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1.
Nanoscale ; 13(31): 13353-13367, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477741

RESUMO

Despite the significance of surface absorbed proteins in determining the biological identity of nanoparticles (NPs) entering the human body, little is known about the surface corona and factors that shape their formation on dietary particles used as food additives. In this study, food grade NPs of silica and titania and their food additive counterparts (E551 and E171) were interacted with milk proteins or with skimmed milk and the levels of protein adsorption were quantified. Characteristics of proteins correlating with their level of adsorption to NPs were determined using partial least squares regression analysis. Results from individual protein-particle interactions revealed the significance of factors such as zeta potential, hydrophobicity and hydrodynamic size of particles, and protein characteristics such as the number of beta strands, isoelectric points, the number of amino acid units (Ile, Tyr, Ala, Gly, Pro, Asp, and Arg), and phosphorylation sites on their adsorption to particles. Similar regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of twenty abundant and enriched proteins (identified using LC-MS/MS analysis) for their association with the surface corona of milk-interacted particles. Contrary to individual protein-particle interactions, protein characteristics such as helices, turns, protein structures, disulfide bonds, the number of amino acid units (Cys, Met, Leu, and Trp), and Fe binding sites were significant for their association with the surface corona of milk interacted particles. This difference in factors identified from individual proteins and milk interacted particles suggested possible interactions of proteins with surface adsorbed biomolecules as revealed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and other biochemical assays.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Coroa de Proteína , Adsorção , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Proteoma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 66(4): 1-7, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583767

RESUMO

Vitex negundo (VN) is a widely used plant in folk medicine, namely for the treatment of jaundice, wounds, body ache, toothache, asthma, eye pain, and migraine. These effects have been increasingly attributed to its chemical composition. Here, we assessed the VN chemical and nutritional composition and biological activity, with particular emphasis on antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. VN methanol and hexane extracts revealed the presence of important phytochemical, such as terpenoids, polyphenol, steroids, saponins, phenolic compound and flavonoids. Total phenolic content of VN methanol extract from bark was 1082.473 mg/g GAE and that of leaves was 1382.984 mg/g GAE. The total flavonoids content in VN methanol extract from VN bark was 127.744 mg/g QE and that of leaves was 123.776 mg/g QE. VN methanol extract from bark exhibited high antioxidant effects (IC50=38.47 ppm). The content (%) of ash, moisture, crude fiber, crude protein and fat in VN leaves was, respectively, 7.86%, 18.35%, 6.52%, 9.687% and 6.19%. VN leaves methanol extract revealed antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, with inhibition halos being, respectively, 13 mm and 14 mm, and the MBC values were found to be 1.562 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively. Similarly, VN bark methanol extract led to inhibition halos of 18 mm and 15 mm for B. subtilis and S. aureus, respectively, and the MBC values were found to be 2.372 mg/mL and 0.245 mg/mL. GC-MS analysis of the VN bark methanol extract revealed that monoolein was the major compounds, with an area of 0.57%. Thus, our results encourage the potential use of VN as a medicinal product, with high protein contents, and prominent antioxidant and anti-bacterial effects.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Vitex/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Casca de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 66(4): 54-59, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583771

RESUMO

There is evidence that palmatine (PA), an alkaloid isolated from the Guatteria friesiana plant, has some important biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) effects of PA were assessed. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo through 7 distinct assays, and the anti-AChE activity was determined in vitro. The standards, trolox and ascorbic acid were used for the in vitro antioxidant test, while hydrogen peroxide was selected as a stressor for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae test. Additionally, PA was also combined with trolox and ascorbic acid to determine the likelihood of synergistic effects occurrence to what concerns to antioxidant potential. PA exhibited a potent and concentration-dependent antioxidant potential, although a stronger antioxidant activity was stated using the PA + trolox combination. PA was also found to inhibit AChE activity when compared to the negative control. Thus, PA may be viewed as a promissory phytotherapeutic agent to manage oxidative stress-mediated neurological diseases, especially the Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Berberina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 66(4): 73-77, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583774

RESUMO

Moringa oleifera is evident to act against many neurological diseases, including muscle spasm, epilepsy, nervousness, fatigue, memory impairment, convulsion, and epilepsy. Anxiety represents the most common and disabling psychiatric condition, being often associated with depressive symptoms. This study investigated the anxiolytic-like effects of crude organic fractions of M. oleifera leaves in different behavioral paradigms that evaluate anxiety in mice. To this end, mice were administered with crude extracts (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and/or diazepam (2 mg/kg, p.o.), and submitted to behavioral tests. In the open-field test, the number of square field cross, grooming and rearing were calculated, while in light-dark and swing test were, respectively, the time spent in dark portion and number of swings. Each test was performed for 3 min. M. oleifera leaf methanol and n-hexane extracts elicited an anxiolytic-like effect observed by increased total time in the center and decreased number of rearings and groomings responses in the open field and swing tests, and residence in the dark portion in the light-dark box, similar to the diazepam group. A moderate anxiolytic effect was observed in the aqueous fraction group, while insignificant effects were recorded in the ethyl acetate fraction group in all test paradigms. In addition, both extracts potentiate the calming effects of diazepam in experimental animals. Preliminary phytochemical reports suggest that M. oleifera contains alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, glycosides, saponins, tannin, terpenes, and gums. Of note, the results expand the understanding of M. oleifera effects in central nervous system and suggest that plant metabolites may be helpful for anxiety-related disorders management.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Moringa oleifera/química , Animais , Misturas Complexas , Diazepam/farmacologia , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
5.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 66(4): 120-126, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583776

RESUMO

Citrinin (CIT) is a cytotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and cardiotoxic metabolite obtained from Penicillium citrinum, that has been increasingly searched as an anticancer drug candidate. In this study, we assessed the antitumor effects of citrinin, using cytogenetic biomarkers for genotoxicity in Sarcoma 180 (S-180) ascitic fluid cells of mice. Citrinin, extracted from P. citrinum acetonitrile extract, was characterized by LC-MS. Cytotoxic assessment was done through using comet (alkaline version) and micronucleus assays. In S-180 cells, CI50 of CIT was 3.77 µg/mL, while at 12.5 and 100 µg/mL, CIT was as cytotoxic as doxorubicin (2 µg/mL). At 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µg/mL, it induced genotoxicity and mutagenicity in S-180 cells, especially at 2 µg/mL, triggering oxidative damage similar to hydrogen peroxide (10 mM). The antitumor effects were evidenced by a marked increase in S-180 cells apoptosis and necrosis due to clastogenic and/or aneugenic cytogenetic effects (micronucleus formation), as well as by induction of nucleoplasm bridges and nuclear buds, culminating in S-180 apoptosis and necrosis. CIT has potential as drug candidate for antitumor purposesbyinvolving cytogenetic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Citrinina/uso terapêutico , Análise Citogenética , Sarcoma 180/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma 180/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ascite/patologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrinina/isolamento & purificação , Citrinina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Penicillium/química
6.
J Patient Exp ; 7(6): 1029-1035, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33457542

RESUMO

The objective for this initiative was to reduce parental anxiety and thus improve their satisfaction related to hospital admission by ensuring that the child's management plan and basic amenities were communicated to the parents within the first hour of arrival at the Children's Hospital inpatient unit. The intervention for this project was developed based on the Theory of Change framework. Effectiveness of the intervention was assessed by comparing change in parent-reported anxiety scores and improvement in patient satisfaction scores at 24 hours post-admission as an indicator of experience. The frequency of delivery of each individual message was also tracked and compared at baseline and post-intervention. The results showed a significant reduction in parental anxiety levels within the first 24 hours of admission (3.5 to 3.2, P = .01). The parent satisfaction score was significantly improved from baseline to post-intervention (4.00 vs 4.82 respectively; P < .001). Comparison between the baseline and post-intervention demonstrated a statistically significant (P < .001) increase in frequency of messages delivered. This initiative highlighted that reengineering the current system using existing resources to standardize admission communication along with an adequate monitoring and feedback plan can help reduce parental anxiety, thus improving parent satisfaction with the services.

7.
Lipids Health Dis ; 17(1): 175, 2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) natural, safe, non-toxic, non-caloric sugar substitute is rich source of pharmacologically important glycoside stevioside that is linked to the pathology and complications of hyperlipidemia. METHODS: The present research was carried out to explore the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves in albino rats. For this purpose, hyperlipidemia was induced by administration of Cholesterol (90% E, Appli Chem, Darmstadt, Germany) mixed at dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of rats in their daily routine feed. The hyperlipidemic rats were administered with aqueous stevia extract at different dose levels (200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm/kg b.w.) for 8 weeks; the control rats were fed basal diet during this period. Ethical approval for the current research was obtained from Institutional Review Board Faculty of Science & Technology Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan. RESULTS: Stevia aqueous extract decreased the body weight gain by lowering the feed intake of hyperlipidemic rats. Furthermore, administration of stevia extract at different levels significantly (P < 0.05) lowered the TC (125.22 ± 5.91 to 110.56 ± 5.81 mg/dL), TG (102.13 ± 6.89 to 98.62 ± 7.22 mg/dL), LDL (33.02 ± 4.79 to 22.77 ± 4.36 mg/dL), VLDL (21.22 ± 5.79 to 19.33 ± 5.95 mg/dL) levels and LDL/HDL ratios (0.83 ± 1.22 to 0.54 ± 1.66 mg/dL) from H1 to H4. Conversely, it improved the HDL (39.76 ± 4.34 to l42.02 ± 4.39 mg/dL) level in hyperlipidemic rats compared with untreated rats after eight weeks study period. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that aqueous extract of stevia has anti-hyperlipidemic effects in albino rats, and therefore could be a promising nutraceutical therapy for the management of hyperlipidemia and its associated complications.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Stevia/química , Administração Oral , Animais , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Hipolipemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Food Sci Technol ; 55(3): 1047-1055, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487447

RESUMO

The purpose of current study was to purify and partially depolymerize guar gum by ß-mannanase, HCl, Ba(OH)2 actions and subjected to inspect compositional, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and haemolytic activity. Chemical composition revealed mannose and galactose ratio remained un-altered even after process of purification and hydrolysis. TGA thermograms affirmed initial and final decomposition temperature in various zones. Major decomposition stages apparently revealed partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) exhibited better heat stable properties having more zones of degradation than crude one. Furthermore, all guar fractions (2.5-250 mg/mL) were subjected to haemolysis to evaluate toxic effects during process of hydrolysis. The crude and hydrolyzed guar galactomannans exhibited minor haemolytic activity (1.9 ± 0.03-7.24 ± 0.02%) when compared to 0.1% Triton-X 100 (100% haemolysis) showing no toxic effects to human RBC's. Conclusively, hydrolyzed guar-galactomannans are safe and can be used in food products with improved heat stability.

9.
Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour ; 37(1): 79-86, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28316474

RESUMO

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) after its bioconversion from aflatoxin B1 in animal liver becomes the part of milk while heavy metals get entry into milk and milk products during handling in the supply chain. Aflatoxin M1 and heavy metals being toxic compounds are needed to be monitored continuously to avoid any ailments among consumers of foods contaminated with such toxicants. Thirteen commercially available infant formula milk (IFM) brands available in Pakistani markets were analyzed for the quantitative determination of AFM1 and heavy metals through ELISA and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. AFM1 was found positive in 53.84% samples while 30.76% samples were found exceeding the maximum EU limit i.e. 0.025 µg/kg for AFM1 in IFM. Heavy metals lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were found below the detection limits in any of the sample, whereas the concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) ranged between 45.40-97.10, 29.72-113.50 and <0.001-50.90 µg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Fe in all the tested brands was found in normal ranges while the concentrations of Zn and Ni were found exceeding the standard norms. Elevated levels of AFM1, Zn and Ni in some of the tested IFM brands indicated that a diet completely based on these IFM brands might pose sever health implications in the most vulnerable community i.e., infants.

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