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1.
Blood ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932845

RESUMO

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II deficiency is a rare but life-threatening primary combined immunodeficiency. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains the only curative treatment for this condition, but transplant survival in published series was poor. We analysed the outcome of 25 such patients undergoing first HCT at our centre between 1995 and 2018. Median age at diagnosis was 6.5 months (range, birth to 7.5 years). Median age at transplant was 21.4 months (range, 0.1-7.8 years). Donors were matched family donors (MFD) (n=6), unrelated donors (UD) (n=12) and haploidentical donors (HID) (n=7). PBSC was the stem cell source in 68% of patients. Conditioning was treosulfan-based in 84% of patients; 84% received either alemtuzumab (n=14) or ATG (n=8) as serotherapy.With a 2.9-year median follow-up, overall survival (OS) improved from 33% (95%CI, 46-68%) for the children transplanted before 2008 (n=6) to 94% (95% CI, 66-99%) for children transplanted after 2008 (n=19) (p=0.003). For HCT after 2008, the OS according to donor was 100% for MFD, 100% for UD and 85% for HID (p=0.40). None had grade III-IV acute or chronic GvHD. Latest median donor myeloid and lymphocyte chimerism was 100% (range, 0-100%) and 100% (range, 64-100%) respectively. Latest CD4+T-lymphocyte number was significantly lower in transplant survivors (n=14) compared to post-transplant controls (p=0.01). All survivors were off immunoglobulin replacement and had protective vaccine responses to tetanus and Haemophilus influenza. None had any significant infection or autoimmunity. Changing transplant strategy in our center has significantly improved outcomes for MHC class II deficiency.

2.
Sci Immunol ; 4(42)2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836668

RESUMO

Excessive type I interferon (IFNα/ß) activity is implicated in a spectrum of human disease, yet its direct role remains to be conclusively proven. We investigated two siblings with severe early-onset autoinflammatory disease and an elevated IFN signature. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a shared homozygous missense Arg148Trp variant in STAT2, a transcription factor that functions exclusively downstream of innate IFNs. Cells bearing STAT2R148W in homozygosity (but not heterozygosity) were hypersensitive to IFNα/ß, which manifest as prolonged Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling and transcriptional activation. We show that this gain of IFN activity results from the failure of mutant STAT2R148W to interact with ubiquitin-specific protease 18, a key STAT2-dependent negative regulator of IFNα/ß signaling. These observations reveal an essential in vivo function of STAT2 in the regulation of human IFNα/ß signaling, providing concrete evidence of the serious pathological consequences of unrestrained IFNα/ß activity and supporting efforts to target this pathway therapeutically in IFN-associated disease.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS) deficiency has been categorized as a combined immunodeficiency often complicated by enteropathies, autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and malignancy. We report seven new patients and four novel ICOS mutations resulting in a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)-like phenotype and show that dysregulated IL-12 release, reduced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) expression, and skewing towards a Th1-dominant phenotype are all associated with inflammatory complications in this condition. METHODS: A combination of whole exome and Sanger sequencing was used to identify novel mutations. Standard clinical and immunological evaluation was performed. FACS and ELISA-based assays were used to study cytokine responses and ICOS/ICOSL/CTLA4 expression following stimulation of whole blood and PBMCs with multiple TLR ligands, anti-CD3, and PHA. RESULTS: Four novel ICOS mutations included homozygous c.323_332del, homozygous c.451C>G, and compound heterozygous c.58+1G>A/c.356T>C. The predominant clinical phenotype was that of antibody deficiency associated with inflammatory complications in 4/7 patients. Six out of seven patients were treated with immunoglobulin replacement and one patient died from salmonella sepsis. All patients who were tested showed reduced IL-10 and IL-17 cytokine responses, normal IL-1ß, IL6, and TNF release following LPS stimulation and highly elevated IL-12 production in response to combined LPS/IFNγ stimulation. This was associated with skewing of CD4+ T cells towards Th1 phenotype and increased expression of ICOSL on monocytes. Lastly, reduced CTLA4 expression was found in 2 patients. One patient treated with ustekinumab for pancytopenia due to granulomatous bone marrow infiltration failed to respond to this targeted therapy. CONCLUSIONS: ICOS deficiency is associated with defective T cell activation, with simultaneously enhanced stimulation of monocytes. The latter is likely to result from a lack of ICOS/ICOSL interaction which might be necessary to provide negative feedback which limits monocytes activation.

4.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701524

RESUMO

Treosulfan is given off-label in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This study investigated treosulfan's pharmacokinetics (PKs), efficacy, and safety in a prospective trial. Pediatric patients (n = 87) receiving treosulfan-fludarabine conditioning were followed for at least 1 year posttransplant. PKs were described with a two-compartment model. During follow-up, 11 of 87 patients died and 12 of 87 patients had low engraftment (≤ 20% myeloid chimerism). For each increase in treosulfan area under the curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞) ) of 1,000 mg hour/L the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for mortality increase was 1.46 (1.23-1.74), and the hazard ratio for low engraftment was 0.61 (0.36-1.04). A cumulative AUC(0-∞) of 4,800 mg hour/L maximized the probability of success (> 20% engraftment and no mortality) at 82%. Probability of success with AUC(0-∞) between 80% and 125% of this target were 78% and 79%. Measuring PK at the first dose and individualizing the third dose may be required in nonmalignant disease.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(8): 776-785, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512162

RESUMO

Mutations in the coiled-coil and DNA-binding domains of STAT1 lead to delayed STAT1 dephosphorylation and subsequently gain-of-function. The associated clinical phenotype is broad and can include chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and/or combined immunodeficiency (CID). We report a case of CMC/CID in a 10-year-old boy due to a novel mutation in the small ubiquitin molecule (SUMO) consensus site at the C-terminal region of STAT1 leading to gain-of-function by impaired sumoylation. Immunodysregulatory features of disease improved after Janus kinase inhibitor (jakinib) treatment. Functional testing after treatment confirmed reversal of the STAT1 hyper-phosphorylation and downstream transcriptional activity. IL-17 and IL-22 production was, however, not restored with jakinib therapy (ruxolitinib), and the patient remained susceptible to opportunistic infection. In conclusion, a mutation in the SUMO consensus site of STAT1 can lead to gain-of-function that is reversible with jakinib treatment. However, full immunocompetence was not restored, suggesting that this treatment strategy might serve well as a bridge to definitive therapy such as hematopoietic stem cell transplant rather than a long-term treatment option.

6.
J Exp Med ; 216(6): 1311-1327, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040185

RESUMO

Interleukin-2, which conveys essential signals for immunity, operates through a heterotrimeric receptor. Here we identify human interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) ß chain (IL2RB) gene defects as a cause of life-threatening immune dysregulation. We report three homozygous mutations in the IL2RB gene of eight individuals from four consanguineous families that cause disease by distinct mechanisms. Nearly all patients presented with autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, bowel inflammation, dermatological abnormalities, lymphadenopathy, and cytomegalovirus disease. Patient T lymphocytes lacked surface expression of IL-2Rß and were unable to respond to IL-2 stimulation. By contrast, natural killer cells retained partial IL-2Rß expression and function. IL-2Rß loss of function was recapitulated in a recombinant system in which IL2RB mutations caused reduced surface expression and IL-2 binding. Stem cell transplant ameliorated clinical symptoms in one patient; forced expression of wild-type IL-2Rß also increased the IL-2 responsiveness of patient T lymphocytes in vitro. Insights from these patients can inform the development of IL-2-based therapeutics for immunological diseases and cancer.

10.
Nat Immunol ; 20(3): 350-361, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718914

RESUMO

Despite the known importance of zinc for human immunity, molecular insights into its roles have remained limited. Here we report a novel autosomal recessive disease characterized by absent B cells, agammaglobulinemia and early onset infections in five unrelated families. The immunodeficiency results from hypomorphic mutations of SLC39A7, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-to-cytoplasm zinc transporter ZIP7. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis we have precisely modeled ZIP7 deficiency in mice. Homozygosity for a null allele caused embryonic death, but hypomorphic alleles reproduced the block in B cell development seen in patients. B cells from mutant mice exhibited a diminished concentration of cytoplasmic free zinc, increased phosphatase activity and decreased phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of the pre-B cell and B cell receptors. Our findings highlight a specific role for cytosolic Zn2+ in modulating B cell receptor signal strength and positive selection.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Pré-Escolar , Citosol/imunologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Linhagem , Zinco/metabolismo
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 280-293, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mismatched stem cell transplantation is associated with a high risk of graft loss, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and transplant-related mortality. Alternative graft manipulation strategies have been used over the last 11 years to reduce these risks. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the outcome of using different graft manipulation strategies among children with primary immunodeficiencies. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2017, 147 patients with primary immunodeficiencies received 155 mismatched grafts: 30 T-cell receptor (TCR) αß/CD19-depleted grafts, 43 cord blood (CB) grafts (72% with no serotherapy), 17 CD34+ selection with T-cell add-back grafts, and 65 unmanipulated grafts. RESULTS: The estimated 8-year survival of the entire cohort was 79%, transplant-related mortality was 21.7%, and the graft failure rate was 6.7%. Posttransplantation viral reactivation, grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD), and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) complicated 49.6%, 35%, and 15% of transplantations, respectively. Use of TCRαß/CD19 depletion was associated with a significantly lower incidence of grade II to IV aGvHD (11.5%) and cGvHD (0%), although with a greater incidence of viral reactivation (70%) in comparison with other grafts. T-cell immune reconstitution was robust among CB transplants, although with a high incidence (56.7%) of grade II to IV aGvHD. Stable full donor engraftment was significantly greater at 80% among TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted and CB transplants versus 40% to 60% among the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly accessible CB and haploidentical grafts are suitable alternatives for patients with no HLA-matched donor. Cord transplantation without serotherapy and TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted grafts produced comparable survival rates of around 80%, although with a high rate of aGvHD with the former and a high risk of viral reactivation with the latter that need to be addressed.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(4): 1482-1495, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caspase activation and recruitment domain 11 (CARD11) encodes a scaffold protein in lymphocytes that links antigen receptor engagement with downstream signaling to nuclear factor κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. Germline CARD11 mutations cause several distinct primary immune disorders in human subjects, including severe combined immune deficiency (biallelic null mutations), B-cell expansion with nuclear factor κB and T-cell anergy (heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations), and severe atopic disease (loss-of-function, heterozygous, dominant interfering mutations), which has focused attention on CARD11 mutations discovered by using whole-exome sequencing. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the molecular actions of an extended allelic series of CARD11 and to characterize the expanding range of clinical phenotypes associated with heterozygous CARD11 loss-of-function alleles. METHODS: Cell transfections and primary T-cell assays were used to evaluate signaling and function of CARD11 variants. RESULTS: Here we report on an expanded cohort of patients harboring novel heterozygous CARD11 mutations that extend beyond atopy to include other immunologic phenotypes not previously associated with CARD11 mutations. In addition to (and sometimes excluding) severe atopy, heterozygous missense and indel mutations in CARD11 presented with immunologic phenotypes similar to those observed in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 loss of function, dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, neutropenia, and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked-like syndrome. Pathogenic variants exhibited dominant negative activity and were largely confined to the CARD or coiled-coil domains of the CARD11 protein. CONCLUSION: These results illuminate a broader phenotypic spectrum associated with CARD11 mutations in human subjects and underscore the need for functional studies to demonstrate that rare gene variants encountered in expected and unexpected phenotypes must nonetheless be validated for pathogenic activity.

14.
Arch Dis Child ; 104(1): 25-29, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the likely rate of patient randomisation and to facilitate sample size calculation for a full-scale phase III trial of varicella zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG) and aciclovir as postexposure prophylaxis against chickenpox in children with cancer. DESIGN: Multicentre pilot randomised controlled trial of VZIG and oral aciclovir. SETTING: England, UK. PATIENTS: Children under 16 years of age with a diagnosis of cancer: currently or within 6 months of receiving cancer treatment and with negative varicella zoster virus (VZV) serostatus at diagnosis or within the last 3 months. INTERVENTIONS: Study participants who have a significant VZV exposure were randomised to receive PEP in the form of VZIG or aciclovir after the exposure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of patients registered and randomised within 12 months of the trial opening to recruitment and incidence of breakthrough varicella. RESULTS: The study opened in six sites over a 13-month period. 482 patients were screened for eligibility, 32 patients were registered and 3 patients were randomised following VZV exposure. All three were randomised to receive aciclovir and there were no cases of breakthrough varicella. CONCLUSIONS: Given the limited recruitment to the PEPtalk2 pilot, it is unlikely that the necessary sample size would be achievable using this strategy in a full-scale trial. The study identified factors that could be used to modify the design of a definitive trial but other options for defining the best means to protect such children against VZV should be explored. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN48257441, EudraCT number: 2013-001332-22, sponsor: University of Birmingham.


Assuntos
Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Soros Imunes , Neoplasias , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Adolescente , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 3/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 3/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2766, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564229

RESUMO

Two unrelated patients with GATA2-haploinsufficiency developed a hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)-like disease during a varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. High copy numbers of VZV were detected in the blood, and the patients were successfully treated with acyclovir and intravenous immunoglobulins. After treatment with corticosteroids for the HLH, both patients made a full recovery. Although the mechanisms leading to this disease constellation have yet to be characterized, we hypothesize that impairment of the immunoregulatory role of NK cells in GATA2-haploinsufficiency may have accentuated the patients' susceptibility to HLH. Expansion of a double negative T-lymphocytic population identified with CyTOF could be a further factor contributing to HLH in these patients. This is the first report of VZV-triggered HLH-like disease in a primary immunodeficiency and the third report of HLH in GATA2-haploinsufficiency. Since HLH was part of the presentation in one of our patients, GATA2-haploinsufficiency represents a potential differential diagnosis in patients presenting with the clinical features of HLH-especially in cases of persisting cytopenia after recovery from HLH.


Assuntos
Deficiência de GATA2/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Deficiência de GATA2/virologia , Humanos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/virologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Linfócitos T/virologia , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/virologia
17.
Nat Immunol ; 19(9): 973-985, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127434

RESUMO

Human inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie mycobacterial diseases. We describe patients with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) disease who are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations of SPPL2A. This gene encodes a transmembrane protease that degrades the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of CD74 (HLA invariant chain) in antigen-presenting cells. The CD74 NTF therefore accumulates in the HLA class II+ myeloid and lymphoid cells of SPPL2a-deficient patients. This toxic fragment selectively depletes IL-12- and IL-23-producing CD1c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDC2s) and their circulating progenitors. Moreover, SPPL2a-deficient memory TH1* cells selectively fail to produce IFN-γ when stimulated with mycobacterial antigens in vitro. Finally, Sppl2a-/- mice lack cDC2s, have CD4+ T cells that produce small amounts of IFN-γ after BCG infection, and are highly susceptible to infection with BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that inherited SPPL2a deficiency in humans underlies mycobacterial disease by decreasing the numbers of cDC2s and impairing IFN-γ production by mycobacterium-specific memory TH1* cells.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/genética , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Infecções por Mycobacterium/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/fisiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade , Memória Imunológica , Lactente , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Linfadenopatia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Vacinação
18.
Blood Adv ; 2(7): 777-786, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618462

RESUMO

Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can experience a severe disease course, with progressive destructive polyarthritis refractory to conventional therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs including biologics, as well as life-threatening complications including macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative immunomodulatory strategy for patients with such refractory disease. We treated 16 patients in 5 transplant centers between 2007 and 2016: 11 children with systemic JIA and 5 with rheumatoid factor-negative polyarticular JIA; all were either refractory to standard therapy, had developed secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/MAS poorly responsive to treatment, or had failed autologous HSCT. All children received reduced toxicity fludarabine-based conditioning regimens and serotherapy with alemtuzumab. Fourteen of 16 patients are alive with a median follow-up of 29 months (range, 2.8-96 months). All patients had hematological recovery. Three patients had grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of viral infections after HSCT was high, likely due to the use of alemtuzumab in already heavily immunosuppressed patients. All patients had significant improvement of arthritis, resolution of MAS, and improved quality of life early following allo-HSCT; most importantly, 11 children achieved complete drug-free remission at the last follow-up. Allo-HSCT using alemtuzumab and reduced toxicity conditioning is a promising therapeutic option for patients with JIA refractory to conventional therapy and/or complicated by MAS. Long-term follow-up is required to ascertain whether disease control following HSCT continues indefinitely.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Adolescente , Alemtuzumab/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Humanos , Imunossupressão/métodos , Lactente , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Masculino , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
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