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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574806

RESUMO

Autistic adults have a high prevalence of sleep problems and psychiatric conditions. In the general population sleep problems have been associated with a range of demographic and lifestyle factors. Whether the same factors contribute to different types of disturbed sleep experienced by autistic adults is unknown and served as the main aim of this study. An online survey was conducted with 493 autistic adults. Demographic information (e.g., age, gender), about lifestyle (e.g., napping), and information about comorbid conditions was collected. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was used to assess daytime somnolence. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine predictors of each subscale score on the PSQI, as well as PSQI and ESS total scores. Results indicated that individuals who reported having a diagnosis of anxiety and insomnia were more likely to have poorer sleep quality outcomes overall. Furthermore, individuals who reported habitually napping had higher daytime dysfunction, increased sleep disturbances, and increased daytime sleepiness. These results provide novel insights into the demographic and lifestyle factors that influence sleep quality and daytime somnolence in autistic adults and can be used for targeted sleep interventions.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are prevalent among university students in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on university students' mental health and sleep in Saudi Arabia. METHOD: A total of 582 undergraduate students from Saudi Arabia aged between 18 and 45 years old (M = 20.91, SD = 3.17) completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire measuring depression, anxiety, stress, resilience, and insomnia during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). Analysis included an independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Hierarchical regression analysis. RESULTS: Undergraduate students reported high levels of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress and low levels of resilience (p < 0.001) during the pandemic. In addition, students reported experiencing insomnia. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that lower resilience, high levels of insomnia, having a pre-existing mental health condition, and learning difficulties (such as dyslexia, dyspraxia, or dyscalculia) were significantly associated with high levels of depression and stress. In addition, lower resilience, a high level of insomnia, and pre-existing mental health conditions were significantly associated with high levels of anxiety. Finally, a lower level of psychological resilience and a high level of insomnia were significantly associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety and stress within university students. CONCLUSION: This study has provided evidence that a lower level of psychological resilience and insomnia were associated with mental health problems among undergraduate students in Saudi Arabia, thus enhancing psychological resilience and interventions to support sleep and mental health are vital to support student well-being outcomes throughout the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Sono , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669583

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that sleep is influenced and shaped by cultural factors, including cultural values, beliefs and practices. However, a systematic understanding of how cultural factors in countries may influence sleep duration and sleep disturbances is still lacking. Therefore, we focused on a comparison of sleep duration and disturbances in young populations between countries. We report cross-cultural differences between the child, parent and environmental factors, and their association with sleep duration and disturbances. The review is based on literature searches of seven databases published until December 2020. Studies were included if they investigated sleep duration and disturbances of individuals up to 18 years across at least two or more countries. The results of this review have shown that sleep duration and disturbances vary between countries and regions and certain factors (e.g., bedtime routines, sleeping arrangement, physical activity and psychological functioning) have been associated with sleep duration or disturbances. This review also demonstrates that certain factors which were associated with sleep duration or disturbances in one country, were not shown in other countries, suggesting a need for recommendations for age-related sleep duration and sleep interventions to consider cultural differences that influence sleep duration or disturbances in individual countries or regions.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Criança , Família , Humanos , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
4.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 60: 261-283, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641796

RESUMO

This chapter addresses sleep research challenges for the study of neurodevelopmental disorders drawing upon two disorders such as Down Syndrome and Williams syndrome. General sleep problems are outlined here, however particular consideration is given to the syndrome-specific issues or challenges that may be crucial to advancing our understanding of sleep-related cognitive and behavioral issues.

5.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105321995962, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601977

RESUMO

Changes to wellbeing in a community-based sample of 638 adults with non-malignant chronic pain were assessed during a period of mandated lockdown measures in the UK to control the COVID-19 outbreak. Participants completed an online survey pre-lockdown and were followed up during lockdown. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that decreased ability to self-manage pain, restricted access to healthcare and increased dependence on others were associated with negative wellbeing outcomes related to sleep, anxiety and depression. Essential but non-urgent services are required during periods of lockdown to maintain independence and self-management in order to preserve wellbeing in this population.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with intellectual and developmental difficulties often experience sleep problems, which in turn may impact parental sleep patterns. This study explored the role of parental sleep knowledge as a moderator on the relationship between child sleep and parental sleep impairment. METHODS: 582 parents or caregivers (92.6% mothers) of children with different developmental disabilities (Age M = 9.34, 29.5% females) such as Down's syndrome, participated in an online survey. Multiple regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Parental sleep knowledge of child sleep was a moderating variable in the relationship between child sleep nocturnal duration and parental sleep impairment. Although overall, sleep knowledge was high in this sample, two specific knowledge gaps were identified namely child sleep duration requirements, and the recognition of signs of a well-rested child. CONCLUSION: This study has provided evidence that increased parental sleep knowledge can positively impact both child and parental sleep outcomes.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Res Dev Disabil ; 108: 103818, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mothers of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience frequent and high levels of stigma from family, friends, and members of the public. This stigma can have a negative impact on mothers' psychological well-being, their social circle, and their relationship with their child. AIMS: The present study aimed to establish if there was a relationship between emotional and behavioural difficulties and stigma, and if resilience, social support and parental adjustment acted as a protective factors in this relationship. METHODS: 108 mothers of children aged between four and 16 years old with IDD participated in a cross-sectional online survey. Mothers were asked about their child's behavioural difficulties, their experience of stigma, in addition to completing assessments of resilience, social support, and parental adjustment. RESULTS: Overall child behavioural and emotional difficulties, and the sub domain emotional problems, hyperactivity, and low prosocial behaviour were found to be a significant independent predictors of stigma. Resilience was associated with stigma and moderated the relationship between low prosocial behaviour and stigma. There was no evidence that social support or parental attachment acted as protective factors in the relationship between child behavioural difficulties and stigma. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study extend the findings of previous research by providing evidence that families of children with a range of developmental disabilities experience stigma, in particular when children show high levels of emotional problems and hyperactivity, and low levels of prosocial behaviour. The present study also provides evidence that resilience is associated with stigma and resilience-building interventions may be beneficial to reduce the negative impact of stigma.

8.
Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin ; 6(3): 2055217320941250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913660

RESUMO

Background: Resilience is a protective factor that emerges when individuals are faced with challenges and stressors. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that introduces a great deal of stress for the individual and his/her support partner. We designed a telehealth resilience-building dyadic program for persons with MS (PwMS) and their support partners. Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of the resilience intervention. The secondary objective was to assess the benefits of the intervention. Methods: Sixty-two participants (M = 49.5 years, 31 dyads of PwMS) and support partners) were recruited to participate. Out of the 31 dyads, 26 were spouses, 2 were cohabiting partners, and 3 were parent-child dyads. Results: The feasibility goals of the intervention were met, as determined by high participant satisfaction and acceptable completion rates. Preliminary outcomes relating to resilience were positive, suggesting that this intervention had a positive impact on participants. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first resilience-building intervention delivered via telehealth for both PwMS and their support partners. The study showed an increase in resilience-building skills for addressing the challenges faced by PwMS and their support partners. These skills can be promoted and taught, clinically supported by telehealth, an affordable, accessible healthcare solution. Trial Registration at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03555253).

9.
BJU Int ; 116(2): 174-83, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25429987

RESUMO

To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer in improving quality of life (QoL), self-efficacy and knowledge and in reducing distress, uncertainty and depression. We searched for trials using a range of electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO to October 2013, together with hand searching of journals and reference lists. Randomised controlled trials were eligible if they included psychosocial interventions that explicitly used one or a combination of the following approaches: cognitive behavioural, psycho-educational, supportive and counselling. Interventions had to be delivered or facilitated by trained or lay personnel. Our outcomes were an improvement in QoL, self-efficacy and knowledge and a reduction in distress, uncertainty and depression. Pairs of review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We analysed data using standardised mean differences (SMDs), random-effects models and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In all, 19 studies with a total of 3 204 men, with a diagnosis of prostate cancer, comparing psychosocial interventions vs usual care were included in this review. Men in the psychosocial intervention group had a small, statistically significant improvement in the physical component of general health-related QoL (GHQoL) at end of intervention (SMD 0.12, 95% CI 0.01-0.22) based on low quality evidence. There was no clear evidence of benefit associated with psychosocial interventions for the mental component of GHQoL at end of intervention (SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.06) based on moderate quality evidence. At end of intervention, cancer-related QoL showed a small improvement after psychosocial interventions (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). For prostate cancer-specific and symptom-related QoL, the differences between intervention and control groups were not significant. There was no clear evidence that psychosocial interventions were beneficial in improving self-efficacy at end of intervention (SMD 0.16, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.38) based on very low quality evidence. Men in the psychosocial intervention group had a moderate increase in prostate cancer knowledge at end of intervention (SMD 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.71) based on very low quality evidence. A small increase in knowledge with psychosocial interventions was noted at 3 months after intervention (SMD 0.31, 95% CI 0.04-0.58). The results for uncertainty (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.35 to 0.26) and distress (SMD 0.02, 95% CI -0.11 to 0.15) at end of intervention were compatible with both benefit and harm based on very low quality evidence. Finally, there was no clear evidence of benefit associated with psychosocial interventions for depression at end of intervention (SMD -0.18, 95% CI -0.51 to 0.15) based on very low quality evidence. The overall risk of bias in the included studies was unclear or high, primarily as the result of performance bias. No data about stage of disease or treatment with androgen-deprivation therapy were extractable for subgroup analysis. Only one study addressed adverse effects. Overall, this review shows that psychosocial interventions may have small, short-term beneficial effects on certain domains of wellbeing, as measured by the physical component of GHQoL and cancer-related QoL when compared with usual care. Prostate cancer knowledge was also increased. However, this review failed to show a statistically significant effect on other domains such as symptom-related QoL, self-efficacy, uncertainty, distress or depression. Moreover, when beneficial effects were seen, it remained uncertain whether the magnitude of effect was large enough to be considered clinically important. The quality of evidence for most outcomes was rated as very low according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system, reflecting study limitations, loss to follow-up, study heterogeneity and small sample sizes. We were unable to perform meaningful subgroup analyses based on disease stage or treatment method. Although some findings of this review are encouraging, they do not provide sufficiently strong evidence to permit meaningful conclusions about the effects of these interventions in men with prostate cancer. Additional well executed and transparently reported research studies are necessary to establish the role of psychosocial interventions in men with prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (12): CD008529, 2013 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24368598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer continue to rise, the number of men needing help and support to assist them in coping with disease and treatment-related symptoms and their psychosocial effects is likely to increase. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer in improving quality of life (QoL), self-efficacy and knowledge and in reducing distress, uncertainty and depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched for trials using a range of electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO to October 2013, together with handsearching of journals and reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of psychosocial interventions for men at any stage of prostate cancer. We included psychosocial interventions that explicitly used one or a combination of the following approaches: cognitive behavioural, psychoeducational, supportive and counselling. Interventions had to be delivered or facilitated by trained or lay personnel. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Pairs of review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We analysed data using standardised mean differences (SMDs), random-effects models and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). MAIN RESULTS: Nineteen studies comparing psychosocial interventions versus usual care in a total of 3204 men with prostate cancer were included in this review. All but three of these studies were conducted in the United States.Men in the psychosocial intervention group had a small, statistically significant improvement in the physical component of general health-related quality of life (GHQoL) at end of intervention (1414 participants, SMD 0.12, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.22) based on low-quality evidence. A small improvement in favour of psychosocial interventions (SMD 0.24, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.47) was also seen in the physical component of GHQoL at end of intervention for group-based interventions. No clear evidence of benefit was found for GHQoL scores at end of intervention with individual-based interventions compared with controls. Also, no clear evidence suggested that psychosocial interventions were beneficial in improving the physical component of GHQoL at four to six and at eight to 12 months post-intervention. In addition, no clear evidence showed benefit associated with psychosocial interventions for the mental component of GHQoL at end of intervention (1416 participants, SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.06) based on moderate-quality evidence. Results for the mental component of GHQoL at four to six and at eight to 12 months post-intervention were compatible with benefit and harm. At end of intervention, cancer-related QoL showed a small improvement following psychosocial interventions (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.39), but at eight and 12 months, the effect was compatible with benefit and harm. For prostate cancer-specific and symptom-related QoL, the differences between groups were not significant.No clear evidence indicated that psychosocial interventions were beneficial in improving self-efficacy at end of intervention (337 participants, SMD 0.16, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.38) based on very low-quality evidence in three studies that assessed individual-based interventions. The results for self-efficacy at six to eight and at 12 months post-intervention were compatible with benefit and harm. Men in the psychosocial intervention group had a moderate increase in prostate cancer knowledge at end of intervention (506 participants, SMD 0.51, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.71) based on very low-quality evidence in two studies; this increase was also observed in the subgroups of group-based and individual-based interventions. A small increase in knowledge with psychosocial interventions was noted at three months post-intervention (SMD 0.31, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.58).The results for uncertainty (916 participants, SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.35 to 0.26) and distress (916 participants, SMD 0.02, 95% CI -0.11 to 0.15) at end of intervention were compatible with both benefit and harm based on very low-quality evidence. No clear evidence suggests that psychosocial interventions were beneficial in reducing uncertainty and distress between groups at six to eight and at 12 months post-intervention. Finally, no clear evidence of benefit is associated with psychosocial interventions for depression at end of intervention (434 participants, SMD -0.18, 95% CI -0.51 to 0.15) based on very low-quality evidence. Individual-based interventions significantly reduced depression when compared with usual care groups. The results for depression at six and at 12 months post-intervention were compatible with benefit and harm.The overall risk of bias in the included studies was unclear or high, primarily as the result of performance bias.No data regarding stage of disease or treatment with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were extractable for subgroup analysis. Only one study addressed adverse effects. High attrition could indicate that some participants may not have been comfortable with the interventions. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this review shows that psychosocial interventions may have small, short-term beneficial effects on certain domains of well-being, as measured by the physical component of GHQoL and cancer-related QoL when compared with usual care. Prostate cancer knowledge was also increased. However, this review failed to demonstrate a statistically significant effect on other domains such as symptom-related QoL, self-efficacy, uncertainty, distress or depression. Moreover, when beneficial effects were observed, it remained uncertain whether the magnitude of effect was large enough to be considered clinically important. The quality of evidence for most outcomes was rated as very low according to GRADE, reflecting study limitations, loss to follow-up, study heterogeneity and small sample sizes. We were unable to perform meaningful subgroup analyses based on disease stage or treatment modality. Although some findings of this review are encouraging, they do not provide sufficiently strong evidence to permit meaningful conclusions about the effects of these interventions in men with prostate cancer. Additional well-done and transparently reported research studies are necessary to establish the role of psychosocial interventions in men with prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Nível de Saúde , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autoeficácia
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