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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e050540, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify initial diagnoses associated with elevated risk of chronic prescription opioid use. DESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: State of Rhode Island. PARTICIPANTS: Rhode Island residents with an initial opioid prescription dispensed between 1 April 2019 and 31 March 2020. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Subsequent chronic prescription opioid use, defined as receiving 60 or more days' supply of opioids in the 90 days following an initial opioid prescription. RESULTS: Among the 87 055 patients with an initial opioid prescription, 3199 (3.7%) subsequently became chronic users. Patients who become chronic users tended to receive a longer days' supply, greater quantity dispensed, but a lower morphine milligram equivalents on the initial opioid prescription. Patients prescribed an initial opioid prescription for diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (adjusted OR (aOR): 5.9, 95% CI: 4.7 to 7.6), diseases of the nervous system (aOR: 6.3, 95% CI: 4.9 to 8.0) and neoplasms (aOR: 5.6, 95% CI: 4.2 to 7.5) had higher odds of subsequent chronic prescription opioid use, compared with a referent group that included all diagnosis types with fewer than 15 chronic opioid users, after adjusting for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: By focusing interventions and prescribing guidelines on specific types of diagnoses that carry a high risk of chronic prescription opioid use and diagnoses that would benefit equally or more from alternative management approaches, states and healthcare organisations may more efficiently decrease inappropriate opioid prescribing while improving the quality of patient care.

2.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(1): 58-68, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are indicated for the treatment of many conditions, such as anxiety disorders, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal, agitation, movement disorders, and epilepsy, and are one of the most frequently prescribed medication classes. This class of medication has important safety considerations, including an increased risk of dependence and addiction, falls, and death from opioid overdose. Although benzodiazepine safety and prescribing encompasses a rich and important research area, there is a lack of pharmacoepidemiologic literature addressing benzodiazepine dosing intensity in real-world settings. OBJECTIVE: To develop and apply a standardized benzodiazepine milligram equivalency conversion algorithm and assess the dose intensity of benzodiazepine use in Rhode Island (RI) in 2018. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify the most commonly used benzodiazepine equivalency values. We then conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2018 data from the RI Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) to calculate the mean daily diazepam milligram equivalency (DME) based on a patient's most recent dispensing. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between higher benzodiazepine doses (≥ 15 DME/day) and recipient characteristics, including concurrent use of opioids or stimulants. RESULTS: We identified 143,026 patients who received at least 1 prescription for a benzodiazepine in RI in 2018. The mean (SD) daily DME was 10.60 (9.05), and 26.2% of individuals had a mean DME per day of at least 15. Approximately 14% (n = 20,168) of patients prescribed a benzodiazepine had concurrent use with a prescription opioid, and 6.7% (n = 9,547) had concurrent use with a prescription stimulant. Females had a 28% lower adjusted odds of receiving a benzodiazepine dose of at least 15 DME per day compared with males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.70-0.73). The adjusted odds of receiving a benzodiazepine prescription of at least 15 DME per day was lower among the younger (aged 18-34 years) and older age groups (aged 65 years and older) compared with patients aged 35-64 years. Compared with commercial insurance, all other forms of payment had significantly higher adjusted odds of a daily benzodiazepine dose of at least 15 DME per day. The adjusted odds receiving a daily DME of at least 15 was 67% higher among those who also received a concurrent pharmacy dispensing for an opioid and 84% higher among those who also received a concurrent dispensing for a stimulant drug (aOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.61-1.72; aOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.76-1.93, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals aged 35-64 years with Medicaid insurance and those aged under 65 years with Medicare were more likely to be prescribed a benzodiazepine of at least 15 DME per day. Higher benzodiazepine DMEs were also dispensed to patients who concurrently used prescription opioids or stimulants who may be at increased risk of medication-related harm. We advocate for routine measurement of benzodiazepine dose intensity as a risk reduction strategy. DISCLOSURES: No funding supported this study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. The content and results of this study are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Rhode Island Department of Health. Kogut is partially supported by Institutional Development Award Numbers U54GM115677 and P20GM125507 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health, which funds Advance Clinical and Translational Research (Advance-CTR) and the RI Lifespan Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) on Opioids and Overdose, respectively. The content of this study is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Contents of this study were presented as a poster presentation at AMCP 2019 Nexus; October 29-November 1, 2019; National Harbor, MD.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rhode Island , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccine impact on rotavirus hospitalizations is not well documented globally. We performed a systematic review to estimate the number of rotavirus hospitalizations that (1) occur annually, (2) are currently prevented by rotavirus vaccines, and (3) could be prevented with improved vaccine coverage and universal vaccine introduction. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles indexed in the PubMed database published from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2019. We included all primary peer-reviewed studies with rotavirus hospitalization rates for children below 5 years that reported data prior to vaccine introduction, utilized at least one continuous year of data collection, and collected hospitalization data after 2000 using active surveillance. We grouped pre-vaccine country estimates by childhood mortality strata and calculated the median rate among each group. We then assigned the mortality stratum-specific hospitalization rates to each country and calculated the number of rotavirus hospitalizations by country, mortality strata, and World Health Organization region. RESULTS: Our search strategy identified 4590 manuscripts, of which 32 were included in the final dataset. In 2019, an estimated 1 760 113 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1 422 645-2 925 372) rotavirus hospitalizations occurred globally, with 524 871 (IQR: 415 987-814 835) prevented by rotavirus vaccination. With universal introduction of rotavirus vaccines and increased vaccine coverage, we estimate that an additional 751 609 (IQR: 607 671-1 318 807) rotavirus hospitalizations can be prevented annually. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis highlights the continued burden of rotavirus hospitalizations among children below 5 years. A large, preventable proportion of this burden could be eliminated by expanding introductions to new countries and increasing rotavirus vaccine coverage to levels seen with other childhood vaccinations.

4.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1_suppl): 24S-30S, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726976

RESUMO

The Rhode Island Department of Health (RIDOH) uses emergency department data to monitor nonfatal opioid overdoses in Rhode Island. In April 2019, RIDOH detected an increase in nonfatal opioid overdoses in Woonsocket, Rhode Island, and sent an alert to state and local partners (eg, fire departments, emergency departments, faith leaders) with guidance on how to respond. To guide community-level, strategic response efforts, RIDOH analyzed surveillance data to identify overdose patterns, populations, and geographic areas most affected. During April-June 2019, nonfatal opioid overdoses in Woonsocket increased 463% (from 13 to 73) when compared with the previous 3 months. Because of the sustained increase in nonfatal opioid overdoses, RIDOH brought together community partners at a meeting in June 2019 to discuss RIDOH opioid overdose data and coordinate next steps. Data analyses were essential to framing the discussion and allowed community partners at the event to identify an unexpected increase in cocaine-involved nonfatal opioid overdoses in Woonsocket. Many patients with cocaine-involved nonfatal overdoses also had fentanyl in their system, and input from community partners suggested that many patients were unaware of using fentanyl. Community response actions included targeting harm reduction services (eg, distribution of naloxone, mobile needle exchange); deploying peer recovery support specialists to overdose hotspots to connect people to treatment and recovery resources; placing harm reduction messaging in high-traffic areas; and targeted social media messaging. After the meeting, nonfatal opioid overdoses returned to pre-outbreak levels. This case study provides an example of how timely opioid overdose data can be effectively used to detect a spike in nonfatal opioid overdoses and inform a strategic, community-level response.

5.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1_suppl): 40S-46S, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: No case definition exists that allows public health authorities to accurately identify opioid overdoses using emergency medical services (EMS) data. We developed and evaluated a case definition for suspected nonfatal opioid overdoses in EMS data. METHODS: To identify suspected opioid overdose-related EMS runs, in 2019 the Rhode Island Department of Health (RIDOH) developed a case definition using the primary impression, secondary impression, selection of naloxone in the dropdown field for medication given, indication of medication response in a dropdown field, and keyword search of the report narrative. We developed the case definition with input from EMS personnel and validated it using an iterative process of random medical record review. We used naloxone administration in consideration with other factors to avoid misclassification of opioid overdoses. RESULTS: In 2018, naloxone was administered during 2513 EMS runs in Rhode Island, of which 1501 met our case definition of a nonfatal opioid overdose. Based on a review of 400 randomly selected EMS runs in which naloxone was administered, the RIDOH case definition accurately identified 90.0% of opioid overdoses and accurately excluded 83.3% of non-opioid overdose-related EMS runs. Use of the case definition enabled analyses that identified key patterns in overdose locations, people who experienced repeat overdoses, and the creation of hotspot maps to inform outbreak detection and response. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: EMS data can be an effective tool for monitoring overdoses in real time and informing public health practice. To accurately identify opioid overdose-related EMS runs, the use of a comprehensive case definition is essential.

6.
Addiction ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In light of the accelerating drug overdose epidemic in North America, new strategies are needed to identify communities most at risk to prioritize geographically the existing public health resources (e.g. street outreach, naloxone distribution efforts). We aimed to develop PROVIDENT (Preventing Overdose using Information and Data from the Environment), a machine learning-based forecasting tool to predict future overdose deaths at the census block group (i.e. neighbourhood) level. DESIGN: Randomized, population-based, community intervention trial. SETTING: Rhode Island, USA. PARTICIPANTS: All people who reside in Rhode Island during the study period may contribute data to either the model or the trial outcomes. INTERVENTION: Each of the state's 39 municipalities will be randomized to the intervention (PROVIDENT) or comparator condition. An interactive, web-based tool will be developed to visualize the PROVIDENT model predictions. Municipalities assigned to the treatment arm will receive neighbourhood risk predictions from the PROVIDENT model, and state agencies and community-based organizations will direct resources to neighbourhoods identified as high risk. Municipalities assigned to the control arm will continue to receive surveillance information and overdose prevention resources, but they will not receive neighbourhood risk predictions. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome is the municipal-level rate of fatal and non-fatal drug overdoses. Fatal overdoses will be defined as unintentional drug-related death; non-fatal overdoses will be defined as an emergency department visit for a suspected overdose reported through the state's syndromic surveillance system. Intervention efficacy will be assessed using Poisson or negative binomial regression to estimate incidence rate ratios comparing fatal and non-fatal overdose rates in treatment vs. control municipalities. COMMENTS: The findings will inform the utility of predictive modelling as a tool to improve public health decision-making and inform resource allocation to communities that should be prioritized for prevention, treatment, recovery and overdose rescue services.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125538, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533569

RESUMO

Importance: The rate of deaths from overdose has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, and recent US overdose mortality rates have been markedly high. However, scant data are available on the causes of this increase or subpopulations at elevated risk. Objective: To evaluate the rates and characteristics of deaths from drug overdose before vs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, population-based cohort study used data from 4 statewide databases linked at the person level via the Rhode Island Data Ecosystem on adults with deaths due to overdose in Rhode Island from January 1 to August 31, 2019, and January 1 to August 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The rates of unintentional deaths from drug-related overdose during the 2019 and 2020 observation periods overall and by sociodemographic characteristics, drugs contributing to the cause of death, location of death, and socioeconomic factors were evaluated. In subgroup analyses restricted to Medicaid beneficiaries (n = 271), the proportions of deaths from overdose by behavioral health treatment and diagnosis claims in the year before death were also examined. Results: A total of 470 adults who died of drug overdose were included in the analysis (353 men [75%]; mean [SD] age, 43.5 [12.1] years). The rate of deaths from overdose in Rhode Island increased 28.1%, from 29.2 per 100 000 person-years in 2019 to 37.4 per 100 000 person-years in 2020 (P = .009). Compared with 2019, rates of deaths due to overdose during 2020 were higher among men (43.2 vs 59.2 per 100 000 person-years; P = .003), non-Hispanic White individuals (31.0 vs 42.0 per 100 000 person-years; P = .005), single individuals (54.8 vs 70.4 per 100 000 person-years; P = .04), deaths involving synthetic opioids (20.8 vs 28.3 per 100 000 person-years; P = .005), and deaths occurring in a personal residence (13.2 vs 19.7 per 100 000 person-years; P = .003). A decrease in the proportion of deaths from overdose involving heroin (11 of 206 [5%] vs <2% [exact value suppressed]; P = .02) and an increase among persons experiencing job loss (16 of 206 [8%] vs 41 of 264 [16%]; P = .01) from 2019 to 2020 were observed. Among individuals who died of overdose and were Medicaid beneficiaries, the proportions of those aged 50 to 59 years with anxiety (11 of 121 [9%] vs 29 of 150 [19%]; P = .03), men with depression (27 of 121 [22%] vs 57 of 150 [38%]; P = .008), and men with anxiety (28 of 121 [23%] vs 55 of 150 [37%]; P = .02) increased during 2020 compared with 2019. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, during the first 8 months of 2020, the rate of deaths from overdose increased in Rhode Island compared with the same period in 2019, and several emerging characteristics of deaths from drug overdose during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic were identified. These findings may inform interventions that address macroenvironmental changes associated with the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhode Island/epidemiologia
9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 227: 108994, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482038

RESUMO

INTRO: Understanding sex differences in toxicological etiologies of opioid-related drug overdose death could inform future sex- and gender-specific approaches to prevention and treatment. METHODS: A retrospective review of accidental or undetermined opioid-involved overdose deaths in Rhode Island 2016-2019 was performed using the Rhode Island Department of Health State Unintentional Drug Overdose Reporting System (SUDORS) database. Decedent toxicology data was linked with state Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) records. RESULTS: Of 766 cases in the analytical sample, 568 cases were in men (74.2%) and 198 cases were in women (25.6%). Median age was 40.0 years for males and 42.0 years for females. Statistically significant sex-differences in drug exposures were found. Compared to men, women were more likely have exposure to benzodiazepine, antipsychotic, and antidepressant drug classes and less likely to have fentanyl and alcohol co-exposure. No sex differences were found in cocaine and amphetamine exposure. Female decedents were more likely than male decedents to have a prescription for benzodiazepines or opioids in the 30 days before death (40% vs 21%). The proportion of decedents with a benzodiazepine on post-mortem toxicology testing in combination with a benzodiazepine prescription (p < 0.001) or an opioid prescription (p = 0.005) was over two times higher in women than men. CONCLUSION: Higher rates of controlled substance prescription prior to death and prescription drug co-exposures suggest that female opioid-involved drug overdose decedents are often in contact with the health care system immediately preceding their death, presenting the opportunity to create patient-centric approaches for prevention, harm reduction, and substance use treatment.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fentanila , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Caracteres Sexuais
10.
Am J Public Health ; 111(9): 1600-1603, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410818

RESUMO

To guide intervention efforts, we identified the proportion of individuals previously engaged in opioid agonist therapy among people who died of an accidental opioid-involved overdose. Most individuals (60.9%) had never received any prior buprenorphine or methadone treatment. Individuals who died of an overdose in 2020 had a similar demographic profile and treatment history compared with prior years. To prevent additional accidental opioid-involved overdose deaths, efforts should be directed toward linking individuals to care.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Opiáceos/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Overdose de Opiáceos/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): 1605-1608, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among children worldwide. Prior to rotavirus vaccine introduction, over one third of AGE hospitalizations in Africa were due to rotavirus. We describe the impact of rotavirus vaccines using data from the African Rotavirus Surveillance Network (ARSN). METHODS: For descriptive analysis, we included all sites reporting to ARSN for any length of time between 2008 and 2018. For vaccine impact analysis, continuous surveillance throughout the year was required to minimize potential bias due to enrollment of partial seasons and sites had to report a minimum of 100 AGE cases per year. We report the proportion of rotavirus AGE cases by year relative to vaccine introduction, and the relative reduction in the proportion of rotavirus AGE cases reported following vaccine introduction. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2018, 97 366 prospectively enrolled hospitalized children <5 years of age met the case definition for AGE, and 34.1% tested positive for rotavirus. Among countries that had introduced rotavirus vaccine, the proportion of hospitalized AGE cases positive for rotavirus declined from 39.2% in the prevaccine period to 25.3% in the postvaccine period, a 35.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.7-37.3) decline. No declines were observed among countries that had not introduced the vaccine over the 11-year period. CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus vaccine introduction led to large and consistent declines in the proportion of hospitalized AGE cases that are positive for rotavirus. To maximize the public health benefit of these vaccines, efforts to introduce rotavirus vaccines in the remaining countries in the region and to improve coverage should continue.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3446-e3455, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are large knowledge gaps on the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in settings where both tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are endemic. We aimed to assess the infectiousness of tuberculosis patients coinfected with HIV. METHODS: We systematically searched for studies of contacts of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative tuberculosis index cases. Our primary outcome was Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in contacts. Data on sputum smear and lung cavitation status of index cases were extracted from each study to assess effect modification. Secondary outcomes included prevalent tuberculosis and HIV in contacts of HIV-positive and HIV-negative index cases. RESULTS: Of 5255 original citations identified, 32 studies met inclusion criteria, including 25 studies investigating M. tuberculosis infection (Nparticipants = 36 893), 13 on tuberculosis (Nparticipants = 18 853), and 12 on HIV positivity (Nparticipants = 18 424). Risk of M. tuberculosis infection was lower in contacts of HIV-positive index cases (odds ratio [OR], 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI], .58-.77) but was heterogeneous (I2 = 75.1%). Two factors modified this relationship: the lung cavitary status of the index case and immunosuppression (measured through CD4 counts or HIV or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnoses) among index people living with HIV. Rates of HIV were consistently higher in contacts of coinfected index cases (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 3.0-8.0). This was modified by whether the study was in sub-Saharan Africa (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.6-4.9) or in another global region (OR, 9.8; 95% CI, 5.9-16.3). CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculosis patients coinfected with HIV are less infectious than HIV-uninfected cases when they have severe immunosuppression or paucibacillary disease. Contacts of coinfected index cases are almost 5 times more likely to also have HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(1): 30-37, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, the impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on invasive cervical cancers in the United States has not been documented due, in part, to the time needed for cancer to develop and to recent changes to cervical cancer screening guidelines and recommendations, which complicate data interpretation. METHODS: We examined incidence rates of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) among women aged 15-29 years diagnosed during 1999-2017 using population-based cancer registry data covering 97.8% of the U.S. POPULATION: Trends were stratified by age and histology. The annual percent change in cervical cancer incidence per year was calculated using joinpoint regression. RESULTS: During 1999-2017, SCC rates decreased 12.7% per year among women aged 15-20 years, 5.5% among women aged 21-24 years, and 2.3% among women aged 25-29 years. The declines in SCC rates were largest among women aged 15-20 years during 2010-2017, with a decrease of 22.5% per year. Overall, AC rates decreased 4.1% per year among women aged 15-20 years, 3.6% per year among women aged 21-24 years, and 1.6% per year among women aged 25-29 years. AC rates declined the most among women aged 15-20 years during 2006-2017, decreasing 9.4% per year. CONCLUSIONS: Since HPV vaccine introduction, both SCC and AC incidence rates declined among women aged 15-20 years, a group not typically screened for cervical cancer, which may suggest HPV vaccine impact. IMPACT: Timely vaccination and improved screening and follow-up among recommended age groups could result in further reductions in invasive cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020782

RESUMO

Predictors of opioid overdose death in neighborhoods are important to identify, both to understand characteristics of high-risk areas and to prioritize limited prevention and intervention resources. Machine learning methods could serve as a valuable tool for identifying neighborhood-level predictors. We examined statewide data on opioid overdose death from Rhode Island (log-transformed rates for 2016-2019) and 203 covariates from the American Community Survey for 742 US Census block groups. The analysis included a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm followed by variable importance rankings from a random forest algorithm. We employed double cross-validation, with 10 folds in the inner loop to train the model and 4 outer folds to assess predictive performance. The ranked variables included a range of dimensions of socioeconomic status, including education, income and wealth, residential stability, race/ethnicity, social isolation, and occupational status. The R2 value of the model on testing data was 0.17. While many predictors of overdose death were in established domains (education, income, occupation), we also identified novel domains (residential stability, racial/ethnic distribution, and social isolation). Predictive modeling with machine learning can identify new neighborhood-level predictors of overdose in the continually evolving opioid epidemic and anticipate the neighborhoods at high risk of overdose mortality.

16.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(8): 53-58, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of concurrent prescription opioid and non-opioid controlled substance use in Rhode Island (RI). METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional observational study using data from the RI Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on controlled substance prescriptions dispensed in 2018. We estimated the prevalence of concurrent use of other prescribed controlled substances among adults who received at least one opioid prescription. RESULTS: In 2018, 142,692 RI adult residents received at least one opioid prescription, of whom 25.1% (99% confidence interval [CI]: 24.8-25.4) were concurrently prescribed at least one other controlled substance, including benzodiazepines (17.0%, 99% CI: 16.8-17.3), medications for insomnia (4.0%, 99% CI: 3.9-4.2), and stimulants (3.8%, 99% CI: 3.6-3.9). CONCLUSION: The concurrent use of prescription opioids and other prescribed controlled substances is common. Our findings suggest an urgent need to implement focused initiatives to address controlled substance polypharmacy to reduce the risk of overdose.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Overdose de Drogas , Programas de Monitoramento de Prescrição de Medicamentos , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Controladas , Estudos Transversais , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Prescrições , Rhode Island , Estados Unidos
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9): 1998-2004, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620182

RESUMO

To determine prevalence of, seroprevalence of, and potential exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among a cohort of evacuees returning to the United States from Wuhan, China, in January 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional study of quarantined evacuees from 1 repatriation flight. Overall, 193 of 195 evacuees completed exposure surveys and submitted upper respiratory or serum specimens or both at arrival in the United States. Nearly all evacuees had taken preventive measures to limit potential exposure while in Wuhan, and none had detectable SARS-CoV-2 in upper respiratory tract specimens, suggesting the absence of asymptomatic respiratory shedding among this group at the time of testing. Evidence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 1 evacuee, who reported experiencing no symptoms or high-risk exposures in the previous 2 months. These findings demonstrated that this group of evacuees posed a low risk of introducing SARS-CoV-2 to the United States.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Viagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 19(6): 529-537, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543239

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute diarrhea among children <5 years worldwide. As all children are equally susceptible to infection and disease development, rotavirus vaccination programs are the best upstream approach to preventing rotavirus disease, and the subsequent risk of hospitalization or death. AREAS COVERED: We provide an overview of global rotavirus vaccine policy, summarize the burden of rotavirus disease in developing countries, review data on the effectiveness, impact, safety, and the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination programs, and identify areas for further research and improvement. EXPERT OPINION: Rotavirus vaccines continue to be an effective, safe, and cost-effective solution to preventing rotavirus disease. As two new rotavirus vaccines enter the market (Rotasiil and Rotavac) and Asian countries continue to introduce rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs, documenting vaccine safety, effectiveness, and impact in these settings will be paramount.


Assuntos
Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diarreia/virologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinação
19.
Prev Med ; 138: 106147, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473272

RESUMO

India's cervical cancer screening program was launched in 2016. We evaluated baseline facility readiness using nationally representative data from the 2012-13 District Level Household and Facility Survey on 4 tiers of the public health care system - 18,367 sub-health centres (SHCs), 8540 primary health centres (PHCs), 4810 community health centres and 1540 district/sub-divisional hospitals. To evaluate facility readiness we used the Improving Data for Decision Making in Global Cervical Cancer Programmes toolkit on six domains - potential staffing, infrastructure, equipment and supplies, infection prevention, medicines and laboratory testing, and data management. Composite scores were created by summing responses within domains, standardizing scores across domains at each facility level, and averaging across districts/states. Overall, readiness scores were low for cervical cancer screening. At SHCs, the lowest scores were observed in 'infrastructure' (0.55) and 'infection prevention' (0.44), while PHCs had low 'potential staffing' scores (0.50) due to limited manpower to diagnose and treat (cryotherapy) potential cases. Scores were higher for tiers conducting diagnostic work-up and treatment/referral. The highest scores were in 'potential staffing' except for PHCs, while the lowest scores were in 'infection & prevention' and 'medicines and laboratory'. Goa and Maharashtra were consistently among the top 5 ranking states for readiness. Substantial heterogeneity in facility readiness for cervical cancer screening spans states and tiers of India's public healthcare system. Infrastructure and staffing are large barriers to screening at PHCs, which are crucial for referral of high-risk patients. Our results suggest focus areas in cervical cancer screening at the district level for policy makers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 90-94, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971931

RESUMO

Since August 2019, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders have been investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). This report updates patient demographic characteristics, self-reported substance use, and hospitalization dates for EVALI patients reported to CDC by states, as well as the distribution of emergency department (ED) visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products analyzed through the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP). As of January 14, 2020, a total of 2,668 hospitalized EVALI cases had been reported to CDC. Median patient age was 24 years, and 66% were male. Overall, 82% of EVALI patients reported using any tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, product (including 33% with exclusive THC-containing product use), and 57% of EVALI patients reported using any nicotine-containing product (including 14% with exclusive nicotine-containing product use). Syndromic surveillance indicates that ED visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products continue to decline after sharply increasing in August 2019 and peaking in September 2019. Clinicians and public health practitioners should remain vigilant for new EVALI cases. CDC recommends that persons not use THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products, especially those acquired from informal sources such as friends, family members, or from in-person or online dealers. Vitamin E acetate is strongly linked to the EVALI outbreak and should not be added to any e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2). However, evidence is not sufficient to rule out the contribution of other chemicals of concern, including chemicals in either THC- or non-THC-containing products, in some reported EVALI cases.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina E/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
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