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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149921, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482135

RESUMO

Plastic pollution poses a global threat to aquatic organisms, yet its effect on many species remains poorly documented and understood. This study addresses the impact caused by different sizes of polyethylene (PE) plastics on the common carp and evaluates their multi-biomarkers response. We investigated the histological structure and measurement of biochemical alterations, antioxidant enzymes, immunological responses, and fluctuations in blood profiles of the organisms after 15 days of exposure to a concentration of 100 mg/L of nano- (NPs), micro- (MPs) and macroplastics (MaPs). The fish health status was altered in the sole presence of PE particles. All biomarkers changed after exposure compared to the control group, with larger changes being observed with the decreasing size of particles (NPs > MPs > MaPs) compared to their absence. A synergistic effect resulting from the individual impact of plastics penetration in the circulatory system, bursting biochemical responses, and lesions in tissues, might explain the more considerable impact of NPs compared to MPs and/or MaPs.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Polietileno , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Bioact Mater ; 8: 49-56, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541386

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to test the antimicrobial properties of dental cements modified with magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles. Zein-modified MgO nanoparticles (zMgO) in concentrations (0.0, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0%) were mixed with dental cements (Fuji II, Rely X Temp E, Ionoglass Cem, Es Temp NE, and System P link). Eight discs were fabricated from each zMgO-cement pair for a total of 32 specimens for each cement. Characterization of the dental cements incorporating zMgO was done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The antimicrobial properties of the mixtures were tested using direct contact and agar diffusion assays against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans. Data was analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and LSD post hoc test at 0.05 significance level. XRD spectra showed sharp peaks of zMgO indicating its high crystalline nature, while the amorphous dental cements with zMgO had broad peaks. FESEM analysis showed a uniform distribution of the zMgO nanoparticles in the cement. There were significant inhibition zone values associated with all concentrations of zMgO-cement mixtures tested compared to controls (p < 0.001) with a dose-response recorded only with Fuji II. Optical density values were significantly lower in zMgO groups compared to controls for all microorganisms. The effect was most prominent with Rely X against C. albicans and S. aureus. Dental cements containing zMgO showed significant antimicrobial properties that were dependent on the specific initial cement substrate.

3.
Hum Genet ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853893

RESUMO

Fetal abnormalities are detected in 3% of all pregnancies and are responsible for approximately 20% of all perinatal deaths. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and exome sequencing (ES) are widely used in prenatal settings for molecular genetic diagnostics with variable diagnostic yields. In this study, we aimed to determine the diagnostic yield of trio-ES in detecting the cause of fetal abnormalities within a highly consanguineous population. In families with a history of congenital anomalies, a total of 119 fetuses with structural anomalies were recruited and DNA from invasive samples were used together with parental DNA samples for trio-ES and CMA. Data were analysed to determine possible underlying genetic disorders associated with observed fetal phenotypes. The cohort had a known consanguinity of 81%. Trio-ES led to diagnostic molecular genetic findings in 59 fetuses (with pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants) most with multisystem or renal abnormalities. CMA detected chromosomal abnormalities compatible with the fetal phenotype in another 7 cases. Monogenic ciliopathy disorders with an autosomal recessive inheritance were the predominant cause of multisystem fetal anomalies (24/59 cases, 40.7%) with loss of function variants representing the vast majority of molecular genetic abnormalities. Heterozygous de novo pathogenic variants were found in four fetuses. A total of 23 novel variants predicted to be associated with the phenotype were detected. Prenatal trio-ES and CMA detected likely causative molecular genetic defects in a total of 55% of families with fetal anomalies confirming the diagnostic utility of trio-ES and CMA as first-line genetic test in the prenatal diagnosis of multisystem fetal anomalies including ciliopathy syndromes.

4.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961100

RESUMO

Ceratonia siliqua (Carob) is an evergreen Mediterranean tree, and carob pods are potentially nutritive and have medicinal value. The present study was carried out to estimate the possible biological activities of phytochemical-characterized carob pod aqueous extract (CPAE). The phytochemical contents of CPAE were determined by using colorimetric methods and HPLC. In addition, the free radical scavenging properties and anti-diabetic, anti-hemolytic, and antimicrobial activities were estimated by using standardized in vitro protocols. The phytochemical analysis revealed that CPAE was rich in polyphenols, flavonoids, and alkaloids, where it contained a significant amount of gallic acid, catechin, and protocatechuic acid. Furthermore, CPAE exhibited strong antioxidant activity where it prevented the formation of 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide free radicals. Additionally, it had a potent inhibitory effect against digestive enzymes (amylase, maltase, sucrase, and lactase). Moreover, CPAE exhibited anti-Staph aureus, anti-Escherichia coli, anti-Candida albicans, and anti-herpes simplex type I virus (HSV-I). Finally, CPAE protected the erythrocyte membrane from hypotonic solution-induced hemolysis. Altogether, CPAE could be regarded as an interesting source of biologically active antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial preparation for a potential application in pharmaceutical and food supplement fields.

5.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944108

RESUMO

Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate the selective and highly efficient transport between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. They are embedded in the two membrane structure of the nuclear envelope at sites where these two membranes are fused to pores. A few transmembrane proteins are an integral part of NPCs and thought to anchor these complexes in the nuclear envelope. In addition, a number of nucleoporins without membrane spanning domains interact with the pore membrane. Here we review our current knowledge of how these proteins interact with the membrane and how this interaction can contribute to NPC assembly, stability and function as well as shaping of the pore membrane.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , Poro Nuclear/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Humanos , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/química , Ligação Proteica
6.
Vet Ital ; 57(3)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971514

RESUMO

A 6­year­old female Ardi goat was presented for evaluation of an expansile firm painless maxillary ovoid mass. Clinical and diagnostic imaging examination revealed a well­ demarcated extensive mass occupying the left posterior maxilla and altering its anatomical features. Surgical excision was not deemed feasible with this apparently extensive infiltrative features of the tumor and the owner elected to euthanize the goat. Gross examination of the mass showed a grayish­brown, multiloculated firm and gritty mass measuring 21 x 11 x 19 cm located on the left posterior maxilla. Histopathological examination revealed plexiform and follicular arranged, ameloblast ­like odontogenic epithelium. Follicular epithelium was disintegrated leaving spaces, identical to solid multicystic ameloblastoma, intermingled with primitive myxoid stroma resembling dental papilla, teeth like hard structure as enamel and dentine, and osteodentine matrix. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as odontoameloblastoma (OA) and to our knowledge this is the first report of OA in goats.


Assuntos
Ameloblastoma , Doenças das Cabras , Tumores Odontogênicos , Ameloblastoma/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Cabras , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumores Odontogênicos/veterinária
7.
J Oral Implantol ; 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937092

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the implant diameter and length on force dissemination of tooth-implant and implant retained fixed restorations. A finite analysis model was used via a 3D simulation of a unilateral mandibular Kennedy Class I arch. Through thresholding the resultant assembly, a region of interest was selected from the CT scan. Details of the diameter (D) and length (L) of implant were introduced. Ds used were 3.7, 4.7, and 5.7, while Ls used were 10, 11.5, and 13. The constant was the use of rigid connectors in both designs (implant-implant and implant-tooth fixed partial dentures) and the mesial implant (D 3.7 and L 11.5).  Stress in cancellous bone around mesial abutment, which is the second premolar in tooth-implant FPD and mesial implant in the implant-implant fixed partial denture (FPD), revealed that the stress was significantly lower in tooth-implant FPD when compared to implant-implant FPD (21.1±0.00 versus 46.1±0.00, p <0.001). Stress distribution in the bone around any implant depends on several factors such as diameter, length, and tooth-implant vs. implant-implant support. The implant diameter was more significant for improved stress distribution than implant length. A moderate increase in the length of the implant consequently reduced stress.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835211

RESUMO

Variable intralesional immunotherapies have recently been proposed as a means of achieving a successful eradication of recurrent and recalcitrant human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cutaneous and anogenital warts. The bivalent HPV vaccine is one of the newly proposed immunotherapeutic agents. We investigated the role of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as ex vivo immunologic predictors to estimate the response to the bivalent HPV vaccine as a potential immunotherapy for cutaneous and anogenital warts. Heparinized blood samples were withdrawn from forty patients with multiple recurrent recalcitrant cutaneous and anogenital warts and forty matched healthy control subjects. Whole blood cultures were prepared with and without bivalent HPV vaccine stimulation. Culture supernatants were harvested and stored for IL-4 and IFN-γ measurements using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A comparative analysis of IL-4 and IFN-γ levels in culture supernatants revealed a non-significant change between the patient and control groups. The bivalent HPV vaccine stimulated cultures exhibited a non-significant reduction in IL-4 levels within both groups. IFN-γ was markedly induced in both groups in response to bivalent HPV vaccine stimulation. The bivalent HPV vaccine can give a sensitive IFN-γ immune response ex vivo, superior to IL-4 and sufficient to predict both the successful eradication of HPV infection and the ultimate clearance of cutaneous and anogenital warts when the bivalent HPV vaccine immunotherapy is applied.

9.
Mol Immunol ; 141: 21-32, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most frequent glomerular disease among children. Renal biopsy is the most precise procedure for diagnosing and following childhood NS; however, it is an invasive procedure with potential complications. As a result, early non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic indicators and new treatment targets are urgently needed for this disease. PURPOSE: To assess the miR-142-5p expression in peripheral blood as an indicator of the autoimmune processes in children with NS and the role of differential microRNAs (miR) expression and expression panels in diagnosing and predicting the response to steroid treatment in children with NS. METHODS: Eighty (80) children with NS and 100 subjects matched for age and gender used as controls constitute the study sample in this case-control study. MiR-142-5p, miR-191, miR-181-5p, miR-30a-5p and miR-50a-5p expression are measured in all enrolled children by real-time PCR. We assessed the sensitivity and accuracy of different MicroRNAs panels. RESULTS: miR-142-5p, miR-191, miR-181-5p, miR-30a-5p and miR-150a-5p expressions were significantly increased in the children with NS than controls. There was a significant difference in the five mRNAs differential expressions between steroid-resistant and steroid-sensitive children with NS. Of the selected five microRNAs, miR-142a-5p was the best to allow very good discrimination of the children with NS and predict steroid resistance (AUC = 0.965 and 1.00, respectively), suggesting the possible autoimmunity processes' role in the pathogenesis of NS and the resistance to steroids. The (miR-142a-5p with miR-181a-5p and miR-30a-5p) was the best expression panel to diagnose new NS cases and predict steroid resistance. CONCLUSIONS: microRNAs expressions, either differential or as a panel, are important for early diagnosing childhood NS and may provide a non-invasive clue for the response to steroid treatment in these patients. The (miR-142a-5p, miR-181-5p, and miR-30a-5p) panel was the best one to cover both the diagnosis of the new cases and prediction of response to steroid treatment. Autoimmunity has an important role in NS pathogenesis and resistance to steroid treatment.

10.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(10): 3203-3210, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the correlation between the genotyping of interleukin-10 (IL-10 polymorphism rs 1800871) and the incidence hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) treated with direct acting antivirals (DAAs). METHOD: For 200 patients with HCV infection who completed DAA treatment and followed up for 1 year, IL-10 polymorphism SNP(-819) rs 1800871 analysis was conducted via real time polymerase chain reaction. During the follow-up period, 100 patients who developed HCC were selected and compared with 100 patients who did not develop any complications. RESULTS: The studied patients were divided into two groups according to the incidence of complications after completion of DAA treatments. During the follow-up, 100 patients with HCV infection who developed HCC were selected and compared with 100 patients with HCV infection who did not develop any complications (positive control group). For the HCC group (n = 100), the mean age was 58.1 ± 6.4 years, with 92.7% being male and 7.3% being female; 91% had cirrhosis, 10% had lymphadenitis, 75% had splenomegaly, and 17% had ascites. In the positive control group (n = 100), mean age was 46.3 ± 9.4 years, with 68% being male and 32% being female; 20% had cirrhosis, 12% had splenomegaly, and 4.2% had ascites. The results demonstrated that sofosbuvir (SOF) + daclatasvir + ribavirin regimen was the most prevalent drug treatment for patients with HCC (72%), while SOF + Simeprevir was the most safe treatment for HCV infection among patients with HCC (2%). CT genotype was the most common genotype in the HCC group (56%), among different drug regimen (67.8%). T allele was the most prevalent in HCC group (61%), while the C allele was the least prevalent (39%). CONCLUSION: IL-10 genotyping may help in selecting the safest and most accurate drug regimen according to the safest genotype response relationship and follow-up of genotype resistance.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617222

RESUMO

The effects of Harness® toxicity on fish health are little known. So, current work aimed to study the impact of sub-lethal doses of Harness® (an acetochlor-based herbicide) on the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and also investigated the potential role of lycopene (LYCO) administration in alleviating Harness® negative effects. Fish were divided into five groups in triplicates as follows: group 1 (control) received no treatment, group 2 was exposed to 10 µm Harness®/L, group 3 was orally administered 10 mg LYCO/kg body weight and exposed to 10 µm Harness®/L, group 4 was exposed to 100 µm Harness®/L, and group 5 was orally administered 10 mg LYCO/kg body weight and exposed to 100 µm Harness®/L for 2 weeks. Some hemato-biochemical parameters, genotoxicity, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of this period. Sub-lethal doses of Harness® altered the shape of erythrocytes in contrast to the control sample. Also, hematological parameters of exposed fish exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the values of red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets (PL), as well as an insignificant (P > 0.05) drop in mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Harness® was also found to cause genotoxicity as well as histopathological alterations. LYCO administration decreased hemato-biochemical changes and returned them to near-normal levels. The findings showed that LYCO administration (10 mg LYCO/kg body weight) decreased Harness® toxicity in C. gariepinus and alleviated its destructive effects.

12.
Front Physiol ; 12: 742922, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650449

RESUMO

This study aims to assess the impact of microplastics (MPs) on erythrocytes using eryptosis (apoptosis) and an erythron profile (poikilocytosis and nuclear abnormalities), considered to be novel biomarkers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In this study, four groups of fish were used: The first was the control group. In the second group, 1 mg/L of MPs was introduced to the samples. The third group was exposed to 10 mg/L of MPs. Finally, the fourth group was exposed to 100 mg/L of MPs for 15 days, following 15 days of recovery. The fish treated with MPs experienced an immense rise in the eryptosis percentage, poikilocytosis, and nuclear abnormalities of red blood cells (RBCs) compared with the control group in a concentration-dependent manner. Poikilocytosis of MP-exposed groups included sickle cell shape, schistocyte, elliptocyte, acanthocyte, and other shapes. Nuclear abnormalities of the MPs-exposed groups included micronuclei, binucleated erythrocytes, notched, lobed, blebbed, and hemolyzed nuclei. After the recovery period, a greater percentage of eryptosis, poikilocytotic cells, and nuclear abnormalities in RBCs were still evident in the groups exposed to MPs when crosschecked with the control group. The results show concerning facts regarding the toxicity of MPs in tilapia.

13.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1850-1862, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693843

RESUMO

Introduction: Recently, zein-coated MgO nanowires were synthesized, which could be promising as an effective antimicrobial compounds that can be combined in the preparation of a diversity of new dental formulations. However, there is a deficiency of information concerning their toxicological profile regarding the human health.Objective: This in vivo study aimed to explore the hepato- and nephrotoxicity of low versus high doses of zein-coated MgO nanowires in rats.Materials and Methods: A 21-day recurrent dose toxicity research was carried out. Wistar rats were divided into 2 main groups, males and females (n = 18). Each group was further subdivided into 3 subgroups: control, MgO-zein nanowires low dose, MgO-zein nanowires high dose. The low dose used was 100 mg/kg while the high dose used was 200 mg/kg.Results: The results showed that MgO-zein nanowires at both doses did not affect the electrolytes levels compared to the control levels. Also, they did not produce any significant alteration in liver function markers in both rats' genders. MgO-zein nanowires at both doses did not produce any effective alteration in serum creatinine in treated rats of both genders. Moreover, very minimal histological alterations were observed in both doses of MgO-zein nanowires in liver and kidney of both genders.Conclusion: Based on the observed safety of zein-coated MgO nanowires, it can be utilized as an effective antimicrobial compound that can be combined in the preparation of a diversity of new dental formulations.KEY MESSAGESMgO NPs are globally used in multiple fields including the therapeutic field.Zein has wide pharmaceutical applications especially coating the tablet over sugar.There are no cytotoxic studies that investigate MgO-zein nanowires safety until now.

14.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 365, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Umbilical hernia repair, despite its perceived simplicity, is associated with recurrence between 2.7 and 27%, in mesh repair and non mesh repair respectively. Many factors are recognized contributors to recurrence however multiple defects in the linea alba, known to occur in up to 30% of patients, appear to have been overlooked by surgeons. AIMS: This systematic review assessed reporting of second or multiple linea alba defects in patients undergoing umbilical hernia repair to establish if these anatomical variations could contribute to recurrence along with other potential factors. METHODS: A systematic review of all published English language articles was undertaken using databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from January 2014 to 2019. The search terms 'Umbilical hernia' AND 'repair' AND 'recurrence' were used across all databases. Analysis was specified in advance to avoid selection bias, was registered with PROSPERO (154173) and adhered to PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Six hundred and forty-six initial papers were refined to 10 following article review and grading. The presence of multiple linea alba defects as a contributor to recurrence was not reported in the literature. One paper mentioned the exclusion of six participants from their study due multiple defects. In all 11 factors were significantly associated with umbilical hernia recurrence. These included: large defect, primary closure without mesh, high BMI in 5/10 publications; smoking, diabetes mellitus, surgical site Infection (SSI) and concurrent hernia in 3/10. In addition, the type of mesh, advanced age, liver disease and non-closure of the defect were identified in individual papers. CONCLUSION: This study identified many factors already known to contribute to umbilical hernia recurrence in adults, but the existence of multiple defects in the linea, despite it prevalence, has evaded investigators. Surgeons need to be consider documentation of this potential confounder which may contribute to recurrence.


Assuntos
Hérnia Umbilical , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Hérnia Umbilical/cirurgia , Humanos , Recidiva , Telas Cirúrgicas , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica
15.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(7): 2655-2660, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568151

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis E virus is a zoonotic virus with a worldwide epidemic outbreak. The aim of the study was to identify relative risk factors and co-infections concerning the seropositive HEV IgG among blood donors and haemodialysis (HD) patients in the central blood bank and renal dialysis centre in Wad Medani city, Gezira State, Sudan. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 600 participants, among them 180 showed strong seropositive HEV IgG. The structured questionnaire was used to collect data of the participants' demographics, disease risk factors and HEV IgG co-infections with HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. Results: Among the 180 strong seropositive HEV IgG respondents, 84 were blood donors and 96 were haemodialysis patients. The gender and age (18-30 years) had a significant association with the virus exposure (P = 0.000, P = 0.000). Importantly, a significant association of HEV prevalence due to the localities effect exhibited with the highest rate among South Gezira (OR = 38, CI = 14.1-107; P = 0.000). This also observed in Wad Medani, Umm Algura, East Gezira and Managil localities (P = 0.000). The effect of the animal contact on HEV distribution exerted the significant association among the respondents for blood donors and haemodialysis patients in univariate (OR = 4.09, 95% CI 1.5-10.9; P = 0.005) and multivariate (OR = 3.2, CI = 1.1-9.4; P = 0.027) analysis. Conclusion: The relative risk factors of the HEV seroprevalence were gender, age, locality and animal contact. Besides the need of a regular survey for the virus seroprevalence, primary health care physicians can play pivotal role in health education, especially in rural areas of Sudan. In addition, primary health care physicians in Sudan are expected to establish strategies and plans to eradicate and minimise the health impact of HEV.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517132

RESUMO

Despite extensive research on the toxic effects of microplastics (MPs), there is no obtainable data on the use of phytobioremediation against MPs toxicity in fish. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of lycopene, citric acid, and chlorella against the toxic effects of MPs in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) using hematology, biochemical, antioxidants, erythron profiles (poikilocytosis and nuclear abnormalities) and the accumulation of MPs in tissues as biomarkers. Five groups of fish received: normal diet (control); MPs (500 mg/kg diet) (Group 2); MPs (500 mg/kg diet) + lycopene (500 mg/kg diet) (Group 3); MPs (500 mg/kg diet) + citric acid (30 g/kg diet) (Group 4); and MPs (500 mg/kg diet) + chlorella (50 g/kg diet) (Group 5) for 15 days. Group 2 had significantly higher amounts of MPs in the stomach, gills, and feces, electrolyte imbalances (HCO3, Fe, Na+, K+, Ca+2, Cl-, and anion gap, hematobiochemical alterations, and decreases in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and glutathione S-transferases compared to the control group. Additionally, Group 2 had significant increase in the percentage of poikilocytosis, and nuclear abnormalities in RBC's compared to the control group. The co-treatment of MPs-exposed fish with lycopene, citric acid, and chlorella-supplemented diets ameliorated the hematological, biochemical, and erythron profile alterations, but only slightly enhanced the antioxidant activity. Overall, lycopene, citric acid, and chlorella can be recommended as a feed supplement to improve hematobiochemical alterations and oxidative damage induced by MPs toxicity in the African catfish (C. gariepinus).

17.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dent ; 13: 395-403, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588818

RESUMO

Purpose: This in vitro study was undertaken to investigate the antimicrobial effect of distinctive oral mouth washes after the addition of zein-coated (Magnesium oxide) MgO nanoparticles on exemplary of some oral microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twelve samples were used in this study. A set of five concentrations of MgO nanoparticles with zein and without zein-coating were incorporated into three oral mouth washes: Listerine zero, Listerine total control and Oral B in the mass percentages of 0.3%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% and 10%, in addition to controls with no MgO nanoparticles. The antimicrobial effect of three mouth washes with variable concentrations of MgO was tested against the following organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans using the disc diffusion test (DDT) and direct contact test (DCT). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA statistical test. Results: The tested mouthwashes with zein-coated MgO nanoparticles showed significant differences of antimicrobial activity on S. mutans, S. aureus, E. faecalis, and C. albicans in the disc diffusion test. While in the DCT, all tested mouthwashes with MgO nanoparticles with and without zein coating showed antimicrobial activity on all tested microorganisms. Conclusion: Zein-coated MgO nanoparticles may be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent when added to oral mouthwashes. Future analysis, including in vivo studies, is required in order to incorporate zein/MgO nanoparticles into oral mouthwashes that may improve its antibacterial property.

18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 173(Pt A): 112966, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563956

RESUMO

This study records the extent of microplastics (MPs) in the surface water, sediments, and fishes of the Mediterranean and Red seas in Egypt. In sediment and water samples, the Ras Gharib station in the Red sea and Damietta and Port Said stations in the Mediterranean sea exhibited the highest microplastic abundance, while the lowest concentration was found in the Ain Sukhna station in the Red Sea and Marsa Matruh station in the Mediterranean sea. Rayon and polyethylene terephthalate were the most frequently found polymers in fishes. The results highlighted the abundant existence of microplastics in sediments, water, and fishes of the Mediterranean and Red seas, thereby improving our understanding of the environmental risks posed by microplastics to fisheries and marine ecosystems and the need for measures to diminish the flux of plastics to the marine settings.

19.
Front Physiol ; 12: 683669, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295262

RESUMO

The current study aims at evaluating the toxicity of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a pharmaceutical residue in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and the protective role of Spirulina platensis (SP). Four groups were used in this study: (1) a control group, (2) a group exposed to 3.16 mg/l of HCQ, (3) a group exposed to 3.16 mg/l of HCQ + 10 mg/l of SP, and (4) a group exposed to 3.16 mg/l of HCQ + 20 mg/l of SP for 15 days of exposure. The HCQ-treated group showed a significant decline in the hematological indices and glucose, total protein, and antioxidant levels in relation to the control group, whereas the HCQ-treated group showed a significant increase in the levels of creatinine, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as the percentage of poikilocytosis and nuclear abnormalities of RBCs in relation to the control group. The histopathological evaluation of the liver indicated dilation of the central vein, vacuolization, degeneration of hepatocytes and pyknotic nuclei, as well as reduction of glomeruli, dilation of Bowman's space, and degeneration of renal tubules in the kidney of the HCQ-treated group. Spirulina platensis (SP) rendered the hematological and biochemical indexes as well as antioxidant levels and the histological architecture to normal status in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, the current study recommends the use of SP to remedy the toxic effects of HCQ.

20.
J Clin Exp Dent ; 13(7): e701-e708, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306534

RESUMO

Background: The study aimed to assess oropharyngeal and otorhinolaryngological changes in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis and correlate the findings to renal functions. Material and Methods: This case-control study compared oral and otorhinolaryngological findings in 85 patients with (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis to age and sex matched 85 healthy controls. Frequencies of findings were calculated and compared and correlation between biochemical and the oral health parameters in case group was determined using T-test, chi-square and Pearson correlation test (significance were set at P<0.05). Results: The frequency of oral signs and mucosal symptoms were significantly higher among ESRD compared to healthy controls. Dry mouth (34.12%), bad odour (32.94%), increased tongue coating (50.59%) and pale mucosa (45.88%) were the most commonly reported. Otorhinolaryngological findings was higher in cases than in controls, with otomycosis (10.59%) and allergic rhinitis (5.88%) being the most frequent findings. Serum creatinine and blood urea mean levels were higher in ESRD patients with oral and otorhinolaryngological findings compared to those without findings. Conclusions: Oral and nasal manifestations in patients with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis were significantly higher in comparison to healthy individuals and were related to their serum creatinine and blood urea mean levels. Key words:Chronic kidney disease, renal dialysis, Oral manifestation, nasal, case control, Egypt.

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