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1.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(1): 113-124, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727743

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify hospital neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and the causes of neonatal deaths, and to understand risk factors associated with neonatal mortality in a national tertiary hospital in Cambodia. The study included all newborn infants, aged 0-28 days old, hospitalized in the Pediatrics department of Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital between January 2016 and December 2017. In total, 925 infants were included in the study. The mean gestational age was 35.9 weeks (range, 24-42 weeks). Preterm infants and low birth weight accounted for 47.5% and 56.7%, respectively. With respect to payment methods, the government (53.5%) and non-governmental organizations (NGO) (13.7%) paid the fees as the families were not in a financial position to do so. The hospital NMR at the Pediatrics department was 9.3%. Respiratory distress syndrome (37.2%) was the main cause of deaths followed by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (31.4%) and neonatal infection (21.0%). Factors associated with neonatal mortality were Apgar score at 5th minute <7 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.57), payment by the government or NGO (AOR = 11.32), admission due to respiratory distress (AOR = 11.94), and hypothermia on admission (AOR = 9.41). The hospital NMR in the Pediatrics department was 9.3% (95% confidence interval 7.50-11.35) at Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital; prematurity and respiratory distress syndrome were the major causes of neonatal mortality. Introducing continuous positive airway pressure machine for respiratory distress syndrome and creating neonatal resuscitation guidelines and preventing hypothermia in delivery rooms are required to reduce the high NMR.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the prospective association of DNA methylation with CVD has not been evaluated. Here, we conducted a prospective study to examine whether long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) DNA methylation is associated with CVD mortality in a Japanese population. METHODS: We targeted 822 Japanese who participated in a health check-up in 1990 and had no clinical history of cancer, stroke or ischaemic heart disease. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and LINE-1 DNA methylation at three CpG sites was measured using a pyrosequencing method. We used propensity score (PS) matching to reduce the effect of potential confounding. RESULTS: During 18 118.7 persons-years of follow-up, there were 329 deaths from all-causes and 85 deaths from CVD. In PS-matched analysis, a significantly higher HR for CVD mortality was observed in the hypermethylation group than in the hypomethylation group for elderly participants (HR 2.77; 95% CI 1.55 to 4.93). No significant association between LINE-1 DNA methylation and CVD was observed for middle-aged participants. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this prospective study, we suggest that LINE-1 DNA hypermethylation is associated with increased CVD mortality risk in an elderly population.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3812, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589659

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are an increasing problem worldwide, including in Malaysia. National surveys have been performed by the government but had poor coverage in east Malaysia, particularly in rural regions. This study aimed to describe the achievement of target therapeutic outcomes in the control of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HPT), and dyslipidemia (DLP) among diabetic patients in rural east Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among DM patients who visited the NCDs clinic in Lundu Hospital, Sarawak, Malaysia, from Jan to March 2016. In total, 214 patients (male, 37.9%; female, 62.1%) were recruited using a systemic sampling method. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence interval (CI) for the target therapeutic achievement in the control of DM, HPT, and DLP. Compared to the national average, therapeutic target achievement in Lundu was higher for DM (43.0% vs. 23.8%), equal for DLP (35.8% vs. 37.8%) but lower for HPT (30.9% vs. 47.9%). DM patients who had at least yearly HbA1c monitoring (AOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.04-5.06, P = 0.039), and those 58.7 years or older (AOR 2.50, 95% CI 1.32-4.74, P = 0.005) were more likely to achieve the therapeutic target for DM. Health promotion and public education regarding HPT needs to be emphasized in rural Malaysia. HbA1c monitoring at least once a year was one of the important factors associated with achieving DM control in rural east Malaysia. Accessibility to HbA1c tests and monitoring should be ensured for diabetic patients.

4.
Nutrition ; 84: 111114, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although consumption of vegetable and 100% fruit juices are an acceptable alternative for vegetable and fruit intake, information about their actual effects on kidney function is sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the consumption of vegetable and fruit juices and changes in kidney function in a Japanese population over a 5-y period. METHODS: In this prospective study, we analyzed 2755 Japanese (742 men and 2013 women) individuals who participated in both the baseline and follow-up surveys in the Daiko study (a study within the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by age, sex, and serum creatinine level. For each beverage, we categorized all participants into four groups-rare (rarely consumed), low (≤2 cups/wk), moderate (3-4 cups/wk), or frequent (≥5 cups/wk) consumers of the beverage-based on a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean baseline and follow-up eGFR (SD) were 82.4 (14.6) and 72.2 (12.6), respectively. In fully adjusted regression analyses, moderate consumption of vegetable juice was associated a lower decline in eGFR compared with the rare consumption group (ß = -1.30; P = 0.01). Moreover, stratified analyses revealed that this significant association remained in those who were young, female, non-obese, normotensive, smoked cigarettes, consumed alcohol, or exercised. However, no significant association was found in analyses for fruit juices. CONCLUSIONS: This 5-y prospective study suggested an association between self-reported moderate consumption of vegetable juice and changes (possibly smaller decline) in kidney function in a relatively healthy Japanese population.

5.
Nutrition ; 81: 110951, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A diet rich in fish and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The beneficial effects of fish oil and ω-3 PUFA on CVD can be mediated by epigenetic status of the genes associated with lipid metabolism and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary fish and fatty acid (FA) intakes are associated with leukocyte ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) DNA methylation levels in a Japanese population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 298 adults (137 men and 161 women) without clinical history of CVD or cancer. The pyrosequencing method was used to measure leukocyte ABCA1 DNA methylation levels. Dietary fish and FA intakes were assessed based on the validated food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: Mean ABCA1 DNA methylation levels were significantly lower in the highest fish intake groups (≥5-6/wk) compared with the lowest intake group (≤1-2/wk; P = 0.004). In multivariable linear regression analyses, higher dietary intake of ω-3 PUFAs and ω-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids was significantly associated with decreased levels of ABCA1 DNA methylation (P = 0.001 and 0.005); whereas no significant associations were seen between intake of dietary saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, and ω-6 PUFAs and ABCA1 DNA methylation. CONCLUSION: Higher dietary fish and ω-3 PUFA intake were associated with lower ABCA1 DNA levels in a Japanese population. The present results may bring potential insights on biological mechanisms underlying the protective effects of dietary fish and ω-3 PUFA intakes on CVD.

6.
J Hypertens ; 39(1): 84-89, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression and play essential roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Previous cross-sectional studies showed that the levels of several circulating miRNA are associated with hypertension, but there are no prospective longitudinal studies using a general population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of circulating vascular-related miRNA (miR-126, miR-221, and miR-222) on changes in blood pressure and new-onset hypertension in a Japanese population. METHODS: We conducted a 5-year longitudinal study using 192 health examination participants (87 men and 105 women). Serum miRNAs were measured using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Information regarding lifestyle and health condition was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for new-onset hypertension in the 5-year period between the low and high group of serum miRNAs. RESULTS: Serum levels of miR-126, miR-221, and miR-222 were significantly and negatively associated with changes in SBP and the rate of change of SBP. Serum miR-126, miR-221, and miR-222 levels were significantly lower in new-onset hypertensive patients compared with normotensive individuals. The confounding factors adjusted odds ratios of each 1 increment in serum miR-126, miR-221, and miR-222 levels were 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.98), 0.79 (0.68-0.91), and 0.61 (0.46-0.81) for new-onset hypertension, respectively. CONCLUSION: Low serum levels of miR-126, miR-221, and miR-222 were associated with increased blood pressure and new-onset of hypertension. These circulating miRNAs are potential candidate biomarkers for the prediction of hypertension.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275620

RESUMO

Postpartum depression is a worldwide public health concern. The prevalence of postpartum depression is reported to be greater in developing countries than in developed countries. However, to the best of our knowledge, no papers on postpartum depression in the Lao People's Democratic Republic have been published. In order to strengthen maternal and child health, the current situation of postpartum depression should be understood. This study aims to determine the prevalence of postpartum depression and identify factors associated with postpartum depression in Vientiane Capital, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Study participants were 428 women 6-8 weeks postpartum who visited four central hospitals in Vientiane Capital for postnatal care from July to August 2019. Structured questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic, obstetrical and infant, and psychiatric data about the women and their partners. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to identify suspected cases of postpartum depression with the cut-off score of 9/10. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine independent factors that were associated with suspected postpartum depression (EPDS ≥10). The mean age of the 428 women was 28.1 years, and the prevalence of suspected postpartum depression was 31.8%. Multivariable logistic regression using variables that were statistically significant on bivariate analyses indicated that three variables were associated with suspected postpartum depression: unintended pregnancy (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.00-2.73, P = 0.049), low birth satisfaction (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.00-3.43, P = 0.049), and depression during pregnancy (AOR = 3.99, 95% CI 2.35-6.77, P <0.001). In this study, unintended pregnancy, low birth satisfaction, and depression during pregnancy were independent risk factors for postpartum depression. These results suggest that the mental health of pregnant women should be monitored, and that health care services, especially family planning and supportive birth care, should be strengthened to prevent postpartum depression.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21723, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303939

RESUMO

A high infant mortality rate (IMR) indicates a failure to meet people's healthcare needs. The IMR in Lao People's Democratic Republic has been decreasing but still remains high. This study aimed to identify the factors involved in the high IMR by analyzing data from 53,727 live births and 2189 women from the 2017 Lao Social Indicator Survey. The estimated IMR decreased from 191 per 1000 live births in 1978-1987 to 39 in 2017. The difference between the IMR and the neonatal mortality rate had declined since 1978 but did not change after 2009. Factors associated with the high IMR in all three models (forced-entry, forward-selection, and backward-selection) of multivariate logistic regression analyses were auxiliary nurses as birth attendants compared to doctors, male infants, and small birth size compared to average in all 2189 women; and 1-3 antenatal care visits compared to four visits, auxiliary nurses as birth attendants compared to doctors, male infants, postnatal baby checks, and being pregnant at the interview in 1950 women whose infants' birth size was average or large. Maternal and child healthcare and family planning should be strengthened including upgrading auxiliary nurses to mid-level nurses and improving antenatal care quality.

9.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 82(3): 437-447, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132428

RESUMO

Mongolia had an epidemic of measles in 2015-2016, even though more than 90% of the population have been vaccinated since 1997. This study aimed to examine the associations between unvaccinated proportion and measles incidence according to aimag. Mongolia has 21 provinces (aimag) with Ulaanbaatar as the capital city. Vaccination coverage between 1991 and 2014 and measles incidence according to aimag were obtained from the National Center for Communicable Diseases of Mongolia database. Accumulated unvaccinated proportion (AUP) among those aged 1 to 24 years in 2015 was estimated from the unvaccinated at the 1st dose of 1991 to 2014. From 1991 to 2014, unvaccinated proportion among those aged 1 to 24 years in the whole country has been reducing from 28.0% in 1991 to 1.8% in 2014. The AUP in 2015 varied from 2.7% (Selenge) to 21.8% (Govisumber). The incidence was remarkably higher in only two aimags with a large density of the unvaccinated aged 1 to 24 years (Ulaanbaatar and Darkhan-Uul) than in the other aimags. The incidence had no significant correlation with the AUP, although the correlation between the incidence and the density of unvaccinated aged 1 to 24 years was significant when the two aimags were included. In conclusion, the AUP between 2.7% and 21.8% had no correlation with the incidence according to aimags in Mongolia measles epidemic 2015-2016.

10.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 82(3): 545-556, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132438

RESUMO

Diarrhea is the second leading cause of under-five mortality and globally accounts for 526,000 child deaths every year. Afghanistan, with 33,000 child deaths in 2012, was ranked 8th among nations, with the highest under-five deaths being from pneumonia and diarrhea. This study aimed to identify the determinants of diarrhea in children under the age of five in Afghanistan. A secondary data analysis of the Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey (AfDHS) 2015 was focused on diarrhea in children under the age of five. The dataset of the AfDHS 2015 was used for the analysis. The subjects for this study were 30,238 under-five children. A logistic regression model was applied to examine the determinants of childhood diarrhea. This study found that 7,921 (26.2%) out of 30,238 under-five children had diarrhea within the two weeks preceding the survey. Higher maternal education accompanied a lower risk of childhood diarrhea with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 0.70 (P<0.01) than did no education. Flush toilets (AOR=0.84, P<0.01) and traditional dry vaults (AOR=0.83, P<0.001) were less likely associated with diarrhea compared with pit latrines. Tube wells, public taps, and unprotected wells and springs were sources of drinking water with a higher risk of diarrhea than piped water. This study identified that the type of toilet facility, source of drinking water, age of the child, and maternal education were important determinants of under-five diarrhea. Intervention programs concerning improved sanitation facilities, sources of drinking water, and raising women's level of education and health awareness are important.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241211, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of an aging population, quality of life (QOL) is an important consideration for the well-being of the elderly. However, there is limited information on the QOL of the elderly in Myanmar. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for low QOL among the elderly in urban and peri-urban areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly aged 60 years or older in two urban and two peri-urban townships in the Yangon Region from July to September 2019. A multi-stage sampling method was used to recruit study participants using a pre-tested questionnaire. A total of 616 (305 males and 311 females) elderly people were interviewed using a face-to-face interview technique. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed on the four domains (physical health, psychological health, social relationship, and environment) of QOL measured with the WHOQOL-BREF. RESULTS: Income level and having intimate friends influenced the QOL scores of the elderly in all domains, while education level and marital status influenced psychological health, social relationship, and environment domains. Social interaction with neighbors increased the QOL scores for physical health, social relationship, and environment domains. Living in peri-urban areas was associated with lower QOL scores for physical health, psychological health, and environment, while participation in group activities increased QOL scores in these domains. Having comorbidities affected the QOL for psychological health and environment domains, while the frequency of going out affected physical health, and the frequency of religious performance affected social relationship. CONCLUSION: Residential location, education level, marital status, income, comorbidities, social interactions with neighbors and friends, participation in group activities, and frequencies of going out and religious activities should be considered in planning and implementing programs for the elderly in Myanmar. Peri-urban development, strengthening healthcare and social security systems, and encouraging social interaction and participation in group activities play critical roles in improving the QOL for elderly residing in Myanmar.

12.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched in 2005 to examine gene-environment interactions in lifestyle-related diseases, including cancers, among the Japanese. This report describes the study design and baseline profile of the study participants. METHODS: The participants of the J-MICC Study were individuals aged 35 to 69 years enrolled from respondents to study announcements in specified regions, inhabitants attending health checkup examinations provided by local governments, visitors at health checkup centers, and first-visit patients at a cancer hospital in Japan. At the time of the baseline survey, from 2005 to 2014, we obtained comprehensive information regarding demographics, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, sleeping, exercise, food intake frequency, medication and supplement use, personal and family disease history, psychological stress, and female reproductive history, and collected peripheral blood samples. RESULTS: The baseline survey included 92,610 adults (mean age: 55.2 [9.4] years, 44.1% men) from 14 study regions in 12 prefectures. The participation rate was 33.5%, with participation ranging from 19.7% to 69.8% in different study regions. The largest number of participants was in the age groups of 65-69 years for men and 60-64 years for women. There were differences in body mass index, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sleep duration between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The J-MICC Study collected lifestyle and clinical data and biospecimens from over 90,000 participants. This cohort is expected to be a valuable resource for the national and international scientific community in providing evidence to support longer healthy lives.

13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 742, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important for patient care. However, the geographic distribution and utilisation of these machines in countries with limited resources, such as Myanmar, have not been sufficiently studied. Therefore, this study aims to identify the geographic distribution and utilisation of CT and MRI services at public hospitals in Myanmar. METHODS: This nationwide, cross-sectional study was conducted at 43 public hospitals in Myanmar. Data were collected retrospectively using a prepared form from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2017 at public hospitals in Myanmar. A descriptive analysis was performed to calculate the number of CT and MRI units per million population in each state and region of Myanmar. The distribution of CT and MRI units was assessed using the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient, which are indicators of inequality in distribution. RESULTS: In total, 45 CT and 14 MRI units had been installed in public hospitals in Myanmar by 2017. In total, 205,570 CT examinations and 18,981 MRI examinations have been performed within the study period. CT units per million population in 2017 varied from 0.30 in Rakhine State to 3.22 in Kayah State. However, MRI units were available only in public hospitals in five states/regions. The Gini coefficient for CT and MRI was 0.35 and 0.69, respectively. An upward trend in the utilisation rate of CT and MRI was also observed during the study period, especially among patients aged between 36 and 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Throughout Myanmar, CT units were more equally distributed than MRI units. CT and MRI units were mostly concentrated in the Yangon and Mandalay Regions, where the population density is higher. The geographic distribution and utilisation rate of CT and MRI units varied among states, regions, and patients' age group. However, the utilisation rates of CT and MRI increased annually in all states and regions during the review period. The Ministry of Health and Sports in Myanmar should consider the utilisation and population coverage of CT and MRI as an important factor when there will be procurement of those medical equipment in the future.

14.
Gene ; 762: 145019, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755657

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies have reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) regulates adipocyte differentiation, lipid storage, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, we examined the associations between PPAR-γ polymorphisms (rs1801282, rs3856806, rs12497191, rs1151999, and rs1152003) and serum lipids in two cross-sectional studies. In the Shizuoka area of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study, we examined 4,952 participants (3,356 men and 1,596 women) in a baseline survey and 2,245 participants (1,550 men and 695 women) in a second survey 5 years later. Outcome measures were the prevalence of dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C] ≥ 140 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol < 40 mg/dl, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl, and/or use of cholesterol-lowering drugs) and the prevalence of high LDL-C (LDL-C ≥ 140 mg/dl and/or use of cholesterol-lowering drugs). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression models. A total of 2,114 and 1,431 individuals (42.7% and 28.9%) had dyslipidemia and high LDL-C in the baseline survey, respectively, as did 933 and 716 (41.6% and 31.9%), respectively, in the second survey. In the baseline study, compared with major allele homozygotes, minor allele homozygotes of rs3856806 and rs12497191 had a 42% (OR, 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-0.85) and 23% (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60-0.99) lower risk of dyslipidemia, respectively, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. In addition, minor allele homozygotes of rs3856806 had a 45% (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35-0.86) lower risk of high LDL-C. Similar risk reductions were found in the second survey. In conclusion, rs3856806 and rs12497191 polymorphisms may be related to a lower risk of dyslipidemia and high LDL-C.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Nutrition ; 79-80: 110933, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition among the elderly is an important health concern in Myanmar. The country is challenged by both an aging population and poor nutritional status. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition and elucidate its associated factors among the elderly in Loikaw, Myanmar. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2019. Using a multistage sampling method, 747 elderly individuals (313 men and 434 women) were recruited. The nutritional status of these participants was assessed using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment tool, with a face-to-face interview method. Body mass index, mid-upper arm and calf circumference, blood pressure, and random blood sugar levels were also assessed. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of malnutrition and at risk for malnutrition were 21.7% and 59.4%, respectively. In the multivariate model, dental problem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-3.83), low level of education (aOR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.44-6.81), aged ≥70 y (aOR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.83-6.88), current betel chewing (aOR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.64-4.87), and having heart disease (aOR, 8.04; 95% CI, 2.29-18.13) were positively associated with malnutrition. CONCLUSION: One in five elderly study participants were malnourished and 50% were at risk for malnutrition. Malnutrition was associated with being ≥70 y of age, having a low educational level, chewing betel, having a history of heart disease, and having dental problems. These findings may alert policymakers to develop and implement effective interventions for improving nutritional status of the elderly population.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140830, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721671

RESUMO

Because of the deficiency of water caused by the regional disparities of rainfall due to global warming, attention has been given to the use of well water as drinking water in developing countries. Our fieldwork study in Afghanistan showed that there was a maximum value of 3371 µg/L and an average value of 233 µg/L of lithium in well drinking water. Since the level of lithium in well water is higher than the levels in other countries, we investigated the health risk of lithium. After confirming no influence of ≤1000 µM lithium on cell viability, we found that lithium at concentrations of 100 and 500 µM promoted anchorage-independent growth of human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) and lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) but not that of human keratinocytic carcinoma cells (HSC-5) or lung epithelial carcinoma cells (A549). The same concentrations of lithium also promoted phosphorylation of c-SRC and MEK/ERK but not that of AKT in the keratinocytes. Inhibitors of c-SRC (PP2) and MEK (PD98059) suppressed the lithium-induced increase in anchorage-independent growth of the keratinocytes. Our results suggested that lithium promoted transformation of nontumorigenic cells rather than progression of tumorigenic cells with preferential activation of the c-SRC/MEK/ERK pathway. Since previous pharmacokinetics studies indicated that it is possible for the serum level of lithium to reach 100 µM by drinking 2.5 L of water containing 3371 µg/L of lithium per day, the high level of lithium contamination in well drinking water in Kabul might be a potential oncogenic risk in humans.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Lítio , Afeganistão , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Queratinócitos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236656, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, elderly population with impaired cognitive function, such as dementia, has been accelerating, and Myanmar is no exception. However, cognitive function among elderly in Myanmar has rarely been assessed. This study aimed to identify the rate of cognitive impairment and its risk factors among the elderly in Myanmar. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at rural health centers in Nay Pyi Taw Union Territory, Myanmar, from December 2018 to January 2019. In total, 757 elderly individuals aged 60 years or over (males: 246 [32.5%], females: 511 [67.5%]) were interviewed using a face-to-face method with a pre-tested questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The rate of impaired cognitive function among participants was 29.9% (males: 23.6%; females: 32.9%). The following participants were more likely to present cognitive impairment: those aged 70-79 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-2.70) and 80 years or older (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.25-6.76); those who were illiterate (AOR = 9.1; 95% CI: 3.82-21.51); and those dependent on family members (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.04-2.44). The elderly livening with their families and those who reported having good health (AOR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.44-0.99) were less likely to have cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Using the HDS-R Myanmar version, this study reported that there out of five elderly participants had cognitive impairment, and its risk factors, altering policy makers that Myanmar needs to prepare for adequate healthcare services and social support for elderly with cognitive impairment. Future research should be performed not only to detect general cognitive impairment but also to differentiate specific cognitive domains impairments among Myanmar elderly. Longitudinal studies are needed to observe the causal and protective factors associated with cognitive impairments in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609762

RESUMO

Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) inhibits the activity of thioredoxin (TXN), leading to increased oxidative stress. Expression of the TXNIP gene is regulated by DNA methylation. However, no study has reported the influence of lifestyle factors on TXNIP DNA methylation. Our goal was to determine the association between smoking habits and TXNIP DNA methylation levels in a Japanese population. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 417 subjects (180 males and 237 females) participating in a health examination. We used a pyrosequencing assay to determine TXNIP DNA methylation levels in leukocytes. The mean TXNIP DNA methylation level in current smokers (75.3%) was significantly lower than that in never and ex-smokers (never: 78.1%, p < 0.001; ex: 76.9%, p = 0.013). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that the OR for TXNIP DNA hypomethylation was significantly higher in current smokers than that in never smokers, and significantly higher in current smokers with years of smoking ≥ 35 and Brinkman Index ≥ 600 compared to that in non-smokers. In conclusion, we found that current smokers had TXNIP DNA hypomethylation compared to never and ex-smokers. Moreover, long-term smoking and high smoking exposure also were associated with TXNIP DNA hypomethylation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Metilação de DNA , Hábitos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Fumar/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115094, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659568

RESUMO

WHO has presented a health-based guideline value for boron in drinking water. That fact indicates that a high level of boron is toxic for humans. However, there is no direct evidence of boron-mediated malignant transformation. In this study, human lung epithelial nontumorigenic BEAS-2B cells and tumorigenic A549 cells were used to investigate the tumorigenic toxicity of boron in vitro. Anchorage-independent growth, a hallmark of malignant transformation, was increased by boron at concentrations of 50, 250 and 500 µM in BEAS-2B cells, though the same concentrations of boron had no influence on anchorage-independent growth of A549 cells. Moreover, boron at concentrations of 250 and 500 µM activated the c-SRC/PI3K/AKT pathway of BEAS-2B cells. The results of our in vitro study suggest that exposure to high levels of boron promotes transforming activity of nontumorigenic cells.


Assuntos
Boro , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Linhagem Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Células Epiteliais , Humanos
20.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 82(1): 47-57, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273632

RESUMO

Health services for pregnancy and delivery at public health facilities are fully subsidized by the government in Mongolia. However, it has been reported that health financing, budget planning, and implementation processes are weak. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the costs per inpatient of vaginal delivery and cesarean section (C-section) by using data gathered from a tertiary hospital in Ulaanbaatar. Inpatient and financial data were collected from the Statistics and Finance, Economics Department of National Center for Maternal and Child Health. A top-down method was used for the calculation of unit costs. The total number of deliveries in 2016 were 11,033, including 7,777 vaginal deliveries and 3,256 C-sections. The cost per inpatient stay for vaginal delivery and C-section were USD 255 and USD 592, respectively. The average cost per bed-day of the six departments of the obstetrics and gynecology hospital was USD 80. The percentage that represents employees' salary in the cost per inpatient was as low as 12.4% for vaginal delivery and 18.5% for C-section, although the cost for salaries accounted for 51.2% of the total expenditure of the hospital. Results show that the cost per inpatient of C-section was two times higher than that of vaginal delivery. The cost of childbirths may account for approximately 9% of total health expenditure of the country. These results may be advantageous to the government in instituting a policy and controlling the health care budget to improve cost-effectiveness and equal access to all in health care services in Mongolia.

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