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1.
N Engl J Med ; 382(3): 256-265, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940699

RESUMO

Deficiency of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 (USP18) is a severe type I interferonopathy. USP18 down-regulates type I interferon signaling by blocking the access of Janus-associated kinase 1 (JAK1) to the type I interferon receptor. The absence of USP18 results in unmitigated interferon-mediated inflammation and is lethal during the perinatal period. We describe a neonate who presented with hydrocephalus, necrotizing cellulitis, systemic inflammation, and respiratory failure. Exome sequencing identified a homozygous mutation at an essential splice site on USP18. The encoded protein was expressed but devoid of negative regulatory ability. Treatment with ruxolitinib was followed by a prompt and sustained recovery. (Funded by King Saud University and others.).


Assuntos
Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Interferons/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Mutação com Perda de Função , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/deficiência , Homozigoto , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/genética , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Receptores de Interferon/metabolismo , Indução de Remissão , Choque Séptico/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
2.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1873-1884, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806906

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is typically sporadic. Inborn errors of TLR3- and DBR1-mediated central nervous system cell-intrinsic immunity can account for forebrain and brainstem HSE, respectively. We report five unrelated patients with forebrain HSE, each heterozygous for one of four rare variants of SNORA31, encoding a small nucleolar RNA of the H/ACA class that are predicted to direct the isomerization of uridine residues to pseudouridine in small nuclear RNA and ribosomal RNA. We show that CRISPR/Cas9-introduced bi- and monoallelic SNORA31 deletions render human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cortical neurons susceptible to HSV-1. Accordingly, SNORA31-mutated patient hPSC-derived cortical neurons are susceptible to HSV-1, like those from TLR3- or STAT1-deficient patients. Exogenous interferon (IFN)-ß renders SNORA31- and TLR3- but not STAT1-mutated neurons resistant to HSV-1. Finally, transcriptome analysis of SNORA31-mutated neurons revealed normal responses to TLR3 and IFN-α/ß stimulation but abnormal responses to HSV-1. Human SNORA31 thus controls central nervous system neuron-intrinsic immunity to HSV-1 by a distinctive mechanism.


Assuntos
Encefalite por Herpes Simples/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Neurônios/imunologia , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/imunologia , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/patologia , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/virologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Lactente , Masculino , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenoma/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios/virologia , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/imunologia
3.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(3): 278-282, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency predisposing congenitally affected individuals to diseases caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strains and environmental mycobacteria. IL-12p40 deficiency is a genetic etiology of MSMD resulting in impaired IL-12- and IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity. Most of the reported patients with IL-12p40 deficiency originate from Saudi Arabia (30 of 52) and carry the recurrent IL12B mutation c.315insA (27 of 30). METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on three patients from two unrelated kindreds from Saudi Arabia with disseminated disease caused by a BCG vaccine substrain. RESULTS: Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous mutation, p.W60X, in exon 3 of the IL12B gene, resulting in complete IL12p40 deficiency. This mutation is recurrent due to a new founder effect. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides evidence for a second founder effect for recurrent mutations of IL12B in Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Efeito Fundador , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Mutação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium/terapia , Linhagem , Arábia Saudita , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
4.
Cell ; 172(5): 952-965.e18, 2018 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474921

RESUMO

Viruses that are typically benign sometimes invade the brainstem in otherwise healthy children. We report bi-allelic DBR1 mutations in unrelated patients from different ethnicities, each of whom had brainstem infection due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1), influenza virus, or norovirus. DBR1 encodes the only known RNA lariat debranching enzyme. We show that DBR1 expression is ubiquitous, but strongest in the spinal cord and brainstem. We also show that all DBR1 mutant alleles are severely hypomorphic, in terms of expression and function. The fibroblasts of DBR1-mutated patients contain higher RNA lariat levels than control cells, this difference becoming even more marked during HSV1 infection. Finally, we show that the patients' fibroblasts are highly susceptible to HSV1. RNA lariat accumulation and viral susceptibility are rescued by wild-type DBR1. Autosomal recessive, partial DBR1 deficiency underlies viral infection of the brainstem in humans through the disruption of tissue-specific and cell-intrinsic immunity to viruses.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias Metabólicas Congênitas/genética , Tronco Encefálico/metabolismo , Tronco Encefálico/virologia , RNA/química , RNA/metabolismo , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Encefalopatias Metabólicas Congênitas/patologia , Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Encefalite Viral/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibroblastos/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Íntrons/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Linhagem , RNA Nucleotidiltransferases/química , RNA Nucleotidiltransferases/deficiência , RNA Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
5.
J Asthma ; 55(11): 1157-1165, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin 13 (IL-13) plays a critical pro-inflammatory role in asthma. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with asthma susceptibility in specific populations; however, further replicative studies in other ethnic groups are mandatory. METHODS: The association between IL-13 SNPs rs762534, rs20541, rs1295686, and rs1800925 (risk alleles A, A, T, and A, respectively) and asthma predisposition in a Saudi Arabian cohort was examined via a case-control cross-sectional study. RESULTS: The frequencies of alleles between asthmatics and control populations were significantly different for rs20541 and rs1295686 SNPs (p < 0.001), whereas the frequencies of genotypes between asthmatics and controls were significantly different only for rs20541. The association of the risk (minor) alleles with asthma was examined using the dominant genetic model. Individuals with at least one copy of the risk alleles A (for rs20541) and T (for rs1295686) had significantly greater odds of being asthmatic (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.39-3.26, p < 0.0001; OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.12-2.54, p = 0.008) relative to their most common homozygous genotypes. On the other hand, the minor A alleles for rs762534 and rs1800925 were not significantly associated with asthma risk. Regarding haplotype association analysis, individuals with at least one copy of the minor "risk" allele for both rs20541 and rs1295686 (CATG and CATA, respectively) had greater odds of being asthmatic relative to CGCG haplotype; however, this trend was not statistically significant (p > 0.3). CONCLUSIONS: IL-13 minor T and A alleles for rs1295686 and rs20541, respectively, were associated with significantly higher risk of asthma in the Saudi Arabian population.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Interleucina-13/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Alelos , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Asthma ; 54(9): 893-904, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28635548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a subset of severe asthma patients, chronic airway inflammation is associated with infiltration of neutrophils, Th-17 cells and elevated expression of Th-17-derived cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-22). Peripheral neutrophils from allergic asthmatics are known to express higher IL-17 cytokine levels than those from healthy subjects, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that Th-17 regulatory cytokines could modulate IL-17 expression in neutrophils. METHODS: Peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from asthmatics were stimulated with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines and their ability to produce IL-17A and IL-17F was determined relative to healthy controls. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation levels were measured in stimulated neutrophil using flow cytometry. The requirement for STAT3 phosphorylation was determined by blocking its activation using a specific chemical inhibitor. RESULTS: Stimulating asthmatic neutrophils with IL-21, 23, and 6 enhanced the production of IL-17A and IL-17F at significantly higher levels comparatively to healthy controls. Stimulating neutrophils with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, in all cases. Interestingly, inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation using a specific chemical inhibitor dramatically blocked the ability of neutrophils to produce IL-17, demonstrating that STAT3 activation is the major factor mediating IL-17 gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that neutrophil infiltration in lungs of severe asthmatics may represent an important source of pro-inflammatory IL-17A and -F cytokines, a production enhanced by Th-17 regulatory cytokines, and thus providing a feedback mechanism that sustains inflammation. Our results suggest that STAT3 pathway could be a potential target for regulating neutrophilic inflammation during severe asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Interleucina-16/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-16/biossíntese , Interleucina-17/biossíntese , Interleucina-23/biossíntese , Interleucinas/biossíntese , Masculino , Neutrófilos/metabolismo
7.
Saudi Pharm J ; 25(2): 224-230, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28344472

RESUMO

Glucuronidation is an important phase II pathway responsible for many endogenous substances and drug metabolism. The present work evaluated allele frequencies of certain UDP-glucuronosyl-transferases (UGT 1A6∗2, A7∗12, A8∗3, A9∗3, 2B7∗2, and 2B15∗2) in Saudi Arabians that could provide essential ethnic information. Blood samples from 192 healthy unrelated Saudi males of various geographic regions were collected. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyping of various UGTs was carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by direct sequencing. For UGT1A6∗2 A/G genotype, the most common variant was the homozygous repeat (AA) and the most common allele was (A) with a frequency of 46.5% and 67.3%, respectively. Similarly, the most common variant for UGT1A7∗12 T/C genotype was the heterozygous repeat (TC) with a frequency of 78.7% while the mutant allele (C) was present in 60.6% of the study population. Both UGT1A8∗3 (G/A) and UGT1A9∗3 (T/C) showed only a wild homozygous pattern in all screened subjects. For UGT2B7∗2, the heterozygous repeat (TC) was found with a frequency of 57.3% and the alleles (A) showed a frequency of 50.8%. In contrast, for UGT2B15∗2 (G253T), the heterozygous repeat (TG) presented 62.3% of the subjects where the most common allele (G) was with a frequency of 66.2%. In conclusion, our data indicate that Saudis harbor some important UGT mutations known to affect enzyme activity. Additional studies are therefore, warranted to assess the clinical implications of these gene polymorphisms in this ethnic group.

8.
Pediatr Int ; 59(6): 661-668, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28218986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintaining good control of asthma symptoms can help to prevent exacerbations and its associated complications. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) can rapidly assess the effectiveness of asthma management plan and therapy. The aim of this study was therefore to identify risk factors associated with uncontrolled asthma symptoms in young Saudi asthmatic children (3-17 years old). METHODS: In this cross-sectional hospital-based survey, the ACT was administered to 297 asthmatic children/adolescents, recruited at the emergency department (ED) of two major hospitals. RESULTS: Most recruited patients had intermittent (63.5%) and mild persistent (27.6%) asthma; few had moderate persistent (8.9%) and none had severe asthma. These patients visited the ED four times (3.9 ± 3.2), on average. Almost half of the patients stated that they had not received education about asthma (47%) or education about medication use (43%). Most patients (60.3%) had uncontrolled symptoms (ACT score ≤19), of whom the intermittent asthma patients had better scores than those with more severe symptoms. Children ≤6 years old, with symptoms diagnosed <5 years previously and who were not attending school, had significantly worse control than older patients. Poor medication compliance and inappropriate inhaler device use were ascribed to younger patients (<12 years old) and worse scores; particularly in relation to stopping inhaled corticosteroid therapy when their symptoms improve. Patients with poor control also stated that they had not received education about inhaler device use. CONCLUSIONS: Most Saudi asthmatic children/adolescents visiting the ED had poor control of symptoms; indeed, none achieved complete control, which is related to deficient medication compliance and improper medication inhaler device use; deficient knowledge about asthma was also another factor hindering control.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adesão à Medicação , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Asma/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Exp Mol Med ; 48(10): e262, 2016 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27713399

RESUMO

Drug resistance and the harmful side effects accompanying the prolonged corticosteroid treatment of chronic pulmonary diseases prompted the development of more specific anti-inflammatory approaches. Several strategies aiming to block IL4Rα, the receptor for a key pro-inflammatory pathway, were investigated. However, their efficiency was limited, mostly due to the systemic or subcutaneous route of administrations. In this paper, we examined the ability of an intranasal treatment with biocompatible nanoparticles targeting IL4Rα to control lung inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice. OVA-sensitized mice were treated with anti-IL4Rα-conjugated nanoparticles. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined using a cytokine array assay. The effects of nanoparticle treatment on the activation of lung inflammatory cells and their ability to proliferate and produce cytokines were determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Lung inflammation was also monitored using immunohistochemical staining. Treatment with the anti-IL4Rα nanoparticles significantly decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and release in BALF and airway lung tissue in mice. The numbers of lung tissue lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils were also decreased. Interestingly, anti-IL4Rα nanoparticles deactivated CD4 and CD8 T cells in lung tissue and inhibited their ability to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines to a significantly lower level than the treatment with free anti-IL4Rα. Moreover, they induced a sustained low level of lung inflammation for 1 week following the last instillation compared with the treatment with free anti-IL4Rα antibodies. Together, this data suggested that the enhanced tissue penetrability and sustainability of these nanoparticles improved the strength and durability of the immunosuppressive effects of anti-IL4Rα.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Nanoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/terapia , Animais , Asma/complicações , Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia
11.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0155236, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27309378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D, causally implicated in bone diseases and human malignancies, exerts its effects through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is a transcription factor modulating the expression of several genes in different pathways. Genetic variants in the VDR gene have been associated with several cancers in different population including colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of VDR gene polymorphisms in relation with colorectal cancer (CRC) in a Saudi population. METHODS: The polymorphisms of VDR gene (BsmI, FokI, ApaI and TaqI) were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction amplification of segments of interest followed by Sanger sequencing. One hundred diagnosed CRC patients and 100 healthy control subjects that were age and gender matched were recruited. RESULTS: We did not observe significant association of any of the four VDR polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk in the overall analysis. Although not statistically significant, the AA genotype of BsmI conferred about two-fold protection against CRCs compared to the GG genotype. Stratification of the study subjects based on age and gender suggests statistically significant association of CRC with the 'C' allele of ApaI in patients >57 years of age at disease diagnosis and BsmI polymorphism in females. In addition, statistically significant differences were observed for the genotypic distributions of VDR-BsmI, ApaI and TaqI SNPs between Saudi Arabian population and several of the International HapMap project populations. CONCLUSION: Despite the absence of correlation of the examined VDR polymorphisms with CRCs in the combined analysis, ApaI and BsmI loci are statistically significantly associated with CRC in elderly and female patients, respectively. These findings need further validation in larger cohorts prior to utilizing these SNPs as potential screening markers for colorectal cancers in Saudi population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Desoxirribonucleases de Sítio Específico do Tipo II/química , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
J Control Release ; 225: 240-51, 2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26827662

RESUMO

Targeting breast cancer and more specifically cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulation, responsible for tumor growth, resistance and self-renewal, using combination of therapeutic drugs selectively delivered via biocompatible nanocarriers, provides a novel approach for effective therapy. Here, we propose to evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy of combining Paclitaxel and Salinomycin drugs actively targeted to both breast cancer and CSCs in xenograft murine model after conjugation with biocompatible CD44 antibody conjugated SWCNTs via hydrazone linker allowing pH-responsive release mechanism near the acidic tumor microenvironment. Both in vitro investigations on MDA-MB-231, sorted CSC negative or CSC positive fractions and in vivo evaluations on tumor-bearing mice using noninvasive bioluminescence and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the enhanced therapeutic effect of the combined therapy compared to treatment with individual drug-conjugated nanocarriers or free drug suspensions. Thus, confirmed the great promise of the developed SWCNTs drug delivery system for effective breast cancer treatment by targeting and eradicating both whole tumor cells and CSCs populations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Nanotubos de Carbono , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Piranos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos/química , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/sangue , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/imunologia , Hidrazonas/administração & dosagem , Hidrazonas/química , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Mucina-1/sangue , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Paclitaxel/química , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Piranos/química , Piranos/uso terapêutico , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 17(4): 978-87, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26729529

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated whether tacrolimus extracted and purified from the commercial capsules (Prograf® 5 mg) have retained its original quality and activity beyond the capsules expiration date in order to be reused for research purposes after extraction. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay method was developed and validated for the quantification of tacrolimus, using cyclosporine A as an internal standard (IS). Moreover, a combination of analytical methods, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to assess the quality of extracted/purified tacrolimus. Suppression of murine peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) proliferation and the levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were also assessed. The data obtained showed no detectable differences in the quality profile between the authentic sample and extracted drug. Also, the results showed that the extracted/purified tacrolimus was able to suppress T cell proliferation, induced by concanavalin A, indicating the retained pharmacological activity. We proved that tacrolimus extracted/purified from expired Prograf® capsuled retains its purity and immunosuppressive activity and can be reused for research and possibly in pharmaceutical manufacturing.


Assuntos
Cápsulas/química , Cápsulas/farmacologia , Tacrolimo/química , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ciclosporina/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Imunossupressores/química , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Camundongos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Difração de Raios X/métodos
14.
Respir Res ; 17: 6, 2016 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26772733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although corticosteroid is a powerful anti-inflammatory drug that is used widely to control asthma, still severe asthmatics can develop steroid resistance. Airway fibroblasts are quite resistant to steroids during Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and fibrosis in asthmatic lungs is not always controlled. Th-17 regulatory cytokine which are elevated in lung tissues of asthmatics were shown to enhance the survival of various types of cells. STAT factors are central to this anti-apoptotic function. However, it is not yet clear whether these cytokines contribute to steroid hypo-responsiveness in asthma. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the ability of Th-17 regulatory cytokines, specifically IL-21, IL22 and IL23, to protect structural airway cells against dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. METHODS: Primary human fibroblasts, ASM cells, and lung endothelial cells line were treated with IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23 cytokines before incubation with dexamethasone and the level of apoptosis was determined by measuring cellular Annexin-V using Flow cytometry. RESULTS: Our data indicated that treatment with Th-17 regulatory cytokines was effective in inhibiting induced apoptosis for both fibroblasts and endothelial cells but not ASM cells. STAT3 phosphorylation levels were also upregulated in fibroblasts and endothelial upon treatment with these cytokines. Interestingly, inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation abrogated IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23 anti-apoptotic effect on fibroblasts and endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: This data suggest that Th-17 regulatory cytokines may play a critical role in regulating the survival of fibroblasts during asthma, IPF as well as other chronic lung inflammatory diseases leading to enhanced fibrosis. Accordingly, findings of this paper may pave the way for more extensive research on the role of these regulatory cytokines in fibrosis development in various chronic inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Apoptose/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 11(3): 172-83, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26708935

RESUMO

Simultaneous inhibition of IL4 and IL13 via the common receptor chain IL4Rα to block adequately their biologic effects presents a promising therapeutic approach to give the additional relief required for asthma patients. In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were conjugated with anti-IL4Rα blocking antibodies via polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers. The delivery of these blocking antibodies to the inflammatory sites in the lung via the developed nanocarriers was assessed using noninvasive free-breathing pulmonary MRI. Biocompatibility assays confirmed the safety of the developed nanocarriers for pre-clinical investigations. For all the investigated formulations, nanocarriers were found to be very stable at neutral pH. However, the stability noticeably decreased with the PEG length in acidic environment and thus the loaded antibodies were preferentially released. Immunofluorescence and fluorimetry assays confirmed the binding of the nanocarriers to the IL4Rα asthma biomarker. Pulmonary MRI performed using an ultra-short echo time sequence allowed simultaneous noninvasive monitoring of inflammatory responses induced by ovalbumin challenge and tracking of the developed nanocarriers, which were found to colocalize with the inflammatory sites in the lung. Targeting of the developed nanocarriers to areas rich in IL4Rα positive inflammatory cells was confirmed using histological and flow cytometry analyses. The anti-IL4Rα-conjugated nanocarriers developed here have been confirmed to be efficient in targeting key inflammatory cells during chronic lung inflammation following intrapulmonary administration. Targeting efficiency was monitored using noninvasive MRI, allowing detection of the nanocarriers' colocalizations with the inflammatory sites in the lung of ovalbumin-challenged asthmatic mice. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico por imagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Animais , Asma/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Imunoconjugados/química , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Isoanticorpos/administração & dosagem , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Polietilenoglicóis , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
16.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 18(3): 315-24, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26486793

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to develop novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches by improving the targeting of doxorubicin-loaded single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to metastatic regions, and monitor their preferential homing and enhanced therapeutic effect using noninvasive free-breathing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging. PROCEDURES: High-energy flexible magnets were specifically positioned over the metastatic tumor sites in the lungs. SWCNTs biodistribution, tumor progression, and subsequent treatment efficiency were assessed following administration of the magnetically attracted doxorubicin-loaded anti-CD105 conjugated nanocarriers. RESULTS: The use of high-energy magnets offered improved theranostic effect of doxorubicin-loaded nanocarriers, by magnetically targeting them towards metastatic tumor sites in the lungs. MRI allowed sensitive monitoring of nanocarriers biodistribution in the abdominal organs, their preferential homing towards the metastatic sites, and their enhanced therapeutic effect. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of noninvasive MRI to localize sensitively the tumor sites, with specific positioning of magnets that can enhance the magnetic targeting of nanocarriers, allowed increasing the treatment efficiency.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doxorrubicina , Feminino , Medições Luminescentes , Camundongos , Distribuição Tecidual , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 11(1): 31-46, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26673059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The limitation of current breast cancer treatments was elucidated by the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that play essential role in cancer initiation, progression, resistance, recurrence and metastasis. Materials & methods: Biocompatible multimodality single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) nanoprobes were developed. The biodistribution and preferential homing of CD44 antibody-conjugated SWCNTs toward the tumor site were monitored using MRI, single-photon emission computed tomography and near-infrared fluorescence imaging noninvasive imaging modalities. RESULTS: Quantification of SWCNTs by sensitively measuring iron content in sorted CSC populations using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry confirmed the enhanced selective targeting of anti-CD44 SWCNT and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed enhanced colocalization with areas rich in CD44 receptors. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: This preclinical study provided encouraging results for efficient targeting of breast CSCs and perspectives for further clinical studies to confirm the efficacy and safety of the designed nanocarriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Nanotubos de Carbono , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
18.
J Exp Med ; 212(10): 1641-62, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26304966

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive, complete TYK2 deficiency was previously described in a patient (P1) with intracellular bacterial and viral infections and features of hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), including atopic dermatitis, high serum IgE levels, and staphylococcal abscesses. We identified seven other TYK2-deficient patients from five families and four different ethnic groups. These patients were homozygous for one of five null mutations, different from that seen in P1. They displayed mycobacterial and/or viral infections, but no HIES. All eight TYK2-deficient patients displayed impaired but not abolished cellular responses to (a) IL-12 and IFN-α/ß, accounting for mycobacterial and viral infections, respectively; (b) IL-23, with normal proportions of circulating IL-17(+) T cells, accounting for their apparent lack of mucocutaneous candidiasis; and (c) IL-10, with no overt clinical consequences, including a lack of inflammatory bowel disease. Cellular responses to IL-21, IL-27, IFN-γ, IL-28/29 (IFN-λ), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were normal. The leukocytes and fibroblasts of all seven newly identified TYK2-deficient patients, unlike those of P1, responded normally to IL-6, possibly accounting for the lack of HIES in these patients. The expression of exogenous wild-type TYK2 or the silencing of endogenous TYK2 did not rescue IL-6 hyporesponsiveness, suggesting that this phenotype was not a consequence of the TYK2 genotype. The core clinical phenotype of TYK2 deficiency is mycobacterial and/or viral infections, caused by impaired responses to IL-12 and IFN-α/ß. Moreover, impaired IL-6 responses and HIES do not appear to be intrinsic features of TYK2 deficiency in humans.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Job/etiologia , TYK2 Quinase/deficiência , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Interleucina-23/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Síndrome de Job/genética , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/etiologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , TYK2 Quinase/genética , TYK2 Quinase/metabolismo , Viroses/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Science ; 349(6248): 606-613, 2015 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26160376

RESUMO

Human inborn errors of immunity mediated by the cytokines interleukin-17A and interleukin-17F (IL-17A/F) underlie mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report the discovery of bi-allelic RORC loss-of-function mutations in seven individuals from three kindreds of different ethnic origins with both candidiasis and mycobacteriosis. The lack of functional RORγ and RORγT isoforms resulted in the absence of IL-17A/F-producing T cells in these individuals, probably accounting for their chronic candidiasis. Unexpectedly, leukocytes from RORγ- and RORγT-deficient individuals also displayed an impaired IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium. This principally reflected profoundly defective IFN-γ production by circulating γδ T cells and CD4(+)CCR6(+)CXCR3(+) αß T cells. In humans, both mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and systemic immunity to Mycobacterium require RORγ, RORγT, or both.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/imunologia , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/genética , Imunidade/genética , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Tuberculose Bovina/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Alelos , Animais , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/complicações , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/imunologia , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico da Cadeia alfa dos Receptores de Antígenos dos Linfócitos T , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Timo/anormalidades , Timo/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia
20.
World Allergy Organ J ; 8(1): 25, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26207160

RESUMO

The prevalence of allergic airway diseases such as asthma and rhinitis has increased dramatically to epidemic proportions worldwide. Besides air pollution from industry derived emissions and motor vehicles, the rising trend can only be explained by gross changes in the environments where we live. The world economy has been transformed over the last 25 years with developing countries being at the core of these changes. Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes. Many of these changes are considered to have negative effects on respiratory health and to enhance the frequency and severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma in the general population. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere have already warmed the planet substantially, causing more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods - all of which can put the respiratory health of the public at risk. These changes in climate and air quality have a measurable impact not only on the morbidity but also the mortality of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. The massive increase in emissions of air pollutants due to economic and industrial growth in the last century has made air quality an environmental problem of the first order in a large number of regions of the world. A body of evidence suggests that major changes to our world are occurring and involve the atmosphere and its associated climate. These changes, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere, biodiversity, and the human environment. Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges. This statement of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) raises the importance of this health hazard and highlights the facts on climate-related health impacts, including: deaths and acute morbidity due to heat waves and extreme meteorological events; increased frequency of acute cardio-respiratory events due to higher concentrations of ground level ozone; changes in the frequency of respiratory diseases due to trans-boundary particle pollution; altered spatial and temporal distribution of allergens (pollens, molds, and mites); and some infectious disease vectors. According to this report, these impacts will not only affect those with current asthma but also increase the incidence and prevalence of allergic respiratory conditions and of asthma. The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed. Global warming is expected to affect the start, duration, and intensity of the pollen season on the one hand, and the rate of asthma exacerbations due to air pollution, respiratory infections, and/or cold air inhalation, and other conditions on the other hand.

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