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1.
Respiration ; 101(1): 46-56, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thoracoscopy is the "gold standard" diagnostic modality for investigation of suspected pleural malignancy. It is postulated that meticulous assessment of the pleural cavity may be adequate to indicate malignancy through the macroscopic findings of nodules, pleural thickening, and lymphangitis. We attempted to critically assess this practice, by precisely defining objective macroscopic criteria which might differentiate benign from malignant pleural diseases according to intrapleural pattern and anatomical location, and thereby to explore the predilection of abnormalities to specific sites on pleural surfaces. METHODS: A structured review of recorded video footage from medical thoracoscopy procedures in 96 patients was conducted by 2 independent assessors. Abnormalities were scored on agreed, objective criteria for the presence of nodules, lymphangitis and inflammation on each of the costoparietal, visceral and diaphragmatic surfaces. The costoparietal pleura was divided into 6 levels (apical, middle, and inferior surfaces of the lateral and posterior parietal pleura). The anterior surface of the costoparietal pleura was excluded from analysis after interim review as this surface was rarely seen. RESULTS: In the benign group, inflammation was the predominant finding in 65% (n = 33; costoparietal), 44% (n = 21; visceral), and 42% (n = 15; diaphragmatic). Nodules were detected in 24% (n = 12; costoparietal), 8% (n = 4; visceral), and 8% (n = 3; diaphragmatic). The most affected surfaces with inflammation were the middle lateral (60%) and the inferior lateral (57.8%) parts of the costoparietal pleura. In the malignant group, nodules were the predominant finding according to surface in 73% (n = 33; costoparietal), 32% (n = 13; visceral) and 48% (n = 17; diaphragmatic). Inflammation was detected in 44% (n = 20; costoparietal), 25% (n = 10; visceral), and 29% (n = 10; diaphragmatic). The most affected surfaces with nodules were the middle lateral (67.4%) and inferior lateral (66.7%) costoparietal pleural surfaces. CONCLUSION: This is the first detailed, anatomical description of abnormalities in the pleural space during thoracoscopy. While nodules were the predominant pattern in malignant pleural effusion, they were detected in 24% of benign diagnoses. Detection of nodules in >1 area of the costoparietal pleura was in favor of a malignant diagnosis. Inflammation was the predominant pattern in benign pleural effusion. Our results suggest that macroscopic nodules in malignant diagnoses have a predilection for the middle and inferior surfaces of the lateral costoparietal pleura.

2.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory high-dependency units (rHDUs) are used to manage respiratory failure in COVID-19 outside of the intensive care unit (ICU). The alpha variant of COVID-19 has been linked to increased rates of mortality and admission to ICU; however, its impact on a rHDU population is not known. We aimed to compare rHDU outcomes between the two main UK waves of COVID-19 infection and evaluate the impact of the alpha variant on second wave outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre, retrospective analysis of all patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted to the rHDU of our teaching hospital for respiratory support during the first and second main UK waves. RESULTS: In total, 348 patients were admitted to rHDU. In the second wave, mortality (26.7% s vs 50.7% first wave, χ2=14.7, df=1, p=0.0001) and intubation rates in those eligible (24.3% s vs 58.8% first wave, χ2=17.3, df=2, p=0.0002) were improved compared with the first wave. In the second wave, the alpha variant had no effect on mortality (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.60 to 2.32, p=0.64). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (89.5%) and awake proning (85.6%) were used in most patients in the second wave. DISCUSSION: Our single-centre experience shows that rHDU mortality and intubation rates have improved over time in spite of the emergence of the alpha variant. Our data support the use of CPAP and awake proning, although improvements in outcome are likely to be multifactorial.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência Respiratória , Humanos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest drain displacement is a common clinical problem, occurring in 9-42% of cases and results in treatment failure or additional pleural procedures conferring unnecessary risk. A novel chest drain with an integrated intrapleural balloon may reduce the risk of displacement. METHODS: Prospective randomised controlled trial comparing the balloon drain to standard care (12 F chest drain with no balloon) with the primary outcome of objectively-defined unintentional or accidental chest drain displacement. RESULTS: 267 patients were randomised (primary outcome data available in 257, 96.2%). Displacement occurred less frequently using the balloon drain (displacement 5/128, 3.9%; standard care displacement 13/129, 10.1%) but this was not statistically significant (Odds Ratio (OR) for drain displacement 0.36, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.0, χ2 1df=2.87, p=0.09). Adjusted analysis to account for minimisation factors and use of drain sutures demonstrated balloon drains were independently associated with reduced drain fall out rate (adjusted OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.87, p=0.028). Adverse events were higher in the balloon arm than the standard care arm (balloon drain 59/131, 45.0%; standard care 18/132, 13.6%; χ2 1df=31.3, p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Balloon drains reduce displacement compared with standard drains independent of the use of sutures but are associated with increased adverse events specifically during drain removal. The potential benefits of the novel drain should be weighed against the risks, but may be considered in practices where sutures are not routinely used.

4.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963027

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current guidelines recommend an initial pleural aspiration in the investigation and management of suspected malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) with the aim of establishing a diagnosis, identifying non-expansile lung (NEL) and, at times, providing a therapeutic procedure. A wealth of research has been published since the guidelines suggesting that results and outcomes from an aspiration may not always provide sufficient information to guide management. It is important to establish the validity of these findings in a 'real world' population. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients who underwent pleural fluid (PF) sampling, in a single centre, over 3 years to determine the utility of the initial aspiration. RESULTS: A diagnosis of MPE was confirmed in 230/998 (23%) cases, a further 95/998 (9.5%) were presumed to represent MPE. Transudative biochemistry was found in 3% of cases of confirmed MPE. Positive PF cytology was only sufficient to guide management in 45/140 (32%) cases. Evidence of pleural thickening on CT was associated with both negative cytology (χ2 1df=26.27, p<0.001) and insufficient samples (χ2 1df=10.39, p=0.001). In NEL 44.4% of patients did not require further procedures after pleurodesis compared with 72.7% of those with expansile lung (χ2 1df=5.49, p=0.019). In patients who required a combined diagnostic and therapeutic aspiration 106/113 (93.8%) required further pleural procedures. CONCLUSIONS: An initial pleural aspiration does not achieve either definitive diagnosis or therapy in the majority of patients. A new pathway prioritising symptom management while reducing procedures should be considered.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural Maligno/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia , Toracentese/estatística & dados numéricos , Citodiagnóstico , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Derrame Pleural Maligno/etiologia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/patologia , Pleurodese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(3)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura (SFTP), or pleural fibromas, are rare tumours that generally, but not universally, follow a benign course. Surgical resection is the standard treatment, but there are no evidence-based guidelines regarding the management of these tumours. METHODS: Five databases were searched from inception to April 1, 2019 for studies reporting on SFTP management. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria (1542 patients, all non-comparative case series); 98% of these patients underwent resection and all SFTP included were pathologically diagnosed. 394 out of 1299 cases (30.5%, 95% CI 27.8-32.8%) were malignant with recurrence rates of between 0% and 42.9%. A pleural effusion was always associated with a negative outcome, but no other features were consistently reported to have negative associations. Preoperative biopsies incorrectly reported malignant histology in two studies. Over 25% of cases of recurrence occurred when a complete (R0) resection had been achieved. The first recurrence occurred >5 years after the initial resection in at least 23% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: There is strong evidence to support long-term surveillance after surgical resection of SFTP, even where a complete (R0) resection has been achieved; however, there is no clear evidence to inform clinicians regarding the selection of patients who should undergo resection. The rates of malignant SFTP and SFTP recurrence are higher than previously reported. Only those that were pathologically diagnosed or resected were included, which may bias the data towards more aggressive tumours. Data collection on radiologically diagnosed SFTP is required to draw conclusions regarding the timing and need for intervention.

6.
Respirology ; 25(7): 750-755, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chemical pleurodesis is performed for patients with MPE with a published success rate of around 80%. It has been postulated that inflammation is key in achieving successful pleural symphysis, as evidenced by higher amounts of pain or detected inflammatory response. Patients with mesothelioma are postulated to have a lower rate of successful pleurodesis due to lack of normal pleural tissue enabling an inflammatory response. METHODS: The TIME1 trial data set, in which pleurodesis success and pain were co-primary outcome measures, was used to address a number of these assumptions. Pain score, systemic inflammatory parameters as a marker of pleural inflammation and cancer type were analysed in relation to pleurodesis success. RESULTS: In total, 285 patients were included with an overall success rate of 81.4%. There was a significantly higher rise in CRP in the Pleurodesis Success group compared with the Pleurodesis Failure group (mean difference: 19.2, 95% CI of the difference: 6.2-32.0, P = 0.004) but no significant change in WCC. There was no significant difference in pain scores or analgesia requirements between the groups. Patients with mesothelioma had a lower rate of pleurodesis success than non-mesothelioma patients (73.3% vs 84.9%, χ2 = 5.1, P = 0.023). CONCLUSION: Change in CRP during pleurodesis is associated with successful pleurodesis but higher levels of pain are not associated. Patients with mesothelioma appear less likely to undergo successful pleurodesis than patients with other malignancies, but there is still a significant rise in systemic inflammatory markers. The mechanisms of these findings are unclear but warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Dor/imunologia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia , Pleurodese/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Mesotelioma/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derrame Pleural Maligno/etiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/complicações , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Talco/administração & dosagem , Toracoscopia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Respiration ; 97(5): 451-456, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion echogenicity on ultrasound has previously been suggested to allow identification of exudates. A case series suggested that homogenously echogenic effusions are always exudates. With modern imaging techniques and more advanced ultrasound technology, this may no longer be true. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to prospectively assess the predictive value of echogenicity in the identification of exudates. METHOD: Patients undergoing thoracic ultrasound before pleural fluid sampling were analysed prospectively (n = 140). Pleural fluid was classified as an exudate if both fluid total protein (TP) > 29 g/L and fluid lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 2/3 upper limit of normal serum LDH (which is 255 IU/L in females and 235 IU/L in males) were present. If only one of these criteria was met, the effusion was considered to have discordant biochemistry. RESULTS: Fifty-five (39%) patients had non-echogenic and 85 (61%) had echogenic effusions. Six (7.1%) patients with echogenic effusions had transudates; the median fluid TP for this group was 18.5 g/L (IQR 9.75) and median LDH 63.0 IU/L (IQR 40.3). The specificity of echogenicity identifying exudates from transudates, excluding patients with discordant biochemistry, was 57.1%, positive predictive value (PPV) 90.3%, sensitivity 65.1%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 21.0%. The specificity of echogenicity identifying exudates (including discordant biochemistry) from transudates was 57.1%, PPV 92.9%, sensitivity 62.7%, and NPV 14.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Echogenicity of a pleural effusion has a low specificity for identifying an underlying exudate, and the echogenic qualities of the fluid should not influence clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sistema Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
ERJ Open Res ; 5(1)2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723732

RESUMO

Prior talc pleurodesis does not result in worsened outcomes from subsequent indwelling pleural catheter use, and patients should not be dissuaded from choosing talc as a primary treatment for recurrent pleural effusion. http://ow.ly/qAAC30mYmr3.

9.
Respiration ; 97(1): 70-77, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indwelling pleural catheters (IPC) offer an alternative to talc pleurodesis in recurrent effusion, especially in patients wishing to avoid hospitalization. Two randomized trials have demonstrated reduced time in hospital using IPCs versus talc pleurodesis in malignant pleural effusion (MPE). However, the impact of IPCs on hospital services and patients has not been well studied. OBJECTIVES: To analyze long-term outcomes of IPCs and understand the hospital burden in terms of requirement for hospital visits and contacts with healthcare, while the IPC was in situ. METHODS: IPC insertions in a tertiary pleural center were analyzed retrospectively. Reviews of patients with IPCs in situ considered "additional" to routine clinical follow-up were defined pre-hoc. RESULTS: A total of 202 cases were analyzed: 89.6% MPE group (n = 181) and 10.4% non-MPE group (n = 21). There were a median 3.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 3) and 2.0 (IQR 2) ipsilateral pleural procedures prior to each IPC insertion in non-MPE and MPE groups, respectively (p = 0.26), and a mean 1.3 (SD 1.7) planned IPC-related outpatient follow-up visits per patient. There were 2 (9.5%) and 14 (7.7%) IPC-related infections in non-MPE and MPE groups, respectively. Four (19.0%) and 44 (24.3%) patients required additional IPC-related reviews in non-MPE and MPE groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and these occurred within 250 days post IPC insertion. CONCLUSIONS: Although IPCs decrease initial length of hospital stay compared to talc pleurodesis via chest drain, IPCs are associated with significant hospital-visit burden, in addition to planned visits and regular home IPC drainages. IPC-using services need to be prepared for this additional work to run an IPC service effectively.


Assuntos
Cateteres de Demora , Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia , Pleurodese/instrumentação , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Talco/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Chest ; 154(5): 1115-1120, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is common and imposes a significant burden on patients and health-care providers. Most patients require definitive treatment, usually drainage and chemical pleurodesis, to relieve symptoms and prevent fluid recurrence. Thoracic ultrasound (TUS) can identify the presence of pleural adhesions in other clinical scenarios, and could therefore have a role in predicting long-term pleurodesis success or failure in MPE. METHODS: Patients undergoing chest tube drainage and talc slurry pleurodesis for symptomatic MPE were recruited to a prospective observational cohort pilot study assessing whether TUS findings pre-talc and post-talc instillation predicted treatment outcome. Participants underwent TUS examination immediately before, and 24 h after talc slurry administration to derive pleural adherence scores for the affected hemithorax. The recorded TUS scans were additionally scored by two independent assessors blinded to the patient's clinical status. The primary outcome was pleurodesis success at 1-month and 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: Eighteen participants were recruited to the pilot study. Participants who suffered pleurodesis failure had a lower pleural adherence score at 24 h post-talc instillation than those who were successful (difference of 6.27; 95% CI, 3.94-8.59). TUS examination was acceptable to patients, while TUS scoring was highly consistent across all assessors (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.762; 95% CI, 0.605-0.872). CONCLUSION: A TUS-derived pleural adherence score may facilitate early prediction of long-term outcomes following chemical pleurodesis, with implications for personalized care and decision making in MPE. Further research is needed to evaluate this novel finding. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No. NCT02625675; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Drenagem , Cavidade Pleural , Derrame Pleural Maligno , Pleurodese , Talco/uso terapêutico , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Idoso , Antiperspirantes/uso terapêutico , Drenagem/efeitos adversos , Drenagem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Cavidade Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Pleural/patologia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia , Pleurodese/efeitos adversos , Pleurodese/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Prevenção Secundária , Aderências Teciduais/complicações , Aderências Teciduais/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Respiration ; 96(1): 48-51, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest drains often become displaced and require replacement, adding unnecessary risks to patients. Simple measures such as suturing of the drain may reduce fall-out rates; however, there is no direct data to demonstrate this and no standardized recommended practice that is evidence based. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to analyze the rate of chest drain fall out according to suturing practice. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all chest drain insertions (radiology and pleural teams) in 2015-2016. Details of chest drain fall out were collected from patient electronic records. Drain "fall out" was pre-hoc defined as the drain tip becoming dislodged outside the pleural cavity unintentionally before a clinical decision was taken to remove the drain. RESULTS: A total of 369 chest drains were inserted: sutured (n = 106, 28.7%; 44 male [41.5%], median age 74 [interquartile range (IQR) 21] years), and unsutured (n = 263, 71.3%; 139 male [52.9%], median age 68 [IQR 21] years). Of the sutured drains, 7 (6.6%) fell out after a mean of 3.3 days (SD 2.6) compared to 39 (14.8%; p = 0.04) unsutured drains falling out after a mean of 2.7 days (SD 2.0; p = 0.8). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limits of this retrospective analysis, these results -suggest that suturing of drains is associated with lower fall-out rates.


Assuntos
Tubos Torácicos , Drenagem/instrumentação , Técnicas de Sutura , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Falha de Tratamento
13.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(7): 930-939, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of malignant pleural effusion is increasing worldwide, but prognostic biomarkers to plan treatment and to understand the underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain unidentified. The PROMISE study was designed with the objectives to discover, validate, and prospectively assess biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis response in malignant pleural effusion and build a score that predicts survival. METHODS: In this multicohort study, we used five separate and independent datasets from randomised controlled trials to investigate potential biomarkers of survival and pleurodesis. Mass spectrometry-based discovery was used to investigate pleural fluid samples for differential protein expression in patients from the discovery group with different survival and pleurodesis outcomes. Clinical, radiological, and biological variables were entered into least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression to build a model that predicts 3-month mortality. We evaluated the model using internal and external validation. FINDINGS: 17 biomarker candidates of survival and seven of pleurodesis were identified in the discovery dataset. Three independent datasets (n=502) were used for biomarker validation. All pleurodesis biomarkers failed, and gelsolin, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, versican, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) emerged as accurate predictors of survival. Eight variables (haemoglobin, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, cancer type, pleural fluid TIMP1 concentrations, and previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy) were validated and used to develop a survival score. Internal validation with bootstrap resampling and external validation with 162 patients from two independent datasets showed good discrimination (C statistic values of 0·78 [95% CI 0·72-0·83] for internal validation and 0·89 [0·84-0·93] for external validation of the clinical PROMISE score). INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, the PROMISE score is the first prospectively validated prognostic model for malignant pleural effusion that combines biological and clinical parameters to accurately estimate 3-month mortality. It is a robust, clinically relevant prognostic score that can be applied immediately, provide important information on patient prognosis, and guide the selection of appropriate management strategies. FUNDING: European Respiratory Society, Medical Research Funding-University of Oxford, Slater & Gordon Research Fund, and Oxfordshire Health Services Research Committee Research Grants.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Derrame Pleural Maligno/mortalidade , Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia , Pleurodese/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derrame Pleural Maligno/sangue , Pleurodese/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Chest ; 154(4): 766-772, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29524388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleural infection is a common complication of pneumonia associated with high mortality and poor clinical outcome. Treatment of pleural infection relies on the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics because reliable pathogen identification occurs infrequently. We performed a feasibility interventional clinical study assessing the safety and significance of ultrasound (US)-guided pleural biopsy culture to increase microbiological yield. In an exploratory investigation, the 16S ribosomal RNA technique was applied to assess its utility on increasing speed and accuracy vs standard microbiological diagnosis. METHODS: Twenty patients with clinically established pleural infection were recruited. Participants underwent a detailed US scan and US-guided pleural biopsies before chest drain insertion, alongside standard clinical management. Pleural biopsies and routine clinical samples (pleural fluid and blood) were submitted for microbiological analysis. RESULTS: US-guided pleural biopsies were safe with no adverse events. US-guided pleural biopsies increased microbiological yield by 25% in addition to pleural fluid and blood samples. The technique provided a substantially higher microbiological yield compared with pleural fluid and blood culture samples (45% compared with 20% and 10%, respectively). The 16S ribosomal RNA technique was successfully applied to pleural biopsy samples, demonstrating high sensitivity (93%) and specificity (89.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the safety of US-guided pleural biopsies in patients with pleural infection and a substantial increase in microbiological diagnosis, suggesting potential niche of infection in this disease. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction primer assessment of pleural fluid and biopsy appears to have excellent sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Pleura/patologia , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Doenças Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 197(4): 502-508, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926296

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Patients with malignant pleural effusion experience breathlessness, which is treated by drainage and pleurodesis. Incomplete drainage results in residual dyspnea and pleurodesis failure. Intrapleural fibrinolytics lyse septations within pleural fluid, improving drainage. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of intrapleural urokinase on dyspnea and pleurodesis success in patients with nondraining malignant effusion. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial. Patients with nondraining effusion were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to intrapleural urokinase (100,000 IU, three doses, 12-hourly) or matched placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Co-primary outcome measures were dyspnea (average daily 100-mm visual analog scale scores over 28 d) and time to pleurodesis failure to 12 months. Secondary outcomes were survival, hospital length of stay, and radiographic change. A total of 71 subjects were randomized (36 received urokinase, 35 placebo) from 12 U.K. centers. The baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There was no difference in mean dyspnea between groups (mean difference, 3.8 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], -12 to 4.4 mm; P = 0.36). Pleurodesis failure rates were similar (urokinase, 13 of 35 [37%]; placebo, 11 of 34 [32%]; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.2; P = 0.65). Urokinase was associated with decreased effusion size visualized by chest radiography (adjusted relative improvement, -19%; 95% CI, -28 to -11%; P < 0.001), reduced hospital stay (1.6 d; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.6; P = 0.049), and improved survival (69 vs. 48 d; P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Use of intrapleural urokinase does not reduce dyspnea or improve pleurodesis success compared with placebo and cannot be recommended as an adjunct to pleurodesis. Other palliative treatments should be used. Improvements in hospital stay, radiographic appearance, and survival associated with urokinase require further evaluation. Clinical trial registered with ISRCTN (12852177) and EudraCT (2008-000586-26).


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Derrame Pleural Maligno/enzimologia , Pleurodese/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Respir Med ; 132: 117-121, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229083

RESUMO

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multi-system fibro-inflammatory disorder with classical histopathological findings, often in the context of elevated serum IgG4 levels. The thoracic manifestations of IgG4-RD are numerous and can mimic several common and better known conditions. The objective of this study was to outline the frequency and nature of thoracic involvement in a prospective cohort of IgG4-RD patients who met defined diagnostic criteria. Over 40% of IgG4-RD patients had clinicoradiological and/or histological evidence of thoracic involvement, predominantly mediastinal lymphadenopathy, the majority associated with multi-system disease outside the chest. Thoracic involvement was associated with a higher serum IgG4 level, potentially representing greater disease activity or spread. Our data highlight the diverse nature of thoracic IgG4-RD, and the importance of knowledge and recognition of the condition among respiratory physicians who are likely to encounter this disease entity on an increasing basis.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/imunologia , Linfadenopatia/imunologia , Mediastinite/imunologia , Doenças Pleurais/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/etiologia , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Linfadenopatia/etiologia , Linfadenopatia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mediastinite/etiologia , Mediastinite/fisiopatologia , Mediastino/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Pleurais/etiologia , Doenças Pleurais/fisiopatologia , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
18.
Curr Pulmonol Rep ; 6(1): 26-29, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28344925

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Small-bore chest tubes are widely used in the management of common pleural disease. Guidelines suggest that patients with malignant pleural effusions, pneumothorax and pleural infection may be successfully managed with small-bore drains. However, good quality data is often lacking. This article reviews the evidence for the treatment efficacy and potential adverse effects of different chest tube sizes. RECENT FINDINGS: In a large randomised study, the small difference in pain scores between large and small drains was not clinically significant. However, small-bore chest tubes commonly suffer from blockage or inadvertent removal, and may not be as effective in providing successful pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions. SUMMARY: Although they may be effective in managing pleural infection, and less painful than large drains, small bore drains may be less effective for pleurodesis.

20.
Respirology ; 21(2): 392-5, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26545413

RESUMO

Patients with an unexplained pleural effusion often require urgent investigation. Clinical practice varies due to uncertainty as to whether an effusion should be drained completely before diagnostic imaging. We performed a retrospective study of patients undergoing medical thoracoscopy for an unexplained effusion. In 110 patients with paired (pre- and post-drainage) chest X-rays and 32 patients with paired computed tomography scans, post-drainage imaging did not provide additional information that would have influenced the clinical decision-making process.


Assuntos
Drenagem , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Toracoscopia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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