1 x 10-8), regulating adipocytes-produced estradiol. The top-ranking known urate loci was ABCG2, the strongest known gout risk locus, with an effect halved in obese compared to lean men (Pdifflean-obese= 2 x 10-4). Finally, pathway analysis suggested a role for N-glycan biosynthesis as a prominent urate-associated pathway in the lean stratum. These results illustrate a potentially powerful way to monitor changes occurring in obesogenic environment.


Assuntos
Ácido Úrico/sangue , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Receptor Edar/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Gota/genética , Gota/patologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Sobrepeso/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo Enxofre/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 44(4): 1137-47, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24518929

RESUMO

The Estonian Biobank cohort is a volunteer-based sample of the Estonian resident adult population (aged ≥18 years). The current number of participants-close to 52000--represents a large proportion, 5%, of the Estonian adult population, making it ideally suited to population-based studies. General practitioners (GPs) and medical personnel in the special recruitment offices have recruited participants throughout the country. At baseline, the GPs performed a standardized health examination of the participants, who also donated blood samples for DNA, white blood cells and plasma tests and filled out a 16-module questionnaire on health-related topics such as lifestyle, diet and clinical diagnoses described in WHO ICD-10. A significant part of the cohort has whole genome sequencing (100), genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data (20 000) and/or NMR metabolome data (11 000) available (http://www.geenivaramu.ee/for-scientists/data-release/). The data are continuously updated through periodical linking to national electronic databases and registries. A part of the cohort has been re-contacted for follow-up purposes and resampling, and targeted invitations are possible for specific purposes, for example people with a specific diagnosis. The Estonian Genome Center of the University of Tartu is actively collaborating with many universities, research institutes and consortia and encourages fellow scientists worldwide to co-initiate new academic or industrial joint projects with us.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/tendências , Genoma Humano/genética , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estônia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
19.
Brief Bioinform ; 16(1): 39-44, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24008273

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Genome-wide association studies are becoming computationally more demanding with the growing amounts of data. Combinatorial traits can increase the data dimensions beyond the computational capabilities of the current tools. We addressed this issue by creating an application for quick association analysis that is ten to hundreds of times faster than the leading fast methods. Our tool (RegScan) is designed for performing basic linear regression analysis with continuous traits maximally fast on large data sets. RegScan specifically targets association analysis of combinatorial traits in metabolomics. It can both generate and analyze the combinatorial traits efficiently. RegScan is capable of analyzing any number of traits together without the need to specify each trait individually. The main goal of the article is to show that RegScan can be the preferred analytical tool when large amounts of data need to be analyzed quickly using the allele frequency test. AVAILABILITY: Precompiled RegScan (all major platforms), source code, user guide and examples are freely available at www.biobank.ee/regscan. REQUIREMENTS: Qt 4.4.3 or newer for dynamic compilations.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Modelos Lineares
20.
PLoS Med ; 11(2): e1001606, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24586121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification of ambulatory persons at high short-term risk of death could benefit targeted prevention. To identify biomarkers for all-cause mortality and enhance risk prediction, we conducted high-throughput profiling of blood specimens in two large population-based cohorts. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 106 candidate biomarkers were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of non-fasting plasma samples from a random subset of the Estonian Biobank (n = 9,842; age range 18-103 y; 508 deaths during a median of 5.4 y of follow-up). Biomarkers for all-cause mortality were examined using stepwise proportional hazards models. Significant biomarkers were validated and incremental predictive utility assessed in a population-based cohort from Finland (n = 7,503; 176 deaths during 5 y of follow-up). Four circulating biomarkers predicted the risk of all-cause mortality among participants from the Estonian Biobank after adjusting for conventional risk factors: alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (hazard ratio [HR] 1.67 per 1-standard deviation increment, 95% CI 1.53-1.82, p = 5×10⁻³¹), albumin (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.65-0.76, p = 2×10⁻¹8), very-low-density lipoprotein particle size (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.62-0.77, p = 3×10⁻¹²), and citrate (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.45, p = 5×10⁻¹°). All four biomarkers were predictive of cardiovascular mortality, as well as death from cancer and other nonvascular diseases. One in five participants in the Estonian Biobank cohort with a biomarker summary score within the highest percentile died during the first year of follow-up, indicating prominent systemic reflections of frailty. The biomarker associations all replicated in the Finnish validation cohort. Including the four biomarkers in a risk prediction score improved risk assessment for 5-y mortality (increase in C-statistics 0.031, p = 0.01; continuous reclassification improvement 26.3%, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Biomarker associations with cardiovascular, nonvascular, and cancer mortality suggest novel systemic connectivities across seemingly disparate morbidities. The biomarker profiling improved prediction of the short-term risk of death from all causes above established risk factors. Further investigations are needed to clarify the biological mechanisms and the utility of these biomarkers for guiding screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Ácido Cítrico/sangue , Estônia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orosomucoide/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica/análise , Albumina Sérica Humana , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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