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1.
Pediatr Transplant ; : e13789, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757316

RESUMO

The choice of alternative donors for HCT for patients without an HLA-matched related donor depends on several factors. We compared major HCT outcomes in 212 consecutive children transplanted at 11 centers in Brazil for acute leukemia or MDS from an HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD, n = 95), mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD, n = 47) or unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB, n = 70). Most had ALL (61%), bone marrow (57%) as the graft source and 95% received a MAC regimen. The 3-year OS probability were 57, 55, and 37% after HCT from MUD, MMUD, and UCB, respectively (HR 1.68, 95%CI 1.07-2.63; P = .02). In comparison with MUD, OS was similar after transplantation of a ≥ 6/8 HLA-matched or a high cell dose (>5 × 107 TNC/kg) CB unit (HR 1.41, 95%CI 0.88-2.27; P = .15). NRM was higher for UCB (HR 3.90, 95%CI 1.43-10.7; P = .01) but not for MMUD (HR 1.03, 95%CI 0.53-2.00; P > .20). Advanced disease (HR 2.05, 95%CI 1.26-3.33; P < .001) and UCB with high probability of being < 6/8 HLA-matched (HR 5.34, 95%CI 2.0-13.9; P < .001) were associated with higher mortality. Relapse and acute GVHD were similar among groups, while PGF was higher among UCB transplants (P = .002) and chronic GVHD among MMUD group (HR 2.88, 95% CI 1.05-7.88; P = .04). Our results suggest that in Brazil HCT outcomes performed with MMUD and MUD donors were comparable, while with UCB units < 6/8 HLA-matched were associated with higher NRM for children with acute leukemia or MDS.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653621

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) can cure primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). When a HLA-matched donor is not available, a haploidentical family donor may be considered. The use of T cell-replete haploidentical HCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (haplo-PTCy) in children with PID has been reported in several case series. A donor is usually readily available, and haplo-PTCy can be used in urgent cases. We studied the outcomes of 73 patients with PID who underwent haplo-PTCy, including 55 patients who did so as a first transplantation and 18 who did so as a salvage transplantation after graft failure of previous HCT. The median patient age was 1.6 years. Most of the children were male (n = 54) and had active infection at the time of transplantation (n = 50); 10 children had severe organ damage. The diagnosis was severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in 34 patients and non-SCID in 39 (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome; n = 14; chronic granulomatous disease, n = 10; other PID, n = 15). The median duration of follow-up of survivors was 2 years. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery was 88% in the SCID group and 84% in non-SCID group and was 81% for first transplantations and 83% after a salvage graft. At 100 days, the cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grade II-IV and III-IV was 33% and 14%, respectively. The majority of patients reached 200/µL CD4+ and 1000/µL CD3+ cell counts between 3 and 6 months. The estimated 2-year overall survival was 66%; it was 64% for SCID patients and 65% for non-SCID patients and 63% for first HCT and 77% for salvage transplantations. Twenty-five patients died, most of them due to infection early after transplantation (before 100 days). In conclusion, haplo-PTCy is a feasible procedure, can cure two-thirds of children with PID, and can be used as rescue treatment for previous graft failure. © 2020 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418777

RESUMO

Autoimmune diseases are an important field for the development of bone marrow transplantation, or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In Europe alone, almost 3000 procedures have been registered so far. The Brazilian Society for Bone Marrow Transplantation (Sociedade Brasileira de Transplantes de Medula Óssea) organized consensus meetings for the Autoimmune Diseases Group, to review the available literature on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune diseases, aiming to gather data that support the procedure for these patients. Three autoimmune diseases for which there are evidence-based indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis and Crohn's disease. The professional stem cell transplant societies in America, Europe and Brazil (Sociedade Brasileira de Transplantes de Medula Óssea) currently consider hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a therapeutic modality for these three autoimmune diseases. This article reviews the evidence available.

6.
Cells ; 9(4)2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290257

RESUMO

The hematopoietic stem cell engraftment depends on adequate cell numbers, their homing, and the subsequent short and long-term engraftment of these cells in the niche. We performed a systematic review of the methods employed to track hematopoietic reconstitution using molecular imaging. We searched articles indexed, published prior to January 2020, in PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus with the following keyword sequences: (Hematopoietic Stem Cell OR Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell) AND (Tracking OR Homing) AND (Transplantation). Of 2191 articles identified, only 21 articles were included in this review, after screening and eligibility assessment. The cell source was in the majority of bone marrow from mice (43%), followed by the umbilical cord from humans (33%). The labeling agent had the follow distribution between the selected studies: 14% nanoparticle, 29% radioisotope, 19% fluorophore, 19% luciferase, and 19% animal transgenic. The type of graft used in the studies was 57% allogeneic, 38% xenogeneic, and 5% autologous, being the HSC receptor: 57% mice, 9% rat, 19% fish, 5% for dog, porcine and salamander. The imaging technique used in the HSC tracking had the following distribution between studies: Positron emission tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography 29%, bioluminescence 33%, fluorescence 19%, magnetic resonance imaging 14%, and near-infrared fluorescence imaging 5%. The efficiency of the graft was evaluated in 61% of the selected studies, and before one month of implantation, the cell renewal was very low (less than 20%), but after three months, the efficiency was more than 50%, mainly in the allogeneic graft. In conclusion, our review showed an increase in using noninvasive imaging techniques in HSC tracking using the bone marrow transplant model. However, successful transplantation depends on the formation of engraftment, and the functionality of cells after the graft, aspects that are poorly explored and that have high relevance for clinical analysis.

7.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(4): 565-571, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine whether the busulfan (Bu) present in saliva during hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) conditioning correlates with oral mucositis and the changes in salivary antioxidant enzymes. METHODS: Bu levels in the plasma and saliva of 19 patients who received HCTs were quantified. Salivary flow and salivary superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured during HCT. For the toxicity analysis of salivary Bu, an in vitro assay was conducted by exposing human keratinocytes to artificial saliva containing Bu. RESULTS: Plasma and salivary Bu concentrations were very similar (rho = 0.92, P < 0.001). Salivary Bu concentration correlated with the degree of oral mucositis severity (rho = 0.391, P = 0.029) and was inversely proportional to salivary superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (rho = -0.458, P = 0.036; rho = -0.424, P = 0.043, respectively). Cells exposed to Bu-containing saliva had fewer viable cells (P < 0.01) and more apoptotic cells (P = 0.001) than those exposed to non-Bu-containing saliva. CONCLUSIONS: Bu found in saliva during HCT conditioning was correlated with severe oral mucositis and the reduction in salivary antioxidative activity. Furthermore, Bu can be toxic to keratinocytes.

8.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(5): 1021-1024, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112981

RESUMO

It has been suggested that bridging therapy with intensive chemotherapy and/or hypomethylating agents followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be valuable in the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, the influence of this approach on HSCT outcomes remains poorly defined. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the influence of treatment before HSCT in patients with MDS. We retrospectively analyzed data from the Latin American registry of 258 patients from 17 Latin American centers who underwent HSCT from 1988 to 2019. Our data showed that there was pre-HSCT. We detected no significant difference regarding the impact on overall survival of treated and untreated patients before HSCT. Despite these data, the type of previous treatment among treated patients showed a significant difference in overall survival. Treatment with hypomethylating agents together with pre-HSCT chemotherapy seems to result in better survival of the studied population. These data correspond to the first results obtained through cooperative work between various centers in Latin America comparing the different approaches to patients and reflecting their reality and challenges. Therefore, the selection of pretransplant bridge therapy should be analyzed and focus given primarily to those approaches that result in better survival of patients with MDS.

9.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: AE4530, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049129

RESUMO

The nutritional status of patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplant is considered an independent risk factor, which may influence on quality of life and tolerance to the proposed treatment. The impairment of nutritional status during hematopoietic stem cell transplant occurs mainly due to the adverse effects resulting from conditioning to which the patient is subjected. Therefore, adequate nutritional evaluation and follow-up during hematopoietic stem cell transplant are essential. To emphasize the importance of nutritional status and body composition during treatment, as well as the main characteristics related to the nutritional assessment of the patient, the Brazilian Consensus on Nutrition in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: Adults was prepared, aiming to standardize and update Nutritional Therapy in this area. Dietitians, nutrition physicians and hematologists from 15 Brazilian centers thar are references in hematopoietic stem cell transplant took part.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/normas , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Antropometria , Brasil , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Avaliação Nutricional , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos , Nutrição Parenteral/normas , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
10.
Ann Hematol ; 99(3): 627-633, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965273

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with high mortality rates. To determine the incidence and risk factors associated with AKI in patients undergoing HSCT during the infusion period, patients admitted for HSCT from 2012 to 2015 were studied. AKI was classified according to the KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) criteria. We analyzed the main comorbidities, underlying conditions, types of transplant, preparative regimens, and use of potentially nephrotoxic drugs as risk factors for AKI. Among the 180 patients (median age 53 years), 69 (36.5%) developed AKI (23 KDIGO 1, 28 KDIGO 2, and 18 KDIGO 3), 49 (50.0%) undergoing allogeneic and 20 (22.3%) autologous transplantation, and 18 (9.4%) required dialysis. The main comorbidities were hypertension (38; 19.8%), and diabetes (19; 9.9%). The median pre-transplant creatinine was 0.7 mg/dl. Twenty-one patients died (10.9%). The risk factors for AKI in allogeneic HSCT were as follows: baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (RR 1.12 (1.02-1.22), p = 0.019), use of vasopressors (RR 3.72 (2.20-6.29), p < 0.001), and use of methotrexate (RR 1.83 (1.08-3.11), p = 0.025). Male gender (RR 5.91 (1.65-21.16), p = 0.006), baseline eGFR (RR 1.22 (1.04-1.43), p = 0.011), and use of aminoglycosides (RR 3.92 (1.06-14.44), p = 0.041) were the risk factors for AKI associated with autologous HSCT. During hospitalization for HSCT, AKI was a common problem. The use of a low dose of methotrexate to prevent graft versus host disease was associated with its occurrence.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Metotrexato , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Autoenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eRC5111, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939527

RESUMO

Situs inversus totalis is a rare recessive autosomal congenital abnormality in which the mediastinal and abdominal organs are in a mirrored position when compared to the usual topography. The literature reports some cases of situs inversus totalis and concomitant conditions: spinal abnormalities, cardiac malformations and hematological diseases, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, which is an autoimmune disease that causes thrombocytopenia due to platelet destruction or suppression of its production. This article aimed to report the coexistence of situs inversus totalis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.


Assuntos
Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/complicações , Situs Inversus/complicações , Situs Inversus/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografia Panorâmica , Situs Inversus/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 11(1): 100-106, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the results of the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) transplantation in patients aged 60 years and over. METHODS: We evaluated all consecutive patients undergoing CGA before HSCT between September 2011 and July 2018 in a private hospital in Brazil. We also evaluated the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-SCI) and the Disease Risk Index (DRI). RESULTS: During the study period, 61 patients were referred for transplant evaluation. After exclusions, we analyzed 40 patients, with a mean age of 67.6 years (60-76). The CGA detected vulnerability and frailty in 43% and 18.9% respectively according to the Fried Frailty Phenotype score; limitations across the domain of function and disability with handgrip test alterations in 65.8%. However, 36 (90%) were independent for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Cognitive and depression domain have shown abnormal with the clock test in 44.4%, and loss of memory complains in 37.5%. But the mini-mental test was normal in 89%. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was normal in 82.5%. 30% were considered at risk for malnutrition. Half of the patients (50%) had a high Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) score. 32.5% needed ICU admission. The overall survival and non-relapse mortality at 2 years were 41.8% and 38.7% respectively. CONCLUSION: The CGA was feasible in detecting the patients' vulnerabilities in our population. More studies, multicentric and with a larger number of patients, are needed to evaluate the role of CGA in this context of allo-HCT in our population.

13.
Leukemia ; 34(3): 799-810, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628430

RESUMO

RAS-pathway mutations are recurrent events in myeloid malignancies. However, there is limited data on the significance of RAS-pathway mutations in patients with myelofibrosis (MF). We analyzed next-generation sequencing data of 16 genes, including RAS-pathway genes, from 723 patients with primary and secondary MF across three international centers and evaluated their significance. N/KRAS variants were present in 6% of patients and were typically sub-clonal (median VAF = 20%) relative to other genes variants. RAS variants were associated with advanced MF features including leukocytosis (p = 0.02), high somatic mutation burden (p < 0.01) and the presence of established "molecular high-risk" (MHR) mutations. MF patients with N/KRAS mutations had shorter 3-year overall survival (OS) (34% vs 58%, p < 0.001) and higher incidence of acute myeloid leukemia at 3 years (18% vs 11%, p = 0.03). In a multivariate Cox model, RAS mutations were associated with decreased OS (HR 1.93, p < 0.001). We created a novel score to predict OS incorporating RAS mutations, and it predicted OS across training and validation cohorts. Patients with intermediate risk/high-risk DIPSS with RAS mutations who received ruxolitinib had a nonsignificant longer 2-year OS relative to those who did not receive ruxolitinib. These data demonstrate the importance of identifying RAS mutations in MF patients.

14.
Invest New Drugs ; 38(3): 733-745, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286322

RESUMO

JAK2V617F can mimic growth factor signaling, leading to PI3K/AKT/mTOR activation and inhibition of autophagy. We hypothesized that selective inhibition of JAK1/2 by ruxolitinib could induce autophagy and limit drug efficacy in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Therefore, we investigated the effects of ruxolitinib treatment on autophagy-related genes and cellular processes, to determine the potential benefit of autophagy inhibitors plus ruxolitinib in JAK2V617F cells, and to verify the frequency and clinical impact of autophagy-related gene mutations in patients with MPNs. In SET2 JAK2V617F cells, ruxolitinib treatment induced autophagy and modulated 26 out of 79 autophagy-related genes. Ruxolitinib treatment reduced the expressions of important autophagy regulators, including mTOR/p70S6K/4EBP1 and the STAT/BCL2 axis, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy was able to significantly suppress ruxolitinib-induced autophagy and increased ruxolitinib-induced apoptosis. Mutations in autophagy-related genes were found in 15.5% of MPN patients and were associated with increased age and a trend towards worse survival. In conclusion, ruxolitinib induces autophagy in JAK2V617F cells, potentially by modulation of mTOR-, STAT- and BCL2-mediated signaling. This may lead to inhibition of apoptosis. Our results suggest that the combination of ruxolitinib with pharmacological inhibitors of autophagy, such as chloroquine, may be a promising strategy to treat patients with JAK2V617F-mutated MPNs.

15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5111, 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1090054

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Situs inversus totalis is a rare recessive autosomal congenital abnormality in which the mediastinal and abdominal organs are in a mirrored position when compared to the usual topography. The literature reports some cases of situs inversus totalis and concomitant conditions: spinal abnormalities, cardiac malformations and hematological diseases, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, which is an autoimmune disease that causes thrombocytopenia due to platelet destruction or suppression of its production. This article aimed to report the coexistence of situs inversus totalis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.


RESUMO Situs inversus totalis é uma anormalidade congênita autossômica recessiva rara em que os órgãos mediastinais e abdominais encontram-se em posição espelhada em relação à topografia habitual. A literatura relata alguns casos de concomitância do situs inversus totalis com outras condições: anomalias espinhais, malformações cardíacas e doenças hematológicas, como púrpura trombocitopênica idiopática, que é uma doença autoimune com plaquetopenia, devido à destruição dos trombócitos ou supressão da sua produção. Esse artigo teve o objetivo de relatar coexistência de situs inversus totalis e púrpura trombocitopênica idiopática.

16.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5111, 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1056048

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Situs inversus totalis is a rare recessive autosomal congenital abnormality in which the mediastinal and abdominal organs are in a mirrored position when compared to the usual topography. The literature reports some cases of situs inversus totalis and concomitant conditions: spinal abnormalities, cardiac malformations and hematological diseases, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, which is an autoimmune disease that causes thrombocytopenia due to platelet destruction or suppression of its production. This article aimed to report the coexistence of situs inversus totalis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.


RESUMO Situs inversus totalis é uma anormalidade congênita autossômica recessiva rara em que os órgãos mediastinais e abdominais encontram-se em posição espelhada em relação à topografia habitual. A literatura relata alguns casos de concomitância do situs inversus totalis com outras condições: anomalias espinhais, malformações cardíacas e doenças hematológicas, como púrpura trombocitopênica idiopática, que é uma doença autoimune com plaquetopenia, devido à destruição dos trombócitos ou supressão da sua produção. Esse artigo teve o objetivo de relatar coexistência de situs inversus totalis e púrpura trombocitopênica idiopática.

17.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: AE4530, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1056061

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The nutritional status of patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplant is considered an independent risk factor, which may influence on quality of life and tolerance to the proposed treatment. The impairment of nutritional status during hematopoietic stem cell transplant occurs mainly due to the adverse effects resulting from conditioning to which the patient is subjected. Therefore, adequate nutritional evaluation and follow-up during hematopoietic stem cell transplant are essential. To emphasize the importance of nutritional status and body composition during treatment, as well as the main characteristics related to the nutritional assessment of the patient, the Brazilian Consensus on Nutrition in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: Adults was prepared, aiming to standardize and update Nutritional Therapy in this area. Dietitians, nutrition physicians and hematologists from 15 Brazilian centers thar are references in hematopoietic stem cell transplant took part.


RESUMO O estado nutricional do paciente submetido ao transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas é considerado fator de risco independente, podendo influenciar na qualidade de vida e na tolerância ao tratamento proposto. O comprometimento do estado nutricional durante o transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas ocorre principalmente devido aos efeitos adversos decorrentes do condicionamento ao qual o paciente é submetido. Desta forma, a adequada avaliação nutricional e o acompanhamento durante o transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas tornam-se imprescindíveis. Com o objetivo de salientar a importância do estado nutricional e da composição corporal durante o tratamento, bem como as principais características relacionadas à avaliação nutricional do paciente, o Consenso Brasileiro de Nutrição em Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoiéticas: Adulto foi elaborado visando uniformizar e atualizar a Terapia Nutricional nesta área. Com a participação de nutricionistas, nutrólogos e hematologistas de 15 centros brasileiros referências em transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunological life-threatening complications frequently occur in post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), despite matching recipient and donor (R/D) pairs for classical human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Studies have shown that R/D non-HLA disparities within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are associated with adverse effects post-HSCT. METHODS: We investigated the impact of mismatches of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in C4A/C4B genes, for showing the highest diversity in the MHC gamma block, on 238 patients who underwent HLA 10/10 unrelated donor (URD) HSCT. The endpoints were acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and mortality. One hundred and twenty-nine R/D pairs had 23 C4-SNPs typed by PCR-SSP (Gamma-Type™v.1.0), and 109 R/D pairs had these 23 SNPs identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) using the Illumina platform. RESULTS: The percentage of patients who received HSC from HLA 10/10 donors with 1-7 mismatches was 42.9%. The R/D pairs were considered C4mismatched when bearing at least one disparity. These mismatches were not found to be risk factors for aGVHD, cGVHD or mortality after unrelated HSCT when SNPs were analyzed together (matched or mm≥1), independently or according to the percentage of incompatibilities (full match for 23 SNPs; 1-3mm and >3mm). An exception was the association between 1-3 mismatches at the composite of SNPs C13193/T14952/T19588 with the development of aGVHD (P=0.012) and with grades III-IV of this disease (P=0.004). CONCLUSION: Our data are not consistent with the hypothesis that disparities in C4A/C4B SNPs increase the risks of post-HSCT adverse effects for the endpoints investigated in this study.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226350, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The roles of surgery, chemotherapy, and parameters of radiation therapy for treating very rare central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS-GCT) are still under discussion. We aimed to evaluate the survival and recurrence patterns of patients with CNS-GCT treated with chemotherapy followed by whole ventricle irradiation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the clinical outcomes of 20 consecutive patients with CNS-GCT treated with chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy from 2004 to 2014 in two partner institutions. RESULTS: Twenty children with a median age of 12 years were included (16 males). Sixteen tumors were pure germinomas, and 4 were non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT). All patients were treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy guided by daily images, and 70% with volumetric intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy additionally. The median dose for the whole-ventricle was 25.2 Gy (range: 18-30.6 Gy) and 36 Gy (range: 30-54 Gy) for the tumor bed boost. The median post-radiation therapy follow-up was 57.5 months. There were 3 recurrences (2 NGGCT and 1 germinoma that recurred as a NGGCT), with 1 death from the disease and the other 2 cases each successfully rescued with chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation. The overall survival at 5 years was 95% and disease-free survival was 85%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the combined use of chemotherapy followed by whole ventricle irradiation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy is effective for CNS-GCTs, especially pure germinomas. Even being rescued with craniospinal irradiation, the NGGCT cases have markedly worse prognoses and should be more rigorously selected for localized treatment.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/radioterapia , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Criança , Irradiação Craniana , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/mortalidade , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Clin Invest ; 130: 4451-4463, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) is a hematologic illness involving cytokine-induced lymphoproliferation, systemic inflammation, cytopenias, and life-threatening multi-organ dysfunction. The molecular underpinnings of interleukin-6(IL-6)-blockade refractory patients remain unknown; no targeted therapies exist. In this study, we searched for therapeutic targets in IL-6-blockade refractory iMCD patients with the thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever/elevated C-reactive protein, reticulin myelofibrosis, renal dysfunction, organomegaly (TAFRO) clinical subtype. METHODS: We analyzed tissues and blood samples from three IL-6-blockade refractory iMCD-TAFRO patients. Cytokine panels, quantitative serum proteomics, flow cytometry of PBMCs, and pathway analyses were employed to identify novel therapeutic targets. To confirm elevated mTOR signaling, a candidate therapeutic target from the above assays, immunohistochemistry was performed for phosphorylated S6, a read-out of mTOR activation, in three iMCD lymph node tissue samples and controls. Proteomic, immunophenotypic, and clinical response assessments were performed to quantify the effects of administration of the mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus. RESULTS: Studies of three IL-6-blockade refractory iMCD cases revealed increased CD8+ T cell activation, VEGF-A, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activity. Administration of sirolimus significantly attenuated CD8+ T cell activation and decreased VEGF-A levels. Sirolimus induced clinical benefit responses in all three patients with durable and ongoing remissions of 66, 19, and 19 months. CONCLUSION: This precision medicine approach identifies PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling as the first pharmacologically-targetable pathogenic process in IL-6-blockade refractory iMCD. Prospective evaluation of sirolimus in treatment-refractory iMCD is planned (NCT03933904). FUNDING: Castleman's Awareness & Research Effort/Castleman Disease Collaborative Network, Penn Center for Precision Medicine, University Research Foundation, Intramural NIH funding, and National Heart Lung and Blood Institute.

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