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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 815-834, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031012

RESUMO

We identified individuals with variations in ACTL6B, a component of the chromatin remodeling machinery including the BAF complex. Ten individuals harbored bi-allelic mutations and presented with global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and spasticity, and ten individuals with de novo heterozygous mutations displayed intellectual disability, ambulation deficits, severe language impairment, hypotonia, Rett-like stereotypies, and minor facial dysmorphisms (wide mouth, diastema, bulbous nose). Nine of these ten unrelated individuals had the identical de novo c.1027G>A (p.Gly343Arg) mutation. Human-derived neurons were generated that recaptured ACTL6B expression patterns in development from progenitor cell to post-mitotic neuron, validating the use of this model. Engineered knock-out of ACTL6B in wild-type human neurons resulted in profound deficits in dendrite development, a result recapitulated in two individuals with different bi-allelic mutations, and reversed on clonal genetic repair or exogenous expression of ACTL6B. Whole-transcriptome analyses and whole-genomic profiling of the BAF complex in wild-type and bi-allelic mutant ACTL6B neural progenitor cells and neurons revealed increased genomic binding of the BAF complex in ACTL6B mutants, with corresponding transcriptional changes in several genes including TPPP and FSCN1, suggesting that altered regulation of some cytoskeletal genes contribute to altered dendrite development. Assessment of bi-alleic and heterozygous ACTL6B mutations on an ACTL6B knock-out human background demonstrated that bi-allelic mutations mimic engineered deletion deficits while heterozygous mutations do not, suggesting that the former are loss of function and the latter are gain of function. These results reveal a role for ACTL6B in neurodevelopment and implicate another component of chromatin remodeling machinery in brain disease.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clathrins play a key role in endocytosis, recycling, and trafficking as well as the generation of presynaptic vesicles. We report a new clinical condition associated with a de novo variant in the CLTC gene, which encodes the clathrin heavy polypeptide. CASE REPORT: This 30-year-old woman presented with a developmental disorder during childhood that progressed to mild cognitive decline in late childhood and relapsing-remitting hypokinetic-rigid syndrome with severe achalasia, weight loss, and mood disorder in adulthood. 123I-Ioflupane SPECT was normal. Blood phenylalanine was slightly increased and PAH sequencing revealed compound heterozygosity for two variants, p.[Asp151Glu]:[Thr380Met]. CSF examination unexpectedly detected a remarkable reduction of homovanillic, 5-hydroxyindolacetic, and 5-methylthetrahydrofolic acids, which could not be ascribed to any alteration of tetrahydrobiopterin and related biogenic amine pathways. METHODS: Trio-based exome sequencing was performed. RESULT: A de novo missense variant (c.2669C > T/p.Pro890Leu) was detected in CLTC. Treatment with biogenic amine precursors was ineffective, while the inhibitor of MAO-A selegiline resulted in persistent clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest CLTC defect as a new disorder of biogenic amine trafficking, resulting in neurodevelopmental derangement and movement disorder. Neurotransmitter depletion in CSF may be a biomarker of this disease, and selegiline a possible treatment option.

4.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variants in IQSEC2, escaping X inactivation, cause X-linked intellectual disability with frequent epilepsy in males and females. We aimed to investigate sex-specific differences. METHODS: We collected the data of 37 unpublished patients (18 males and 19 females) with IQSEC2 pathogenic variants and 5 individuals with variants of unknown significance and reviewed published variants. We compared variant types and phenotypes in males and females and performed an analysis of IQSEC2 isoforms. RESULTS: IQSEC2 pathogenic variants mainly led to premature truncation and were scattered throughout the longest brain-specific isoform, encoding the synaptic IQSEC2/BRAG1 protein. Variants occurred de novo in females but were either de novo (2/3) or inherited (1/3) in males, with missense variants being predominantly inherited. Developmental delay and intellectual disability were overall more severe in males than in females. Likewise, seizures were more frequently observed and intractable, and started earlier in males than in females. No correlation was observed between the age at seizure onset and severity of intellectual disability or resistance to antiepileptic treatments. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive overview of IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females, and suggests that an accurate dosage of IQSEC2 at the synapse is crucial during normal brain development.

5.
Brain ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985992

RESUMO

The transcription factor BCL11B is essential for development of the nervous and the immune system, and Bcl11b deficiency results in structural brain defects, reduced learning capacity, and impaired immune cell development in mice. However, the precise role of BCL11B in humans is largely unexplored, except for a single patient with a BCL11B missense mutation, affected by multisystem anomalies and profound immune deficiency. Using massively parallel sequencing we identified 13 patients bearing heterozygous germline alterations in BCL11B. Notably, all of them are affected by global developmental delay with speech impairment and intellectual disability; however, none displayed overt clinical signs of immune deficiency. Six frameshift mutations, two nonsense mutations, one missense mutation, and two chromosomal rearrangements resulting in diminished BCL11B expression, arose de novo. A further frameshift mutation was transmitted from a similarly affected mother. Interestingly, the most severely affected patient harbours a missense mutation within a zinc-finger domain of BCL11B, probably affecting the DNA-binding structural interface, similar to the recently published patient. Furthermore, the most C-terminally located premature termination codon mutation fails to rescue the progenitor cell proliferation defect in hippocampal slice cultures from Bcl11b-deficient mice. Concerning the role of BCL11B in the immune system, extensive immune phenotyping of our patients revealed alterations in the T cell compartment and lack of peripheral type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), consistent with the findings described in Bcl11b-deficient mice. Unsupervised analysis of 102 T lymphocyte subpopulations showed that the patients clearly cluster apart from healthy children, further supporting the common aetiology of the disorder. Taken together, we show here that mutations leading either to BCL11B haploinsufficiency or to a truncated BCL11B protein clinically cause a non-syndromic neurodevelopmental delay. In addition, we suggest that missense mutations affecting specific sites within zinc-finger domains might result in distinct and more severe clinical outcomes.

6.
PLoS Genet ; 14(4): e1007285, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649218

RESUMO

Epilepsy will affect nearly 3% of people at some point during their lifetime. Previous copy number variants (CNVs) studies of epilepsy have used array-based technology and were restricted to the detection of large or exonic events. In contrast, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has the potential to more comprehensively profile CNVs but existing analytic methods suffer from limited accuracy. We show that this is in part due to the non-uniformity of read coverage, even after intra-sample normalization. To improve on this, we developed PopSV, an algorithm that uses multiple samples to control for technical variation and enables the robust detection of CNVs. Using WGS and PopSV, we performed a comprehensive characterization of CNVs in 198 individuals affected with epilepsy and 301 controls. For both large and small variants, we found an enrichment of rare exonic events in epilepsy patients, especially in genes with predicted loss-of-function intolerance. Notably, this genome-wide survey also revealed an enrichment of rare non-coding CNVs near previously known epilepsy genes. This enrichment was strongest for non-coding CNVs located within 100 Kbp of an epilepsy gene and in regions associated with changes in the gene expression, such as expression QTLs or DNase I hypersensitive sites. Finally, we report on 21 potentially damaging events that could be associated with known or new candidate epilepsy genes. Our results suggest that comprehensive sequence-based profiling of CNVs could help explain a larger fraction of epilepsy cases.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epilepsia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Ann Neurol ; 83(6): 1089-1095, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518281

RESUMO

VPS13 protein family members VPS13A through VPS13C have been associated with various recessive movement disorders. We describe the first disease association of rare recessive VPS13D variants including frameshift, missense, and partial duplication mutations with a novel complex, hyperkinetic neurological disorder. The clinical features include developmental delay, a childhood onset movement disorder (chorea, dystonia, or tremor), and progressive spastic ataxia or paraparesis. Characteristic brain magnetic resonance imaging shows basal ganglia or diffuse white matter T2 hyperintensities as seen in Leigh syndrome and choreoacanthocytosis. Muscle biopsy in 1 case showed mitochondrial aggregates and lipidosis, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings underline the importance of the VPS13 complex in neurological diseases and a possible role in mitochondrial function. Ann Neurol 2018;83:1089-1095.

8.
J Med Genet ; 55(5): 316-321, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chitayat-Hall syndrome, initially described in 1990, is a rare condition characterised by distal arthrogryposis, intellectual disability, dysmorphic features and hypopituitarism, in particular growth hormone deficiency. The genetic aetiology has not been identified. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified three unrelated families with a total of six affected patients with the clinical manifestations of Chitayat-Hall syndrome. Through whole exome or whole genome sequencing, pathogenic variants in the MAGEL2 gene were identified in all affected patients. All disease-causing sequence variants detected are predicted to result in a truncated protein, including one complex variant that comprised a deletion and inversion. CONCLUSIONS: Chitayat-Hall syndrome is caused by pathogenic variants in MAGEL2 and shares a common aetiology with the recently described Schaaf-Yang syndrome. The phenotype of MAGEL2-related disorders is expanded to include growth hormone deficiency as an important and treatable complication.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 985-991, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430868

RESUMO

Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP-4) is a heterotetrameric protein complex which plays a key role in vesicle trafficking in neurons. Mutations in genes affecting different subunits of AP-4, including AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4M1, have been recently associated with an autosomal recessive phenotype, consisting of spastic tetraplegia, and intellectual disability (ID). The overlapping clinical picture among individuals carrying mutations in any of these genes has prompted the terms "AP-4 deficiency syndrome" for this clinically recognizable phenotype. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a novel homozygous mutation (c.991C>T, p.Q331*, NM_006594.4) in AP4B1 in two siblings from a consanguineous Pakistani couple, who presented with severe ID, progressive spastic tetraplegia, epilepsy, and microcephaly. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation was homozygous in the siblings and heterozygous in the parents. Similar to previously reported individuals with AP4B1 mutations, brain MRI revealed ventriculomegaly and white matter loss. Interestingly, in addition to the typical facial gestalt reported in other AP-4 deficiency cases, the older brother presented with congenital left Horner syndrome, bilateral optic nerve atrophy and cataract, which have not been previously reported in this condition. In summary, we report a novel AP4B1 homozygous mutation in two siblings and review the phenotype of AP-4 deficiency, speculating on a possible role of AP-4 complex in eye development.

10.
Genet Med ; 20(7): 745-753, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29261186

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fetal anomalies represent a poorly studied group of developmental disorders. Our objective was to assess the impact of whole-exome sequencing (WES) on the investigation of these anomalies. METHODS: We performed WES in 101 fetuses or stillborns who presented prenatally with severe anomalies, including renal a/dysgenesis, VACTERL association (vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities), brain anomalies, suspected ciliopathies, multiple major malformations, and akinesia. RESULTS: A molecular diagnosis was obtained in 19 cases (19%). In 13 of these cases, the diagnosis was not initially suspected by the clinicians because the phenotype was nonspecific or atypical, corresponding in some cases to the severe end of the spectrum of a known disease (e.g., MNX1-, RYR1-, or TUBB-related disorders). In addition, we identified likely pathogenic variants in genes (DSTYK, ACTB, and HIVEP2) previously associated with phenotypes that were substantially different from those found in our cases. Finally, we identified variants in novel candidate genes that were associated with perinatal lethality, including de novo mutations in GREB1L in two cases with bilateral renal agenesis, which represents a significant enrichment of such mutations in our cohort. CONCLUSION: Our study opens a window on the distinctive genetic landscape associated with fetal anomalies and highlights the power-but also the challenges-of WES in prenatal diagnosis.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 664-685, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100083

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) is a group of conditions characterized by the co-occurrence of epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID), typically with developmental plateauing or regression associated with frequent epileptiform activity. The cause of DEE remains unknown in the majority of cases. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in 197 individuals with unexplained DEE and pharmaco-resistant seizures and in their unaffected parents. We focused our attention on de novo mutations (DNMs) and identified candidate genes containing such variants. We sought to identify additional subjects with DNMs in these genes by performing targeted sequencing in another series of individuals with DEE and by mining various sequencing datasets. We also performed meta-analyses to document enrichment of DNMs in candidate genes by leveraging our WGS dataset with those of several DEE and ID series. By combining these strategies, we were able to provide a causal link between DEE and the following genes: NTRK2, GABRB2, CLTC, DHDDS, NUS1, RAB11A, GABBR2, and SNAP25. Overall, we established a molecular diagnosis in 63/197 (32%) individuals in our WGS series. The main cause of DEE in these individuals was de novo point mutations (53/63 solved cases), followed by inherited mutations (6/63 solved cases) and de novo CNVs (4/63 solved cases). De novo missense variants explained a larger proportion of individuals in our series than in other series that were primarily ascertained because of ID. Moreover, these DNMs were more frequently recurrent than those identified in ID series. These observations indicate that the genetic landscape of DEE might be different from that of ID without epilepsy.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Recidiva , Convulsões/genética
12.
J Med Genet ; 54(9): 613-623, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in forkhead box protein P1 (FOXP1) cause intellectual disability (ID) and specific language impairment (SLI), with or without autistic features (MIM: 613670). Despite multiple case reports no specific phenotype emerged so far. METHODS: We correlate clinical and molecular data of 25 novel and 23 previously reported patients with FOXP1 defects. We evaluated FOXP1 activity by an in vitro luciferase model and assessed protein stability in vitro by western blotting. RESULTS: Patients show ID, SLI, neuromotor delay (NMD) and recurrent facial features including a high broad forehead, bent downslanting palpebral fissures, ptosis and/or blepharophimosis and a bulbous nasal tip. Behavioural problems and autistic features are common. Brain, cardiac and urogenital malformations can be associated. More severe ID and NMD, sensorineural hearing loss and feeding difficulties are more common in patients with interstitial 3p deletions (14 patients) versus patients with monogenic FOXP1 defects (34 patients). Mutations result in impaired transcriptional repression and/or reduced protein stability. CONCLUSIONS: FOXP1-related ID syndrome is a recognisable entity with a wide clinical spectrum and frequent systemic involvement. Our data will be helpful to evaluate genotype-phenotype correlations when interpreting next-generation sequencing data obtained in patients with ID and/or SLI and will guide clinical management.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/química , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/genética , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Síndrome , Transcrição Genética
13.
Cancer Res ; 77(16): 4517-4529, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28646019

RESUMO

RAD51D is a key player in DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR), and RAD51D truncating variant carriers have an increased risk for ovarian cancer. However, the contribution of nontruncating RAD51D variants to cancer predisposition remains uncertain. Using deep sequencing and case-control genotyping studies, we show that in French Canadians, the missense RAD51D variant c.620C>T;p.S207L is highly prevalent and is associated with a significantly increased risk for ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC; 3.8% cases vs. 0.2% controls). The frequency of the p.S207L variant did not significantly differ from that of controls in breast, endometrial, pancreas, or colorectal adenocarcinomas. Functionally, we show that this mutation impairs HR by disrupting the RAD51D-XRCC2 interaction and confers PARP inhibitor sensitivity. These results highlight the importance of a functional RAD51D-XRCC2 interaction to promote HR and prevent the development of HGSC. This study identifies c.620C>T;p.S207L as the first bona fide pathogenic RAD51D missense cancer susceptibility allele and supports the use of targeted PARP-inhibitor therapies in ovarian cancer patients carrying deleterious missense RAD51D variants. Cancer Res; 77(16); 4517-29. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(5): 824-830, 2017 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434495

RESUMO

Glucose transport across the blood brain barrier and into neural cells is critical for normal cerebral physiologic function. Dysfunction of the cerebral glucose transporter GLUT1 (encoded by SLC2A1) is known to result in epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID), and movement disorder. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified rare homozygous missense variants (c.526C>T [p.Arg176Trp] and c.629C>T [p.Ala210Val]) in SLC45A1, encoding another cerebral glucose transporter, in two consanguineous multiplex families with moderate to severe ID, epilepsy, and variable neuropsychiatric features. The variants segregate with the phenotype in these families, affect well-conserved amino acids, and are predicted to be damaging by in silico programs. Intracellular glucose transport activity of the p.Arg176Trp and p.Ala210Val SLC45A1 variants, measured in transfected COS-7 cells, was approximately 50% (p = 0.013) and 33% (p = 0.008) lower, respectively, than that of intact SLC45A1. These results indicate that residues at positions 176 and 210 are critical for the glucose transport activity of SLC45A1. All together, our data strongly suggest that recessive mutations in SLC45A1 cause ID and epilepsy. SLC45A1 thus represents the second cerebral glucose transporter, in addition to GLUT1, to be involved in neurodevelopmental disability. Identification of additional individuals with mutations in SLC45A1 will allow better definition of the associated phenotypic spectrum and the exploration of potential targeted treatment options.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Animais , Células COS , Cercopithecus aethiops , Criança , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hum Genet ; 136(7): 821-834, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393272

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in genes encoding subunits of the spliceosome are the cause of several human diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases. The RNA splicing process is facilitated by the spliceosome, a large RNA-protein complex consisting of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), and many other proteins, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). The HNRNPU gene (OMIM *602869) encodes the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, which plays a crucial role in mammalian development. HNRNPU is expressed in the fetal brain and adult heart, kidney, liver, brain, and cerebellum. Microdeletions in the 1q44 region encompassing HNRNPU have been described in patients with intellectual disability (ID) and other clinical features, such as seizures, corpus callosum abnormalities (CCA), and microcephaly. Recently, pathogenic HNRNPU variants were identified in large ID and epileptic encephalopathy cohorts. In this study, we provide detailed clinical information of five novels and review two of the previously published individuals with (likely) pathogenic de novo variants in the HNRNPU gene including three non-sense and two missense variants, one small intragenic deletion, and one duplication. The phenotype in individuals with variants in HNRNPU is characterized by early onset seizures (6/7), severe ID (6/6), severe speech impairment (6/6), hypotonia (6/7), and central nervous system (CNS) (5/6), cardiac (4/6), and renal abnormalities (3/4). In this study, we broaden the clinical and mutational HNRNPU-associated spectrum, and demonstrate that heterozygous HNRNPU variants cause epilepsy, severe ID with striking speech impairment and variable CNS, cardiac, and renal anomalies.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo U/genética , Heterozigoto , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Idade de Início , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Sistema Nervoso Central/anormalidades , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Rim/anormalidades , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Fenótipo , Processamento de RNA , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Pequenas/genética , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/genética
16.
Neurol Genet ; 2(6): e115, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27830185

RESUMO

Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) are mainstays of neuronal function, and mutations in the genes encoding CNS Navs (Nav1.1 [SCN1A], Nav1.2 [SCN2A], Nav1.3 [SCN3A], and Nav1.6 [SCN8A]) are causes of some of the most common and severe genetic epilepsies and epileptic encephalopathies (EE).1 Fibroblast-growth-factor homologous factors (FHFs) compose a family of 4 proteins that interact with the C-terminal tails of Navs to modulate the channels' fast, and long-term, inactivations.2FHF2 mutation is a rare cause of generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+).3 Recently, a de novo FHF1 mutation (p.R52H) was reported in early-onset EE in 2 siblings.4 We report 3 patients from unrelated families with the same FHF1 p.R52H mutation. The 5 cases together frame the FHF1 R52H EE from infancy to adulthood. As discussed below, this gain-of-function disease may be amenable to personalized therapy.

17.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13340, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27827368

RESUMO

Haploinsufficiency of the SYNGAP1 gene, which codes for a Ras GTPase-activating protein, impairs cognition both in humans and in mice. Decrease of Syngap1 in mice has been previously shown to cause cognitive deficits at least in part by inducing alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission and premature maturation of excitatory connections. Whether Syngap1 plays a role in the development of cortical GABAergic connectivity and function remains unclear. Here, we show that Syngap1 haploinsufficiency significantly reduces the formation of perisomatic innervations by parvalbumin-positive basket cells, a major population of GABAergic neurons, in a cell-autonomous manner. We further show that Syngap1 haploinsufficiency in GABAergic cells derived from the medial ganglionic eminence impairs their connectivity, reduces inhibitory synaptic activity and cortical gamma oscillation power, and causes cognitive deficits. Our results indicate that Syngap1 plays a critical role in GABAergic circuit function and further suggest that Syngap1 haploinsufficiency in GABAergic circuits may contribute to cognitive deficits.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Cultura Primária de Células , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/genética
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(11): 2916-2926, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27748065

RESUMO

The disruption of genes involved in epigenetic regulation is well known to cause Intellectual Disability (ID). We reported a custom microarray study that interrogated among others, the epigenetic regulatory gene-class, at single exon resolution. Here we elaborate on identified intragenic CNVs involving epigenetic regulatory genes; specifically discussing those in three genes previously unreported in ID etiology-ARID2, KDM3A, and ARID4B. The changes in ARID2 and KDM3A are likely pathogenic while the ARID4B variant is uncertain. Previously, we found a CNV involving only exon 6 of the JARID2 gene occurred apparently de novo in seven patients. JARID2 is known to cause ID and other neurodevelopmental conditions. However, exon 6 of this gene encodes one of a series of repeated motifs. We therefore, investigated the impact of this variant in two cohorts and present a genotype-phenotype assessment. We find the JARID2 exon 6 CNV is benign, with a high population frequency (>14%), but nevertheless could have a contributory effect. We also present results from an interrogation of the exomes of 2,044 patients with neurocognitive phenotypes for the incidence of potentially damaging mutation in the epigenetic regulatory gene-class. This paper provides a survey of the fine-scale CNV landscape for epigenetic regulatory genes in the context of ID, describing likely pathogenic as well as benign single exon imbalances. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Éxons , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Vigilância da População
19.
Hum Mutat ; 37(8): 786-93, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27120018

RESUMO

Retinoic acid (RA) signaling plays a key role in the development and function of several systems in mammals. We previously discovered that the de novo mutations c.1159C>T (p.Arg387Cys) and c.1159C>A (p.Arg387Ser) in the RA Receptor Beta (RARB) gene cause microphthalmia and diaphragmatic hernia. However, the natural history of affected subjects beyond the prenatal or neonatal period was unknown. Here, we describe nine additional subjects with microphthalmia who have de novo mutations in RARB, including the previously described p.Arg387Cys as well as the novel c.887G>C (p.Gly296Ala) and c.638T>C (p.Leu213Pro). Moreover, we review the information on four previously reported cases. All subjects who survived the neonatal period (n = 10) displayed severe global developmental delay with progressive motor impairment due to spasticity and/or dystonia (with or without chorea). The majority of subjects also showed Chiari type I malformation and severe feeding difficulties. We previously found that p.Arg387Cys and p.Arg387Ser induce a gain-of-function. We show here that the p.Gly296Ala and p.Leu213Pro RARB mutations further promote the RA ligand-induced transcriptional activity by twofold to threefold over the wild-type receptor, also indicating a gain-of-function mechanism. These observations suggest that precise regulation of RA signaling is required for brain development and/or function in humans.


Assuntos
Mutação com Ganho de Função , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Distúrbios Distônicos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Conformação Proteica , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/química , Ativação Transcricional
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(5): 1225-35, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26789910

RESUMO

Mutations in chromodomain helicase DNA-binding domain 8 (CHD8) have been identified in independent genotyping studies of autism spectrum disorder. To better understand the phenotype associated with CHD8 mutations, we genotyped all CHD8 exons in carefully assessed cohorts of autism (n = 142), schizophrenia (SCZ; n = 143), and intellectual disability (ID; n = 94). We identified one frameshift mutation, seven non-synonymous variants, and six synonymous variants. The frameshift mutation, p.Asn2092Lysfs*2, which creates a premature stop codon leading to the loss of 212 amino acids of the protein, was from an autism case on whom we present multiple clinical assessments and pharmacological treatments spanning more than 10 years. RNA and protein analysis support a model where the transcript generated from the mutant allele results in haploinsufficiency of CHD8. This case report supports the association of CHD8 mutations with classical autism, macrocephaly, infantile hypotonia, speech delay, lack of major ID, and psychopathology in late adolescence caused by insufficient dosage of CHD8. Review of 16 other CHD8 mutation cases suggests that clinical features and their severity vary considerably across individuals; however, these data support a CHD8 mutation syndrome, further highlighting the importance of genomic medicine to guide clinical assessment and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
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