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1.
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health ; 16(1): 47, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent mental health problems are a global public mental health priority. However, there is a lack of evidence-based scalable psychological interventions for adolescents living in low resource settings. This trial was designed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of delivering the World Health Organization's Early Adolescent Skills for Emotions (EASE) intervention at public schools in a rural sub-district in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. METHODS: A two arm, single blinded, feasibility cluster randomized controlled trial with mixed-methods evaluation was conducted with 59 adolescents and their caregivers from 8 public schools. In the 4 intervention arm schools, 6 non-specialist facilitators delivered the culturally-adapted EASE group sessions to the adolescents (n = 29) and their caregivers with desired fidelity under the supervision of in-country supervisors. RESULTS: The participation rate of adolescents in the intervention sessions was 83%. The intervention strategies were implemented by the adolescents. However, attending biweekly sessions at schools was challenging for caregivers with only 50% caregivers attending the sessions. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support the feasibility and acceptability of delivering this culturally adapted intervention through non-specialist facilitators in school settings in Pakistan and pave the way to conduct a fully powered cluster randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of intervention to improve psychological outcomes in adolescents. Trial registration Trial registered with Clinicaltrials.gov prospectively; NCT04254393.

3.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 38(5): 661-671, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35049384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of vortioxetine in major depressive disorder (MDD) when used as a first-line versus second-line treatment or later. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of three 3-month non-interventional, prospective studies of vortioxetine in MDD - REVIDA (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand), PREVIDA (Pakistan) and TREVIDA (Taiwan). Improvements in depressive symptoms (PHQ-9, CGI-S), cognitive function (PDQ-D) and work productivity (WPAI) were compared between studies, and in a pooled analysis of patients using vortioxetine as the first line versus second-line treatment or later. Safety was compared between studies. RESULTS: Overall, 798 patients were analyzed (PREVIDA = 425, REVIDA = 130, TREVIDA = 243). Most patients in PREVIDA (60.5%)/REVIDA (57.4%) used vortioxetine as first-line treatment versus TREVIDA (21.8%). Generally, greater improvements from baseline were observed across outcome measures in PREVIDA/REVIDA versus TREVIDA (Month 3, p < .0001). Vortioxetine as first-line treatment was associated with greater improvements in depression severity, cognition, functioning outcomes compared to second-line or later users (PHQ-9: -16.1 [6.4] vs -10.8 [8.9]; CGI-S: -2.7 [1.1] vs -2.0 [1.4]; PDQ-D: -29.5 [17.7] vs -18.5 [21.4]; p < .0001 at Month 3) as well as greater response (PHQ-9: 88.6% vs 61.5%; p < .0001) and remission rates (PHQ-9: 75.4% vs 47.7%; p < .0001). No new adverse events were reported outside of the product label. CONCLUSIONS: In the Asian real-world setting, vortioxetine showed greater improvements in depressive and cognitive symptoms, work functioning, and response and remission rates when used as first-line versus second-line treatment or later. Vortioxetine was well-tolerated irrespective of the study population across Asia.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Algoritmos , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sulfetos/uso terapêutico , Tailândia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vortioxetina/uso terapêutico
4.
Depress Anxiety ; 39(1): 71-82, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To address shortages of mental health specialists in low- and middle-income countries, task-shifting approaches have been employed to train nonspecialists to deliver evidence-based scalable psychosocial interventions. Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief transdiagnostic nontrauma focused intervention for people affected by adversity. This study reports on the capacity of PM+ to address specific symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Individual patient data from three randomised controlled trials were combined and analysed to observe the impacts of PM+ (n = 738) or enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU) (n = 742) interventions on specific PTSD symptoms at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. The PTSD-Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) was used to index PTSD symptoms, and presence of each symptom was defined as moderate severity (score ≥ 2 on individual items). RESULTS: The average PCL-5 score at baseline was 26.1 (SD: 16.8) with 463 (31.3%) scoring above 33, indicative of a diagnosis of PTSD. Following intervention, 12.5% and 5.8% of participants retained a score greater than 33 at postassessment and follow-up, respectively. There was greater symptom reduction for PM+ than for ETAU for most symptoms. Hyperarousal symptoms were the most common residual symptoms after PM+, with more than 30% of participants reporting persistent sleep disturbance, concentration difficulties, and anger. CONCLUSION: PM+ led to greater reduction in symptoms relating to re-experiencing and avoidance. The evidence indicates that strategies focusing on hyperarousal symptoms including sleep, concentration, and anger difficulties, could be strengthened in this brief intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Terapia Comportamental , Intervenção na Crise , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
5.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1982485, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioemotional life-skills to negotiate important life-transitions such as marriage and parenthood are critical for the wellbeing of young couples and their offspring, but programs addressing this issue are lacking in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVE: This study describes the development of a 'life-skills' program for young married women, their husbands and families, living in rural settings in Pakistan. METHODS: Our methods included: a) a targeted review of relevant literature on life-skills and mental health in young people, b) a qualitative study and, c) intervention development workshops with experts and stakeholders. The review showed that common life-skills employed as part of psychosocial interventions in LMICs were communication skills, problem-solving, assessing relations, stress management, emotional regulation, identifying/eliciting affect, and self-awareness. RESULTS: The qualitative study indicated that areas of particular need included interpersonal communication skills with significant others, coping with the pressures of parenthood, and mental well-being. Existing helpful practices included social support by family members and elders. Lack of empowerment in young married women and poor engagement of husbands were identified as a barrier to accessing a potential intervention. Our proposed intervention called 'Preparing for Parenthood' consisted of 10 core sessions and 10 follow-up sessions designed to be delivered by lay health workers. It synergistically combined evidence-based socioemotional life-skills (awareness, communication skills, assertiveness, decision-making skills, goal-setting, critical thinking, problem-solving, and coping with stress), with cognitive behavioural strategies (gently challenging existing thoughts and attitudes, behaviour activation and problem solving). The intervention focuses on engagement of the entire family, including husbands. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention can supplement existing sexual and reproductive health programs by providing skills to prospective parents to effectively negotiate stressful life-transitions and life-events. We envisage the intervention would improve mental as well as sexual and reproductive health of young couples and plan to test this in future randomised trials.


Assuntos
Pais , Cônjuges , Adolescente , Idoso , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Paquistão , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e047609, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233989

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Millions of children in low resource settings are at high risk of poor development due to factors such as under nutrition, inadequate stimulation and maternal depression. Evidence-based interventions to address these risk factors exist, but often as a separate and overlapping package. The current study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a common elements-based intervention to improve mother-infant interaction at 12 months post-partum. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: A two-arm, single-blinded, individual randomised controlled trial is being carried out in the community settings of the rural subdistrict of Gujar Khan in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 250 pregnant women in third trimester with distress (Self-Reporting Questionnaire, cut-off score >9) have been randomised on 1:1 allocation ratio into intervention (n=125) and treatment-as-usual arms (n=125). The participants in the intervention arm will receive 15 individual sessions of intervention on a monthly basis by non-specialist facilitators. The intervention involves components of early stimulation, learning through play, responsive feeding, guided discovery using pictures, behavioural activation and problem solving. The primary outcome is caregiver-infant interaction at 12 months postpartum. The secondary outcomes include maternal psychological well-being, quality of life, social support and empowerment. Infant secondary outcomes include growth, nutrition and development. The data will be collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months postpartum. A qualitative process evaluation will be conducted to inform the feasibility of intervention delivery. ETHICS: Ethics approval for the present study was obtained from the Human Development Research Foundation Institutional Review Board, Islamabad Pakistan. DISSEMINATION: If proven effective, the study will contribute to scale-up care for maternal and child mental health in low resource settings, globally. The findings of the present study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences and community forums. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04252807.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Mãe-Filho , Paquistão , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , População Rural
7.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 15(1): 53, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, there is a large documented gap between needs of families and children with developmental disorders and available services. We adapted the World Health Organization's mental health Gap-Intervention Guidelines (mhGAP-IG) developmental disorders module into a tablet-based android application to train caregivers of children with developmental disorders. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of this technology-assisted, family volunteers delivered, parents' skills training intervention to improve functioning in children with developmental disorders in a rural community of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. METHODS: In a single-blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial, 30 clusters were randomised (1:1 ratio) to intervention (n = 15) or enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU) arm (n = 15). After screening, 540 children (18 participants per cluster) aged 2-12 years, with developmental disorders and their primary caregivers were recruited into the trial. Primary outcome was child's functioning, measured by Childhood Disability Assessment Schedule for Developmental Disorders (DD-CDAS) at 6-months post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were parents' health related quality of life, caregiver-child joint engagement, socio-emotional well-being of children, family empowerment and stigmatizing experiences. Intention-to-treat analyses were done using mixed-models adjusted for covariates and clusters. RESULTS: At 6-months post-intervention, no statistically significant mean difference was observed on DD-CDAS between intervention and ETAU (mean [SD], 47.65 [26.94] vs. 48.72 [28.37], Adjusted Mean Difference (AMD), - 2.63; 95% CI - 6.50 to 1.24). However, parents in the intervention arm, compared to ETAU reported improved health related quality of life (mean [SD] 65.56 [23.25] vs. 62.17 [22.63], AMD 5.28; 95% CI 0.44 to 10.11). The results were non-significant for other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In the relatively short intervention period of 6 months, no improvement in child functioning was observed; but, there were significant improvements in caregivers' health related quality of life. Further trials with a longer follow-up are recommended to evaluate the impact of intervention. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02792894. Registered April 4, 2016, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02792894.

8.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(5): 514-535, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism presents with similar prevalence and core impairments in diverse populations. We conducted a scoping review of reviews to determine key barriers and innovative strategies which can contribute to attaining universal health coverage (UHC), from early detection to effective interventions for autism in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). METHODS: A systematic literature search of review articles was conducted. Reviews relevant to the study research question were included if they incorporated papers from LAMIC and focused on children (

Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Pobreza , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
9.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 26(2): 182-183, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754481

RESUMO

Depression and anxiety are leading causes of morbidity in children and adolescents worldwide. In Pakistan, young people are exposed to many chronic adversities including violence, social and economic inequalities, and are at greater risk of developing mental health problems. Yet there is a lack of trained human resources, in-patient child and adolescent mental healthcare facilities, and training opportunities in child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health in Pakistan. Given the poor economic condition of the country, which has been made even worse by the COVID-19 pandemic, it is very unlikely that dedicated resources will be made available in near future to develop specialist child and adolescent mental health services in Pakistan. To bridge this treatment gap, we propose a multitiered, transdiagnostic, task-shifting strategy-based model for child and adolescent mental health services in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Psiquiatria Infantil , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/economia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Paquistão
10.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 15(1): 8, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ninety percent of children with mental health problems live in low or middle-income countries (LMICs). School-based programs offer opportunities for early identification and intervention, however implementation requires cross-sector collaboration to assure sustainable delivery of quality training, ongoing supervision, and outcomes monitoring at scale. In Pakistan, 35% of school-aged children are reported to have emotional and behavioral problems. As in many other LMICs, the government agencies who must work together to mount school-based programs have limited resources and a limited history of collaboration. The "Theory of Change" (ToC) process offers a way for new partners to efficiently develop mutual goals and long-term prospects for sustainable collaboration. OBJECTIVE: Develop a model for scale-up of school based mental health services in public schools of Pakistan. METHODS: We used ToC workshops to develop an empirically supported, 'hypothesized pathway' for the implementation of WHO's School Mental Health Program in the public schools of rural Pakistan. Three workshops included 90 stakeholders such as policy makers from education and health departments, mental health specialists, researchers, head teachers, teachers and other community stakeholders including non-governmental organizations. RESULTS: The ToC process linked implementers, organizations, providers and consumers of school mental health services to develop common goals and relate them (improved child socioemotional wellbeing, grades and participation in activities) to interventions (training, monitoring and supervision of teachers; collaboration with parents, teachers and primary health care facilities and schools). Key testable assumptions developed in the process included buy-in from health care providers, education officials and professionals, community-based organizations and families. For example, teachers needed skills for managing children's problems, but their motivation might come from seeking improved school performance and working conditions. Poverty, stigma and lack of child mental health literacy among teachers, administration, and parents were identified as key hypothesized barriers. Children and their families were identified as key stakeholders to make such a program successful. DISCUSSION: ToC workshops assisted in team building and served as a stakeholders' engagement tool. They helped to develop and support testable hypotheses about the structures, collaborations, and knowledge most important to scaling-up school based mental health services in Pakistan.

11.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 15(1): 11, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many low resource settings, the provision of government mental health care services is limited to specialized psychiatry units in urban hospital care facilities, where the most common treatment for common mental disorders (CMDs) is pharmacotherapy, occasionally with adjunct nonspecific psychological support. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of adding a low intensity, psychological intervention, Problem Management Plus (PM+) for CMDs into routine care in a specialized mental health care facility in Pakistan. METHODS: A two arm, single-blind individual randomized controlled trial (RCT) was carried out with adults (N = 192), referred for psychological support by psychiatrists. The study participants were randomized (1:1) to PM + plus Treatment as Usual (TAU) (n = 96) or TAU only (n = 96). The primary outcomes were symptoms of anxiety and depression, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and functional impairment as measured by WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) at 20 weeks after baseline. RESULTS: The analysis was done on intention-to-treat principle. The linear mixed model analysis showed that at 20 weeks after baseline, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of anxiety and depression (mean [SD], 16.23 [8.81] vs 19.79 [7.77]; AMD, - 3.10; 95% CI, - 0.26 to - 5.76); p = 0.03 and improvement in functioning (mean [SD], 22.94 [9.37] vs 27.37 [8.36]; AMD, - 4.35; 95% CI, - 1.45 to - 7.24); p = 0.004 in PM + plus TAU versus TAU arm. The follow-up rate was 67% at primary end-point. CONCLUSIONS: Specialized care facilities in LMICs may consider adding brief, evidence-based psychological treatments for CMDs to their routine care. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616000381482. Registered March 23, 2016. Retrospectively registered, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Default.aspx/ ACTRN12616000381482.

12.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(6): 729-731, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502220

RESUMO

Children are likely to struggle with mental health consequences relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. School closures and home confinement increase the risk for emotional distress, domestic violence and abuse, and social isolation, as well as for disruption of sleep-wake and meal cycles, physical exercise routines, and health care access. As schools reopen, school mental health programs (SMHPs) incorporating universal approaches will be important for all children, and targeted approaches will be necessary for those more severely affected. Using their experience in Pakistan, the authors provide a roadmap for extending the World Health Organization's eastern Mediterranean region's SMHP to address the mental health consequences of COVID-19 among children globally.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Serviços de Saúde Mental Escolar/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental Escolar/economia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração
13.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(1): 69-76, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO) developed a school mental health program (SMHP) to help reduce the burden of youth mental health problems. Designed in collaboration with international consultants, the SMHP draws on evidence-based interventions to train personnel to identify students in need, respond therapeutically, and engage families in seeking care. METHODS: Teams from Pakistan, Egypt, Iran, and Jordan collaborated with the WHO EMRO and British and U.S. universities to form the School Health Implementation Network: Eastern Mediterranean Region (SHINE), a National Institute of Mental Health-funded global mental health hub. SHINE partners used a "theory of change" process to adapt the SMHP to be more readily adopted by school personnel and replicated with fidelity. The adapted SMHP more directly addresses teachers' priorities and uses technology to facilitate training. RESULTS: A cluster-randomized implementation effectiveness trial enrolling 960 children ages 8-13 in 80 Pakistani schools will test the adapted SMHP against the original. Children who screen positive on first the teacher and subsequently the parent Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQs) will be enrolled and tracked for 9 months. The primary trial outcome is reduction in parent-rated SDQ total difficulties scores. Secondary outcomes include children's well-being, academic performance, absenteeism, and perceived stigma; parent-teacher interaction; teachers' self-efficacy and subjective well-being; and school environment. Implementation outcomes include change in teachers' behavior and sense of program acceptability, cultural appropriateness, feasibility, penetration, and sustainability. NEXT STEPS: The trial began in October 2019, and the expected completion date is March 2021. Outcomes will inform dissemination of the SMHP in Pakistan and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Paquistão , Tecnologia
14.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 26(1): 80-82, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372717

RESUMO

The burden from mental disorder in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) has risen steadily over the last three decades. The unmet need for interventions puts pressure on policymakers for urgent action, often leading to the introduction of programmes developed in high-income countries, with very little attention to how well these meet local needs. Till well-designed local research including randomised controlled trials become common practice in low- and middle-income countries, implementation science could provide relatively cheaper and quicker ways of ensuring that these interventions do indeed lead to patient benefit. We present a case study of a teacher-delivered school mental health intervention developed by international experts, and implemented in the EMR under the auspices of the World Health Organization. We used an implementation research framework to adapt the programme to local needs, obtain stakeholder buy-in, and design an online-training programme for rapid dissemination in local schools in Egypt, Iran, Jordan and Pakistan. Within the official roll-out of the programme in one EMR country (Pakistan), we embedded a hybrid effectiveness-implementation cluster randomised control trial to evaluate both clinical and implementation outcomes of the adapted intervention. The approach allows for rapid adaptation and evidence building within real-world implementation settings. Capacity in low- and middle-income countries for such research needs to be developed.


Assuntos
Ciência da Implementação , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Políticas , Instituições Acadêmicas
15.
Confl Health ; 14(1): 71, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292413

RESUMO

Major knowledge gaps remain concerning the most effective ways to address mental health and psychosocial needs of populations affected by humanitarian crises. The Research for Health in Humanitarian Crisis (R2HC) program aims to strengthen humanitarian health practice and policy through research. As a significant portion of R2HC's research has focused on mental health and psychosocial support interventions, the program has been interested in strengthening a community of practice in this field. Following a meeting between grantees, we set out to provide an overview of the R2HC portfolio, and draw lessons learned. In this paper, we discuss the mental health and psychosocial support-focused research projects funded by R2HC; review the implications of initial findings from this research portfolio; and highlight four remaining knowledge gaps in this field. Between 2014 and 2019, R2HC funded 18 academic-practitioner partnerships focused on mental health and psychosocial support, comprising 38% of the overall portfolio (18 of 48 projects) at a value of approximately 7.2 million GBP. All projects have focused on evaluating the impact of interventions. In line with consensus-based recommendations to consider a wide range of mental health and psychosocial needs in humanitarian settings, research projects have evaluated diverse interventions. Findings so far have both challenged and confirmed widely-held assumptions about the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial interventions in humanitarian settings. They point to the importance of building effective, sustained, and diverse partnerships between scholars, humanitarian practitioners, and funders, to ensure long-term program improvements and appropriate evidence-informed decision making. Further research needs to fill knowledge gaps regarding how to: scale-up interventions that have been found to be effective (e.g., questions related to integration across sectors, adaptation of interventions across different contexts, and optimal care systems); address neglected mental health conditions and populations (e.g., elderly, people with disabilities, sexual minorities, people with severe, pre-existing mental disorders); build on available local resources and supports (e.g., how to build on traditional, religious healing and community-wide social support practices); and ensure equity, quality, fidelity, and sustainability for interventions in real-world contexts (e.g., answering questions about how interventions from controlled studies can be transferred to more representative humanitarian contexts).

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental disorders (DDs) in children are a priority condition and guidelines have been developed for their management within low-resource community settings. However, a key obstacle is lack of open access, reliable and valid tools that lay health workers can use to evaluate the impact of such programmes on child outcomes. We adapted and validated the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Schedule for children (WHODAS-Child), a lay health worker-administered functioning-related tool, for children with DDs in Pakistan. METHODS: Lay health workers administered a version of the WHODAS-Child to parents of children with DDs (N = 400) and without DDs (N = 400), aged 2-12 years, after it was adapted using qualitative study. Factor analysis, validity, reliability and sensitivity to change analyses were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the adapted outcome measure. RESULTS: Among 800 children, 58% of children were male [mean (s.d.) age 6.68 (s.d. = 2.89)]. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed a robust factor structure [χ2/df 2.86, RMSEA 0.068 (90% CI 0.064-0.073); Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) 0.92; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) 0.93; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) 0.93]. The tool demonstrated high internal consistency (α 0.82-0.94), test-retest [Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) 0.71-0.98] and inter-data collector (ICC 0.97-0.99) reliabilities; good criterion (r -0.71), convergent (r -0.35 to 0.71) and discriminative [M (s.d.) 52.00 (s.d. = 21.97) v. 2.14 (s.d. = 4.00); 95% CI -52.05 to -47.67] validities; and adequate sensitivity to change over time (ES 0.19-0.23). CONCLUSIONS: The lay health worker administrated version of adapted WHODAS-Child is a reliable, valid and sensitive-to-change measure of functional disability in children aged 2-12 years with DDs in rural community settings of Pakistan.

19.
Br J Psychiatry ; 217(5): 623-629, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of evidence-based interventions for treatment of priority mental health conditions in humanitarian settings, it is important to establish the cost-effectiveness of such interventions to enable their scale-up. AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Problem Management Plus (PM+) intervention compared with enhanced usual care (EUC) for common mental disorders in primary healthcare in Peshawar, Pakistan. Trial registration ACTRN12614001235695 (anzctr.org.au). METHOD: We randomly allocated 346 participants to either PM+ (n = 172) or EUC (n = 174). Effectiveness was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at 3 months post-intervention. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed as incremental costs (measured in Pakistani rupees, PKR) per unit change in anxiety, depression and functioning scores. RESULTS: The total cost of delivering PM+ per participant was estimated at PKR 16 967 (US$163.14) using an international trainer and supervisor, and PKR 3645 (US$35.04) employing a local trainer. The mean cost per unit score improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms on the HADS was PKR 2957 (95% CI 2262-4029) (US$28) with an international trainer/supervisor and PKR 588 (95% CI 434-820) (US$6) with a local trainer/supervisor. The mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) to successfully treat a case of depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) using an international supervisor was PKR 53 770 (95% CI 39 394-77 399) (US$517), compared with PKR 10 705 (95% CI 7731-15 627) (US$102.93) using a local supervisor. CONCLUSIONS: The PM+ intervention was more effective but also more costly than EUC in reducing symptoms of anxiety, depression and improving functioning in adults impaired by psychological distress in a post-conflict setting of Pakistan.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/economia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Depressão/economia , Depressão/terapia , Organização Mundial da Saúde/economia , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Adulto , Ansiedade/economia , Ansiedade/terapia , Humanos , Paquistão , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(4): e037590, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300002

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prenatal anxiety is a prevalent condition that is harmful for women and a strong predictor of postpartum depression. This trial assesses an intervention initiated in early pregnancy to mid pregnancy among women with clinical or subclinical symptoms of anxiety in Pakistan. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Happy Mother, Healthy Baby (HMHB) is a phase three, two-arm, single-blind, individual randomised clinical trial conducted in the outpatient department of Holy Family Hospital, a large public tertiary care facility affiliated with Rawalpindi Medical University (RMU). Pregnant women (enrolled at ≤22 weeks of gestation) receive six individual HMHB sessions based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and relaxation techniques that are administered by non-specialist providers and tailored to address anxiety symptoms. Two to six booster sessions are given between the fifth consecutive weekly core session and the sixth core session that occurs in the third trimester. Apart from baseline data, data are collected in the third trimester, at birth and at 6-weeks postpartum. Primary outcomes include diagnoses of postpartum common mental disorders. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of anxiety and of depression, and birth outcomes including small-for-gestational age, low birth weight and preterm birth. An economic analysis will determine the cost effectiveness of the intervention. ETHICS: Ethics approval was obtained from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Health Institutional Review Board (Baltimore, USA), the Human Development Research Foundation Ethics Committee (Islamabad, Pakistan), the RMU Institutional Research Forum (Rawalpindi, Pakistan) and the National Institute of Mental Health-appointed Global Mental Health Data Safety and Monitoring Board. DISSEMINATION: Results from this trial will build evidence for the efficacy of a CBT-based intervention for pregnant women delivered by non-specialised providers. Identification of an evidence-based intervention for anxiety starting in early pregnancy to mid pregnancy may be transferable for use and scale-up in other low-income and middle-income countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03880032.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Gravidez/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Paquistão , Nascimento Prematuro , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego
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