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Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528


Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 317(1): F172-F186, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042061


The kidney uses specialized G protein-coupled receptors, including olfactory receptors (ORs), to act as sensors of molecules and metabolites. In the present study, we cloned and studied seven renal ORs, which we previously found to be expressed in the murine renal cortex. As most ORs are orphan receptors, our goal was to identify ligands for these ORs in the hope that this will guide future research into their functional roles. We identified novel ligands for two ORs: Olfr558 and Olfr90. For Olfr558, we confirmed activation by previously reported ligands and identified 16 additional carboxylic acids that activated this OR. The strongest activation of Olfr558 was produced by butyric, cyclobutanecarboxylic, isovaleric, 2-methylvaleric, 3-methylvaleric, 4-methylvaleric, and valeric acids. The primary in vivo source of both butyric and isovaleric acids is gut microbial metabolism. We also identified 14 novel ligands that activated Olfr90, the strongest of which were 2-methyl-4-propyl-1,3-oxathiane, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-octanol, and 3-octanol. Interestingly, 8 of these 14 ligands are of fungal origin. We also investigated the tissue distribution of these receptors and found that they are each found in a subset of "nonsensory" tissues. Finally, we examined the putative human orthologs of Olfr558 and Olfr90 and found that the human ortholog of Olfr558 (OR51E1) has a similar ligand profile, indicating that the role of this OR is likely evolutionarily conserved. In summary, we examined seven novel renal ORs and identified new ligands for Olfr558 and Olfr90, which imply that both of these receptors serve to detect metabolites produced by microorganisms.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 314(4): F517-F530, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141937


Obesity is a significant risk factor for both chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. To better understand disease development, we sought to identify novel genes differentially expressed early in disease progression. We first confirmed that mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet exhibit early signs of renal injury including hyperfiltration. We then performed RNA-Seq using renal cortex RNA from C57BL6/J male mice fed either HF or control (Ctrl) diet. We identified 1,134 genes differentially expressed in the cortex on HF vs. Ctrl, of which 31 genes were selected for follow-up analysis. This included the 9 most upregulated, the 11 most downregulated, and 11 genes of interest (primarily sensory receptors and G proteins). Quantitative (q)RT-PCR for these 31 genes was performed on additional male renal cortex and medulla samples, and 11 genes (including all 9 upregulated genes) were selected for further study based on qRT-PCR. We then examined expression of these 11 genes in Ctrl and HF male heart and liver samples, which demonstrated that these changes are relatively specific to the renal cortex. These 11 genes were also examined in female renal cortex, where we found that the expression changes seen in males on a HF diet are not replicated in females, even when the females are started on the diet sooner to match weight gain of the males. In sum, these data demonstrate that in a HF-diet model of early disease, novel transcriptional changes occur that are both sex specific and specific to the renal cortex.