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1.
Brain Behav ; : e02204, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early seizures have been recognized as serious complications of ischemic strokes where the data are limited among Lebanese patients. This study aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors of early seizures postischemic stroke and to determine the effect of early seizures on functional outcome among Lebanese stroke patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study conducted between January 2017 and March 2020 on patients with acute ischemic strokes at two tertiary hospitals in Lebanon. Data were collected from patients' medical records at each site through a well-designed data collection sheet. Early seizures were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days after acute stroke. Functional outcome was assessed at discharge, according to modified Rankin scale (mRS). RESULTS: Of 140 enrolled patients, early seizure developed in 12 patients (8.6%) with mean age of 68.42 ± 9.89 years and 8 (67%) were females. Independent risk factors for early seizure development were female gender and cortical involvement. Moreover, early seizure development was not associated with higher disability and mortality at hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study highlight that early seizures occurred more commonly in patients with cortical involvement and female gender. In addition, early seizures did not impair functional outcome in our study, however; further studies are needed to predict patients at risk of early seizure so that appropriate prevention and treatment strategies can be implemented promptly.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682724

RESUMO

Food addiction is currently not an official diagnosis (as a standalone disorder substance-related and addictive disorder) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research on differences between addictive-like eating behavior regarding its associations with psychological distress, eating behaviors and physical activity among individuals with obesity. The objective of the present study was to distinguish psychological and behavioral patterns of individuals with obesity concerning food addiction using a cluster analysis. We determined the profiles of the participants in terms of psychological distress, eating behaviors and physical activity and evaluated their association with food addiction. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and November 2020, during the lockdown period imposed by the government for the COVID-19 pandemic. A sample of 507 individuals with obesity aged between 18 and 65 years participated in the present study by filling in the online questionnaire, including the validated Arabic version of the modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale, the Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A cluster analysis was performed using the K-mean method to identify and group participants according to their patterns/profiles. A stepwise linear regression was conducted, taking the food addiction score as the dependent variable. Higher levels of uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and stress were significantly associated with higher food addiction score. Belonging to cluster 2 (psychological well-being and cognitive restraint) (B = 14.49) or cluster 3 (moderate psychological distress and cognitive restraint) (B = 6.67) compared to cluster 1 (psychological well-being, appropriate physical activity levels and eating behaviors) was significantly associated with higher food addiction score. The present research revealed that food addiction is significantly associated with higher psychological distress and maladaptive eating behaviors. Higher levels of uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and stress as well as belonging to clusters 2 and 3 were found to be predictors of food addiction in individuals with obesity in the present study. This knowledge could be useful in regard to psychological treatment of obesity and addictive-like eating behavior.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1820, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphomas are ranked as the fifth most common cancer in Lebanon. There is concern about the need of information regarding the prevalence of lymphoid neoplasm particularly Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes in the Lebanese population. This study intended to establish a descriptive status of NHL histological subtypes distribution in Lebanon thus identifying the most common types, knowing that the literature is poor regarding the distribution of lymphoid malignancies particularly NHLs in Lebanon. METHODS: A bicenter retrospective descriptive study was performed. Patients aged above 18, diagnosed with NHL between January 1984 and March 2019 and registered in two Lebanese Medical centers were included in this study; 699 medical files were reviewed and the baseline characteristics of the disease were collected. Histological classification was based on the Working Formulation (WF) and World Health Organization (WHO) classification systems, whereas staging was based on the Ann Arbor system. Disease status was monitored with imaging studies. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 53.52 ± 17.46 years in the studied population, with 380 (54.4%) males and 319 (45.6%) females. B-cell lymphoma (BCL) accounted for 86.3% while T-cell neoplasms accounted for 13.7%. The most common subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (54%) followed by follicular lymphoma (FL) (17.2%). Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) represented 3% of all BCL and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) comprised less than 2%. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and Burkitt's lymphomas represented 3 and 1.7% respectively. 36.5% of the patients had extranodal disease at diagnosis. High-grade tumor represented 80.1% with 33.1% stage IV disease. CONCLUSION: These observations indicate that the epidemiological patterns of NHLs in Lebanon were comparable to Western countries. Aggressive lymphomas account for the majority of NHLs in Lebanon.

4.
J Eat Disord ; 9(1): 130, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthorexia Nervosa (ON) is defined as a pathological preoccupation characterized by obsessive beliefs and compulsive behaviors regarding 'pure' eating behaviors. Many scales have been established and display good results regarding reliability and validity measures, including but not limited to ORTO-R (revised version of ORTO-15), Eating Habits Questionnaire, Teruel Orthorexia Scale (TOS) and the Düsseldorf Orthorexia Scale (DOS). Among these, the DOS seems to be a promising measure for multiple reasons. The current paper aims to validate the DOS, a measure of ON, in a non-Western population of Lebanese adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional designed study, conducted between May and June 2020, which enrolled 555 adolescents (15-18 years old; 75.7% females). Due the coronavirus pandemic outbreak, the data were gathered through snowball sampling using an online questionnaire. The DOS, TOS and ORTO-R scales were used in this study to screen for orthorexic tendencies and behaviors. RESULTS: We tested four competing structural models of the DOS assessing its factorial validity. The results of the current investigation revealed that the one-factorial model is the best one to represent the structure of the questionnaire. We provided evidence for validity for the DOS through demonstrating that it correlates significantly with other measures of orthorexic behaviours (Teruel Orthorexia Scale and ORTO-R). Finally, we have gathered evidence that the orthorexic behaviours as measured by DOS are not associated with age (r = -.02; p = .589), household crowding index (r = .02; p = .578), and Body Mass Index (r = .04; p = .297). Yet, females as compared to males achieved higher scores (M = 20.07, SD = 6.38 vs M = 18.29, SD = 6.37; p = .005; d = .28). CONCLUSION: The Arabic version of the DOS seems to be a structurally valid and internally consistent questionnaire measuring orthorexic eating behavior in a sample of Lebanese adolescents. This tool may be useful for psychologists, psychiatrists, dietitians and other clinicians in the assessment and the treatment of the multidimensional nature of ON.

5.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 455, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Lebanon, divorce rates have jumped from nearly 7000 in recent years to 8580 in 2017, an increase of 22.5%, with North Lebanon recording the highest number, followed by Beirut, likely resulting in increased behavioral problems in the offspring of divorced parents. Furthermore, one out of two Lebanese adolescents whose biological parents were divorced, separated, or deceased has a psychiatric disorder. More information regarding the impact of divorce on the mental health of Lebanese adolescents is still missing. The objective of this study was to explore the association between divorce and mental health outcomes, particularly depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Lebanese adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted between January and May 2019 enrolled 1810 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years, using a simple randomization method to choose schools. A proportionate number of schools was selected from each of the five Lebanese Mohafazat (Beirut, Mount Lebanon, North, South, and Beqaa), based on the list of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education. A total of 18 private schools were approached; two declined, and 16 accepted to participate. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 15.42 ± 1.14 years, with 53.3% females. After adjustment for the covariates (age, sex, and house crowding index), the results showed that adolescents whose parents are separated compared to living together had more social fear (Standardized Beta (SB = 0.270) and avoidance (SB = 0.188), higher depression (SB = 0.045), and higher suicidal ideation (SB = 0.370). CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal that teens with divorced parents had higher social fear and avoidance, depression, and suicidal ideation, highlighting the need for adequate prevention programs to support both children and parents during this emotionally difficult period.

6.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 19(3): 2364, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621448

RESUMO

Background: The patient's evaluation of treatment and its associated outcomes define the treatment satisfaction. The quality of treatment satisfaction and healthcare service has been affected by depression, anxiety and fear of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Objective: Therefore, this study aimed to assess factors associated with treatment satisfaction among Lebanese inpatients with schizophrenia, namely depression, anxiety and fear of COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and November 2020, enrolled 118 patients with chronic schizophrenia consecutively admitted to Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Lebanon. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Treatment Satisfaction-Patient Satisfaction Scale (FACIT-TS-PS) was used to assess treatment satisfaction, the Lebanese Anxiety Scale -10 (LAS-10) was used to assess anxiety, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) to assess depression and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale to assess the level of fear of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The mean scores of the scales were as follows: treatment satisfaction (65.20; SD 16.11; median=71), LAS-10 (13.65; SD 6.02), MADRS (9.09; SD 6.69) and fear of COVID-19 (18.59; SD 6.78). Higher depression (r= -0.46, p<0.001) was significantly associated with lower treatment satisfaction. Female gender (beta=7.51, p=0.029) was significantly associated with higher treatment satisfaction score. Fear of COVID-19 did not show any significant association with the treatment satisfaction score. Conclusions: Results of this study found that depression and gender were associated with treatment satisfaction among inpatients with schizophrenia. No association has been found between fear of COVID-19 and treatment satisfaction among those patients. More research is warranted to evaluate treatment satisfaction and associated factors among chronic inpatients with schizophrenia, specifically during the COVID-19 pandemic, in order to improve treatment satisfaction and subjective well-being of patients.

7.
Arch Pediatr ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Early sexual initiation is known to be associated with deleterious health outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors (bullying, weight status, smoking and alcohol consumption, peer influence, relations with parents) associated with the initiation of sexual intercourse among Lebanese adolescents in schools. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was formed using a convenient sampling of Lebanese students (n=1635) in private schools from Beirut and Mount Lebanon. RESULTS: Younger age of adolescents at first sexual intercourse was significantly associated with finding it very easy to talk about things that worry them with an older brother, having a best friend who drinks sometimes compared to no drinking, and a best friend who smokes sometimes or every day compared to not smoking. Moreover, older age at the first sexual relationship was significantly associated with female gender (HRa=0.25), as was older age at first time drinking alcohol, first time getting drunk, and smoking cigarettes. CONCLUSION: This study sheds light on some of the factors associated with age at first sexual intercourse in Lebanese adolescents.

8.
J Eat Disord ; 9(1): 134, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder among the adolescent population. The available literature in the Middle East in general, and Lebanon specifically, is relatively scarce and/or outdated. The objectives of this study were to (1) validate the Binge Eating Scale (BES) for use in Lebanese adolescents, and (2) assess correlates of binge eating behavior among this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted between May and June 2020, enrolling 555 adolescents between the ages of 15-18 years old from all Lebanese governorates. The Binge Eating Scale was used to screen for the presence/absence of binge eating. RESULTS: A confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the one-factorial model fits the data best. The results of a linear regression, taking the binge eating score as the dependent variable, showed that higher body dissatisfaction, more alcohol use disorder, higher depression, vomiting to lose weight and starving to lose weight were significantly associated with more binge eating. Higher self-esteem was significantly associated with less binge eating. CONCLUSION: The Arabic Version of the BES scale seems to be a reliable tool to be used in Lebanese adolescents for the assessment of binge eating. More body dissatisfaction, lower self-esteem, increased depressive symptoms were associated with more binge eating. We hope this tool will be a reliable one to be used in epidemiological studies and research about eating behaviors/disorders. The results showed that higher body dissatisfaction, higher depression, vomiting to lose weight and starving to lose weight were significantly associated with more binge eating. Our study also showed that the Binge Eating Scale is an adapted and validated tool to be used among Lebanese adolescents for the assessment of binge eating. We hope that the study results will help clinicians in the screening and management of Binge Eating behaviors among Lebanese adolescents.

9.
F1000Res ; 10: 793, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504688

RESUMO

Background: Non-communicable diseases, the major cause of death and disability, are susceptible to modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by 4-5 times and can lead to cardiovascular mortality. This study was conducted to assess the effects of different sociodemographic factors on stroke development in patients with AF. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2018 on patients recruited from Lebanese community pharmacies. The CHA 2DS 2-VASc scoring system is utilized as a stroke risk stratification tool in AF patients. Participants with a previous physician diagnosis of AF, documented on medical records, were included in this study. Results: A total of 524 patients were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 58.75 (± SD) ± 13.59 years with hypertension (78.38%) being the most predominant disease. The results showed that obesity (Beta=0.610, p-value =0.011), retirement and unemployment compared to employment (Beta=1.440 and 1.440, p-value=0.001 respectively), divorced/widow compared to married (Beta=1.380, p-value =0.001) were significantly associated with higher CHA 2DS 2-VASc scores whereas high versus low socio-economic status (Beta=-1.030, p=0.009) and high school education versus primary education level (Beta=-0.490, p-value=0.025) were significantly associated with lower CHA 2DS 2-VASc scores. Conclusions: The study highlights that the CHA 2DS 2-VASc score is affected by the presence of various sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics in patients with AF. Thus, screening for those factors may predict the progression of cardiovascular disease and may provide an optimal intervention.

10.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 136, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults all over the world face serious issues from problematic smartphone use (PSU). It influences them negatively on a cognitive, behavioral, and emotional level, as well as on their tendencies and well-being. In Lebanon, the prevalence of PSU was shown to be 20.2% within the adult population, specifically with young adults (18-34 years old). This study investigates the validity and reliability of the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) Arabic version. In addition, this study evaluates the association between PSU and affective temperaments and the mediating role of self-esteem in this association. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out between August and September 2020, using a sample of community-dwelling participants aged 18 to 29 years. The Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version was used to evaluate smartphone addiction among adolescents and adults. The five different temperaments of the patients were assessed by using the Affective temperament Scale (TEMPS-A). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to evaluate self-esteem. RESULTS: 461 participants were included in this study. All items of the SAS were extracted and yielded a one-factor solution with Eigenvalues > 1 (variance explained = 49.96%; αCronbach = 0.886). The confirmatory analysis results consolidated those obtained from the factor analysis. Higher depressive temperament (B = 0.46) was significantly associated with more smartphone addiction, whereas higher self-esteem (B = - 0.28) was significantly associated with less smartphone addiction. Self-esteem was found to mediate the association between depressive and hyperthymic temperaments with smartphone addiction. CONCLUSION: This study added a better understanding of the high smartphone addiction rate among adults in Lebanon. It confirms the association between affective temperaments and PSU through the mediating effect of self-esteem on Lebanese adults.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Temperamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1627, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salameh et al. developed the Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11) that assesses nicotine dependence among adult waterpipe smokers. In view of the high waterpipe use among Lebanese youth and other neighboring countries, it was deemed necessary to check the psychometric properties of the LWDS-11, originally adapted to the Lebanese population, to measure nicotine dependence among adolescents. METHODS: Two cross-sectional investigations were conducted; Study 1 (January and May 2019) enrolled a total of 449 students who were exclusive waterpipe smokers; this sample was used to conduct the exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 enrolled another sample composed of 243 waterpipe smoking adolescents. This sample was independent from the first one and was used to conduct the confirmatory analysis. RESULTS: The results also showed that 312 (69.5%) [95% CI 0.652-0.738] had high waterpipe dependence (scores of ≥10). Results of the factor analysis in sample 1 showed that all LWDS-11 items were extracted following the factor analysis. Items converged over a solution of one factor; total variance explained = 70.45%, αCronbach = 0.96). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis were as follows: the Maximum Likelihood Chi-Square = 129.58 and Degrees of Freedom = 45, which gave a χ2/df = 2.88. For non-centrality fit indices, the Steiger-Lind Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.08 [0.071-0.106]. Moreover, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) value was 0.77. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results suggest that the LWDS-11 has good psychometric properties to measure waterpipe dependence among adolescents. We hope this tool would serve the benefit of research and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Tabagismo , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1664, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is one of the most prevalent skin diseases responsible for dermatological consultations. Several internal and external factors can affect acne occurrence and severity. Outdoor air pollution is an external factor discussed to trigger inflammation of the skin. The objective of this study was to find a link between the exposure to ambient air pollution and inflammatory acne occurrence in the Lebanese adult population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, using an online questionnaire to collect the required data from different Lebanese regions. The survey covered pollution exposure questions as well as queries on several factors known to have a role on acne occurrence. RESULTS: A total of 372 participants were included in the study, aged 18 to 55 years old. The results of a logistic regression taking the presence/absence of acne as the dependent variable, showed that female gender (aOR = 4.39), younger age (aOR = 1.05), using hydrating cream (aOR = 4.30), working near a power plant vs not (aOR = 3.07), having a severe NO2 exposure compared to none (aOR = 8.24), a higher number of family members with acne or history of acne (aOR = 1.48) were significantly associated with higher odds of having acne, whereas having a dry skin compared to normal (aOR = 0.20) was significantly associated with lower odds of having acne. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of inflammatory acne in Lebanese adults was found to be associated with ambient exposure to high levels of NO2 and employment near a power plant known to emit CO2, CO, SO2, NO2 and PM. Therefore, our findings can serve as a first step towards implementing awareness on a skin care routine suitable for highly polluted areas.

13.
Psychiatry Investig ; 18(9): 871-878, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association of increased smartphone screen time with insomnia, bedtime procrastination, depression, anxiety, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was performed for university students from all regions of Lebanon during the lockdown. The survey included questionnaires about smartphone screen time, diet, physical activity, psychological symptoms, and bedtime procrastination. We defined 6 hours of smartphone use as critical based on a survey done in United States. RESULTS: Among female students, smartphone use duration, physical activity levels, BMI, depression, anxiety, and insomnia severity were significantly higher than in male. When we stratified participants based on 6 hours of smartphone use, females, unhealthy food consumption, insomnia, anxiety, depression, and bedtime procrastination were significantly higher in the group with ≥6 hours of smartphone use. When we divided based on 7 hours, physical activity and body weight also differed between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female, overweight, insomnia, and bedtime procrastination were significant predictors of a phone screen time of 7 hours. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that adults should be more cautious and responsible when using smartphones and be more concerned about the health-related risks.

14.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(3): 442-449, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522411

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the association between sociodemographic characteristics and antibiotic knowledge in the Lebanese population. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in community pharmacies across all Lebanese governorates. Data were collected by well-trained pharmacists through face-to-face interviews from January until March 2017. The survey tool was adapted from a questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. A knowledge index was computed for comparative purposes and a linear regression model was performed to assess factors associated with knowledge. Results: A total of 623 participants were included in the analysis of this study (response rate: 90.6%). The mean antibiotic knowledge index was 12.5 ± 3.2 (minimum score: 3 and maximum score: 19). Higher knowledge score was inversely correlated with age (r = -0.118; P = 0.003), but no gender differences were reported (females: 12.6 versus males: 12.3; P = 0.191). However, statistically significant differences were found for residence type (P = 0.002), educational level (P <0.001) and total household income categories (P <0.001). The linear regression model showed a significant association between residence type and knowledge (urban versus rural: ß = 0.793; P = 0.011). Furthermore, a higher knowledge index was significantly associated with a higher income combined with higher education (additive scale/ß = 1.590; P = 0.025). Finally, interactions between income and age, gender and residence type were not significant. Conclusion: Individuals residing in urban areas, with combined high income and educational levels, are more knowledgeable about antibiotics use and resistance compared to other groups. More studies are needed to assess the interaction of sociodemographic interactions with health literacy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacêuticos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Schizophr Res Cogn ; 26: 100207, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522626

RESUMO

Objective: The primary objective was to evaluate social cognitive complaints in a sample of chronic in-patients with schizophrenia and compare it to healthy controls. The secondary objective was to explore factors related to social cognitive complaints in these patients, such as neurocognition, clinical symptoms, depression, and insight. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted between July 2019 and March 2020 at the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross (HPC)-Lebanon enrolled 120 chronic in-patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders and 60 healthy controls. The Self-Assessment of Social Cognition Impairments (ACSo) scale was used to assess social cognitive complaints. Results: A significant difference was found between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls in all social cognitive complaints: theory of mind complaint, attributional biases complaint, emotional processes complaint, and social perception and knowledge complaint (p < 0.001 for all). All objective cognitive disorders were significantly associated with social cognitive complaints except for attention and speed of information processing. Higher verbal memory and verbal fluency were significantly associated with lower emotional processes complaint scores. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that a higher cognition (Beta = -0.08, p = 0.001) was significantly associated with a lower social cognitive complaint, contrary a higher depression (Beta = 0.38, p = 0.04) was significantly associated with a higher social cognitive complaint, in particular attributional biases complaints. Conclusion: This study showed that patients with schizophrenia have complaints about their social cognition. It could also demonstrate that subjective social cognitive complaints are correlated with depressive symptoms and objective cognitive deficits among these patients.

16.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Order of Pharmacists of Lebanon, the official pharmacists' association in Lebanon, had suggested a core competencies framework based on global and international frameworks and adapted to the local context. The objective of this study was to validate the structure of this comprehensive set of competencies in the Lebanese context of pharmacy practice. METHODS: The framework structure was assessed through multiple factor analyses, correlational and reliability measures of self-declared assessment, based on a cross-sectional survey of practising pharmacists. KEY FINDINGS: The framework had adequate structural validity and reliability: all measured coefficients were of appropriate magnitude. Behaviours adequately loaded on competencies, and competencies adequately loaded on domains and the entire framework. The exploratory factor analysis showed an adequate distribution of competencies in domains. Domains were also inter-correlated, without over-correlation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are an essential step towards standardizing pharmacy competencies in Lebanon and show that the Lebanese core competencies framework developed by the Order of Pharmacists of Lebanon is structurally valid and reliable, although not yet applied in the Lebanese educational system. This tool would be helpful to assess the minimum competencies of pharmacists upon and after graduation.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1583, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Waterpipe and cigarette smoking dependence are becoming increasingly prevalent forms of addiction globally. This study examined whether cumulative cigarette smoking and cumulative waterpipe smoking are associated with higher dependence on both cigarettes and waterpipe. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted between February and April 2020, enrolled 363 participants drawn from all Lebanese districts. The mean age was 29.51 years, 64.8% were females, and 124 (34.2%) exclusive cigarette smokers, 189 (52.1%) exclusive waterpipe smokers, and 50 (13.8%) dual smokers (waterpipe and cigarette). We used the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) as an indicator of decreased autonomy towards nicotine, in addition to the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale-11 (LWDS11) and the Lebanese Cigarette Dependence scale (LCD). A stepwise linear regression was performed taking the HONC scores due to cigarette and waterpipe smoking, LCD and LWDS-11 scores as dependent variables. RESULTS: The results showed that in the total sample, higher cumulative cigarette smoking (B = 0.005 with a confidence interval of 0.004, 0.006) was significantly associated with higher HONC cigarette scores, whereas higher cumulative waterpipe smoking (B = -0.006 with a confidence interval of - 0.009, - 0.002) was significantly associated with lower HONC cigarette scores. Moreover, higher cumulative waterpipe smoking (B = 0.012 with a confidence interval of 0.009,0.015) was significantly associated with higher HONC waterpipe scores. The results showed that, in both sexes, higher cumulative cigarette smoking was associated with higher HONC cigarette scores and lower HONC waterpipe scores. Furthermore, higher cumulative waterpipe smoking was significantly associated with higher HONC waterpipe scores in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the fact that heavy nicotine consumption, related to both the increased frequency and smoking duration, can increase the risk of dependence. It raises the need for strategic plans to minimize and discourage the use of nicotine products in Lebanese community settings.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402077

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evaluate seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and the possible factors associated with it among Lebanese adults, during winter and summer seasons of 2018 and 2019. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted in two time intervals. The winter period took place from December 2018 to January 2019, whereas the summer period was from May to June 2019, evaluating the same participants. FINDINGS: Higher winter depression (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 1.16), higher winter insomnia (ORa = 1.04) were significantly associated with higher odds of having winter SAD. Higher summer depression (ORa = 1.20) was significantly associated with higher odds of having summer SAD. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: A proper recognition of risk factors associated with SAD allows the clinician to effectively differentiate between SAD and nonseasonal depressive symptoms.

19.
J Eat Disord ; 9(1): 102, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some of the commonly used tools to assess orthorexia nervosa (OrNe) do not allow a meaningful interpretation of the scores or yield mixed results about the dimensions needed to represent orthorexia. Since no advancement in the theoretical knowledge can be made without a thorough examination of the measurement aspects, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between orthorexia nervosa (OrNe) and lifestyle habits, notably alcohol drinking, cigarette and waterpipe smoking, and physical exercise, and to validate and assess the psychometric properties of the Arabic versions of the Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) and Düsseldorf Orthorexia Scale (DOS). METHODS: A total of 456 adult participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Exploratory structural equation models were used to test the internal structure of the instruments. Shorter and more explicit versions were proposed for instruments. Pearson and partial correlations were computed between orthorexia scores and healthy behaviors scores. RESULTS: Regarding the internal structure of both EHQ and DOS, evidence favored the bi-dimensional construct of orthorexia. Both tools presented two theoretically clearly interpretable factors (OrNe and Healthy Orthorexia-HeOr-). The two questionnaires presented a high convergent validity, as dimensions with the same interpretation were correlated around 0.80. While OrNe was positively correlated with the use of unhealthy substances (higher alcohol use disorder, cigarette, and waterpipe dependence), HeOr was negatively associated with these behaviors. CONCLUSION: Our results emphasize the idea that further attention should be paid to the multidimensional structure of orthorexia, as OrNe and HeOr present an opposite pattern of associations with healthy behaviors. An OrNe etiopathogenesis common to eating disorders can explain these differences.

20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254948, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research demonstrated a relationship between ON and disordered eating symptoms (eating concern, restraint, cognitive preoccupations about body shape and weight) and disordered eating attitudes (DEA). Since screening for orthorexia nervosa is now part of clinical practice, the measurement instruments to be used must be clinically significant, reliable, valid and sensitive to our target population. The main objective of the present study was to confirm the factor structure of the Arabic version of the ORTO-R using a first sample of Lebanese adults and confirm those results on another sample. The secondary objective was to assess sex differences in terms of ON and DEA, as well as to examine whether symptoms of ON were related to DEA in Lebanese adults. METHODS: A total of 783 Lebanese adults was selected to participate in this cross-sectional study (January-May 2018) using a proportionate random sample from all Lebanese governorates. RESULTS: The mean age of the total sample was 27.78 ± 11.60 years (Min. 18 -Max. 84) (33.5% females) and their mean BMI was 24.36 ± 5.31 kg/m2. All items of the ORTO-R were extracted during the factor analysis and yielded a two-factor solution with Eigenvalues > 1 (variance explained = 50.07%; KMO = 0.570; Bartlett's sphericity test p<0.001; αCronbach = 0.755). This factor structure was confirmed by a confirmatory factor analysis; the Maximum Likelihood Chi-Square = 26.894 and Degrees of Freedom = 8, which gave a χ2/df = 3.36. The Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) value was 0.914, whereas the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) value was 0.032. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) value was 0.077 [95% CI 0.046-0.111] (pclose = 0.07) and comparative fit index (CFI) value was 0.967 respectively, indicating a good fit of the model. There was also no measurement invariance between genders. Female gender was significantly associated with lower ORTO-R scores (more orthorexia nervosa) compared to males (B = -0.65; p = 0.026, 95% CI -1.22- -0.08; ɳ2 = 0.006). However, no significant difference was found between genders in terms of EAT-26 scores (B = 0.23; p = 0.813, 95% CI -1.66-2.12; ɳ2 = 0.0001). Higher ORTO-R scores (lower/ less pathological ON tendencies and behaviors) were significantly related to higher EAT-26 total scores (higher levels of DEA) as well as higher dieting, bulimia and oral control scores in both females (from a weak to a moderate positive correlation) and males (a weak positive correlation). CONCLUSION: This cross-sectional population-based study confirmed the factor structure of the Arabic version of the ORTO-R, demonstrated an association between ON and DEA and revealed more ON among females compared to males.

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