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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 136497, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945526

RESUMO

Direct discharge of untreated industrial waste water in water bodies and then irrigation from these sources has increased trace metals contamination in paddy fields of southern China. Among trace metals, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are classified as most harmful contaminants in farmland to many organisms including plants, animals and humans. Rice is a staple food which is consumed by half population of the world; due to longer growth period it can easily absorb and accumulate the trace metals from soil. The objective of study was to check the efficacy of Se and Si NPs (nanoparticles) alone or in combination on metals accumulation and Se-fortified rice (Oryzasativa L.) production as their efficiency remained untested. Alone as well as combined application of Se- and Si-NPs (5, 10 and 20 mg L-1) was achieved along with CK. All the treatments significantly reduced the Cd and Pb contents in brown rice, except CK, Se3, Si1 and Se1Si3. Combined application of Se and Si (Se3Si2) was more effective in reducing the Cd and Pb contents by 62 and 52%, respectively. In addition, foliar application of both NPs improved the rice growth and quality by increasing the grain yield, rice biomass, and Se contents in brown rice. Highest concentration of Se (1.35 mg kg-1) in brown rice was observed with combined application of Se- and Si-Nps (Se3Si2). Selenium speciation revealed the presence of organic species (74%) in brown rice. The combinations of different doses of Se- and Si-Nps are the main determining factor for total concentration of metals in grains. These results demonstrate that foliage supplementation of Se and Si-Nps alleviate the Cd and Pb toxicity by reducing the metals' concentration in brown rice. Additionally foliage supplementation improved the nutritional quality by reducing the phytic acid contents in rice grains.

2.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125798, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927376

RESUMO

Availability of cadmium (Cd) and nitrate and their transfer to green leafy vegetables is highly dependent on physical, chemical and biochemical conditions of the soil. The phenotypic characteristics, accumulation of hazardous materials and rhizosphere properties of two ecotypes of water spinach in response to water stress were investigated. Flooding significantly enhanced plant growth and decreased Cd and nitrate concentrations in the shoot and root of both ecotypes of water spinach. Flooding extensively changed the physicochemical properties and biological processes in the rhizosphere, including increased pH and activities of urease and acid phosphatase, and decreased availability of Cd and nitrate and activity of nitrate reductase. Furthermore, flooding increased rhizosphere bacteria community diversity (including richness and evenness) and changed their community structure. Denitrifying bacteria (Clostridiales, Azoarcus and Pseudomonas), toxic metal resistant microorganisms (Rhodosporillaceae, Rhizobiales and Geobacter) were enriched in the rhizosphere under flooding conditions, and the plant growth-promoting taxa (Sphingomonadaceae) were preferentially colonized in the high accumulator (HA) rhizosphere region. These results indicated that flooding treatments result in biochemical and microbiological changes in soil, especially in the rhizosphere and reduced the availability of Cd and nitrate to plants, thus decreasing their uptake by water spinach. It is, therefore, possible to promote crop growth and reduce the accumulation of hazardous materials in vegetable crops like water spinach by controlling soil moisture conditions.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113609, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761594

RESUMO

Present study reports the laboratory and field scale application of different organic and inorganic amendments to immobilize cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a co-contaminated alluvial paddy soil. For that purpose, lime, biochar, Fe-biochar and two composite amendments (CA) composed of biochar, lime, sepiolite and zeolite (CA1: composite amendment 1) and manure, lime and sepiolite (CA2: composite amendment 2) were firstly tested in an incubation experiment to ameliorate Cd and Pb co-contaminated alluvial soil. It was observed that liming and CA2 elevated the soil pH and reduced DTPA extractable Cd and Pb in the incubated soil leading to higher metal immobilization. Therefore, efficiency of lime and CA2 was further investigated in field conditions with mid rice as the test crop to evaluate field scale immobilization and precise application rate for the tested soil type. DTPA and CaCl2 extractable Cd (46 and 51%) and Pb (68 and 70%) in field soil were decreased with applied treatments. Speciation of Cd and Pb also promoted conversion of metal exchangeable contents to less-available forms. Activated functional groups on amendments' surface (_OH bonding, C_O and CO, -O-H, Si-O-Si, carboxylic and ester groups) sequestered metals by precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange or electro static attributes. Application of lime at 2400 kg/acre (T4) and CA2 at 1200 kg/acre was more effective in reducing rice shoot and grains metal contents. Moreover, obtained results in terms of pH, extractable content, speciation and yield, and microanalysis of amendments highlights the remarkable efficiency of lime and composite amendment to sorb Cd and Pb providing the key evidence of these amendments for metals immobilization and environmental remediation. Considering these results, lime and CA2 are potential amendments for co-contaminated rice field especially in context of alluvial soil.

4.
J Environ Manage ; 257: 109999, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868649

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the efficiency of pre-selected composite amendments (CA-1: biochar-lime-sepiolite-zeolite and CA-2: manure-lime-sepiolite) for immobilization and sorption of Cd and Pb in field and batch sorption experiments. The field experiment was performed in a co-contaminated clay purple soil (stagnic anthrosols). Along with a control experiment (T1), CA-1 and CA-2 were tested at different rates including 750, 1500, 3000 and 6000 kg ha-1 by growing wheat as the test crop. The obtained results revealed that the highest dose of both composites (T5: 6000 kg ha-1 and T9: 6000 kg ha-1) increased the soil pH to 6.85 and 6.81, respectively as compared to the control (5.63). DTPA-extractable Cd and Pb contents decreased with composite treatments (T7 and T4) at harvest stage samples. Metal fractionation depicted that application of amendments decreased the exchangeable fraction at harvesting stage. Application of CA-2 and CA-1 (3000 kg ha-1) significantly increased the plant biomass (by 28% and 24%, respectively) and grain yield (by 26% and 22%, respectively) of wheat. Furthermore, batch sorption experiment results revealed that Langmuir adsorption model better fitted the sorption results with R2 values ranging between 0.99 and 0.91 for Cd and Pb, respectively. CA-1 and CA-2 exhibited the maximum adsorption capacity for Cd with no significant difference among treatments but Pb adsorption capacity was highest in CA-1 followed by CA-2 and control. The results of our experiments revealed that the application of organics combined with inorganic materials enhanced Cd and Pb immobilization and sorption, consequently reducing metals availability in laboratory and field conditions. Moreover, for field trials, application of the composite amendments at 3000 kg ha-1 emerged as the suitable treatment for tested wheat-grown area.


Assuntos
Esterco , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio , Carvão Vegetal , Chumbo , Solo
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 136121, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865074

RESUMO

Immobilization is among the most-suitable strategies to remediate cadmium (Cd) contaminated sites. Organic additives (OAs) have emerged as highly efficient and environment-friendly immobilizers to eradicate Cd contamination in a wide range of environments. This review article is intended to critically illustrate the role of different OAs in Cd immobilization and to highlight the key findings in this context. Owing to the unique structural features (high surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), presence of many functional groups), OAs have shown strong capability to remediate Cd polluted soils by adsorption, electrostatic interaction, complexation and precipitation. Research data is compiled about the efficiency of different OAs (bio-waste, biochar, activated carbon, composts, manure, and plant residues) applied alone or in combination with other amendments in stabilization and renovation of contaminated sites. In addition to their role in remediation, OAs are widely advocated for being classical sources of essential plant nutrients and as agents to improve the soil health and quality which has also been focused in this review. OAs may contain considerable amounts of metals and therefore it becomes essential to assess their final contribution. Elimination of Cd contamination is essential to attenuate the contaminant effect and to produce the safe food. Therefore, deployment of environment-friendly remediation strategies (alone or in combination with other suitable technologies) should be adopted especially at early stages of contamination.

6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 24-38, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791497

RESUMO

Phytoremediation is a valuable technology for mitigating soil contamination in agricultural lands, but phytoremediation without economic revenue is unfeasible for land owners and farmers. The use of crops with high biomass and bioenergy for phytoremediation is a unique strategy to derive supplementary benefits along with remediation activities. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a high-biomass crop that can be used for the phytoremediation of polluted lands with additional advantages (biomass and oil). In this study, 40 germplasms of sunflower were screened in field conditions for phytoremediation with the possibility for oil and meal production. The study was carried out to the physiological maturity stage. All studied germplasms mopped up substantial concentrations of Pb, with maximum amounts in shoot > root > seed respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the germplasm was assessed in terms of the Transfer factor (TF), Metal removal efficiency (MRE) and Metal extraction ratio (MER). Among all assessed criteria, GP.8585 was found to be most appropriate for restoring moderately Pb-contaminated soil accompanied with providing high biomass and high yield production. The Pb content in the oil of GP.8585 was below the Food safety standard of China, with 59.5% oleic acid and 32.1% linoleic acid. Moreover, amino acid analysis in meal illustrated significant differences among essential and non-essential amino acids. Glutamic acid was found in the highest percentage (22.4%), whereas cysteine in the lowest percentage (1.3%). Therefore, its efficient phytoextraction ability and good quality edible oil and meal production makes GP.8585 the most convenient sunflower germplasm for phytoremediation of moderately Pb-contaminated soil, with fringe benefits to farmers and landowners.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Helianthus/fisiologia , Chumbo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Animais , Asteraceae , Biomassa , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Poluentes Ambientais , Helianthus/química , Humanos , Metais Pesados , Sementes/química , Solo
7.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124679, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524617

RESUMO

Biochar amendment for compost stabilization of divergent biowastes is gaining considerable attention due to environmental, agronomic and economic benefits. Research to date exhibits its favorable physico-chemical characteristics, viz. greater porosity, surface area, amount of functional groups, and cation exchange capacity (CEC), which allow interface with main nutrient cycles, favor microbial activities during composting, and improve the reproduction of earthworms during vermicomposting. Biochar amendment during composting and vermicomposting of biowastes boosts physico-chemical properties of compost mixture, microbial activities and organic matter degradation; and reduces nitrogen loss and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). It also improves the quality of final compost by increasing concentration of plant available nutrients, enhancing maturity, decreasing composting duration and reducing the toxicity of compost. Due to these characteristics, biochar could be considered a beneficial additive for the stabilization of different biowastes during composting and vermicomposting processes. Hence, good quality vermicompost, efficient recycling and management of biowastes could be achieved by addition of biochar through composting and vermicomposting.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Animais , Compostagem/métodos , Nitrogênio/análise , Oligoquetos
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109857, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683201

RESUMO

Forty oilseed sunflower cultivars were screened in two soil types for phytoremediation of Cd coupled with maximum biomass yield and oil production. Several cultivars exhibited a significant difference in biomass and yield with enhanced uptake in shoots and low accumulation in roots from two Cd-contaminated soil types, an Oxisol and an Iceptisol. The Transfer Factor of Cd was >1 in several cultivars in both soil types, where as a significant difference in phytoextraction of Cd was observed in the Oxisol (acidic soil), greater than in the Inceptisol (alkaline soil). The results revealed that of the 40 cultivars, S9178, Huanong 667in the Oxisol and cvs. DW 667, HN 667, Huanong 667 and 668F1 in the Inceptisol showed a high biomass, better yield and enhanced accumulation of Cd in the shoots but a lesser accumulation in oil. The screened cultivar S 9178 produced the greatest amount of oil (55.6%) with 77% oleic acid, which makes it suitable for human consumption. Cultivar Huanong 667 was found to be the highest accumulating cultivar in both soil types. It is therefore suggested that some sunflower cultivars do exhibit phytoremediation potential together with agro-production potential.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Helianthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/metabolismo , Helianthus/metabolismo , Humanos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 145: 142-152, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689666

RESUMO

The phytotoxicity of chromium (Cr) makes it obligatory for the researchers to develop strategies that seek to hinder its accumulation in food chains. While, protective role of selenium (Se) has not been discussed in detail under adverse conditions in oilseed rape. Here, our aim was to investigate the potential use of Se (0, 5 and 10 µM) in alleviating the Cr toxicity (0, 100 and 200 µM) in Brassica napus L. Results delineated that Se-supplementation notably recovered the Cr-phytotoxicity by reducing the Cr accumulation in plant tissues and boosted the inhibition in plant growth and biomass. Under Cr stress, the exogenously applied Se significantly recovered the impairment in photosynthesis related parameters (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photochemical efficiency of photosystem II), and counteracted the reduction in nutrients uptake and improved the essential amino acids (EAAs) levels. In addition, Se activated the antioxidants enzymes included in AsA-GSH cycle (SOD, CAT, APX, GR, DHAR, MDHAR, GSH, and AsA) and glyoxalase (Gly) system (Gly I and Gly II) and minimized the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG) contents in response to Cr stress. In a nutshell, Se (more effective at 5 µM) alleviated the Cr and MG induced phytotoxicity and oxidative damages by minimizing their (Cr and MG) accumulation and enhanced the plant growth, nutrients element level, nutrition quality by improving EAAs, antioxidant and Gly system. By considering the above-mentioned biomarkers, the addition of exogenous Se in Cr polluted soils might be effective approach to decrease the Cr uptake and its linked phytotoxicity in B. napus.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 733-741, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200201

RESUMO

Heavy metals contamination in agricultural soil has become a worldwide problem, and soil characteristics modulate metal availability in soils. Four field experiments were conducted simultaneously to evaluate concentration and distribution of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in 39 oilseed rape cultivars at four agricultural locations with different contamination levels of Cd and Pb, as well as the influence of soil characteristics together with soil total and bioavailable Cd and Pb concentration on metal transfer from soil to oilseed rape. Shoot concentrations of Cd and Pb in oilseed rape cultivars ranged from 0.09 to 3.18 and from 0.01 to 10.5 mg kg-1 across four sites. For most cultivars, Cd concentration in root or shoot were higher than pod and lowest in seed, while the highest Pb concentration was observed in root followed by shoot and seed. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis allows for a better estimation of Cd and Pb concentration in oilseed rape while taking soil properties into consideration. The results demonstrated that Cd and Pb concentration in oilseed rape were correlated with soil organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), sand, soil total and available Cd and Pb concentration, and R2 varied from 0.993 to 0.999 (P < 0.05). The Cd and Pb levels found in oilseed rape indicated its phytoextraction potential for Cd and Pb co-contaminated agricultural soils in winter without stopping agricultural activities.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Agricultura , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Modelos Lineares , Metais Pesados/análise , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 597-609, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158623

RESUMO

Impact of different biochars supplemented (10% w/w) to promote vermicomposting of sewage sludge (SS) and kitchen waste (KW) mixture (SS + KW, 70:30) was studied on the growth, reproduction and survival of earthworms, and ultimately the quality of vermicompost. Four types of biochar used as secondary material for preincubation (16 days) and vermicomposting (30 days) were: pine tree biochar (PTB), poplar plant biochar (PPB), wetland plant biochar (WPB) and yard waste biochar (YWB). Preincubation and vermicomposting of biomass mixture were undertaken in 60 L and 2 L capacity round-shaped bioreactors, respectively. Samples of biomass undergoing degradation were drawn after every 2 days during preincubation and with 5 days interval during vermicomposting to analyze them for plant nutrients and heavy metals contents. Amendment of vermicompost substrate (SS + KW) with biochars; PTB, PPB, WPB and YWB increased the reproduction rate of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) by 44.6, 53.9, 29.3 and 38.8%, respectively as compared to control (no biochar, NB). There has been significant reduction in total content of Cd (0.2-5.1%), Cr (7.3-10.8%), Cu (3.1-7.4%), Mn (3.2-8.4%), Pb (9.0-45.9%) and Zn (1.1-5.7%) by the application of different biochars as compared to NB after vermicomposting. The SEM/EDS images also reflected reduced concentration of these heavy metals in the final vermicompost as compared to initial mixtures. Progressively, biochar amendments increased the concentration of all macronutrients, viz., TN (15.8-31.0%), TP (8.6-9.9%), TK (2.8-17.3%), Ca (4.1-9.9%) and Mg (0.8-12.2%); while, reduced the pH (1.9-2.3%), content of Na (6.6-22.3%), TOC (6.6-15.4%), OM (5.0-8.2%) and C:N ratio (2.6-18.9%). Earthworm body accumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals was: Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > Mn > Cr at the termination stage of experiment. In conclusion, amending the SS + KW mixture with 10% (w/w) PPB for vermicomposting rendered higher count of cocoons, growth rate and reproduction rate of earthworms, which ultimately produce nutrients-rich vermicompost lower in heavy metals.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/análise , Compostagem/métodos , Metais Pesados/química , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Esgotos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Animais , Carvão Vegetal/classificação , Oligoquetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
J Environ Manage ; 243: 144-156, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100659

RESUMO

Sewage sludge and kitchen refuse are ubiquitously mounting wastes with high organic load, which if reprocessed they could salvage the environment. Reckoned with this certitude, an incubating study was initiated on sequential preincubation of sewage sludge with kitchen waste in 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70 ratios for 16 days ensued by vermicomposting of 30 days using Eisenia fetida. Concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) in the biosolid mixtures increased during preincubation but reduced progressively through vermicomposting due to bioaccumulation of these metals in the earthworm tissues. Earthworm growth parameters data reflected that sewage sludge and kitchen waste mixture with 70:30 ratio increased the number of cocoons (10.6%), biomass (8.2%), growth rate (8.3%), reproduction rate (12.2%), and decreased their mean mortality rate (80.1%) as compared to that in sole sewage sludge (control). Results of chemical analysis and SEM/EDS imaging, showed that alkalinity, organic carbon, C/N ratio, organic matter and concentration of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) reduced while macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) increased in the final vermicompost as compared to that in initial mixtures. The FT-IR analysis also revealed that various biochemical functional groups underwent biodegradation during combined preincubation-vermicomposting. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of all trace elements in the earthworm tissues was higher with 70:30 ratio of substrates, with the trend of Cd > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr. Hence, this study concludes that combined preincubation-vermicomposting is the most efficient and ecofriendly technique for biodegradation, stabilization, and conversion of sewage sludge and kitchen waste into organic fertilizer. The nutrient rich vermicompost can be safely used as horticultural substrate and soil conditioner for efficient management of degraded soils. Finally, combined preincubation-vermicomposting is a sustainable system of recycling the sewage sludge along with kitchen waste.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Animais , Esgotos , Solo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
J Environ Manage ; 239: 287-298, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913479

RESUMO

Comparative impact of CO2 application and endophyte inoculation was investigated on the growth, rhizosphere characteristics, and cadmium (Cd) absorption of two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance in response to Cd stress under hydroponic or rhizo-box culture conditions. The results showed that both CO2 application and endophyte inoculation significantly (P < 0.05) promoted plant growth (fresh weight and dry weight), improved root morphological properties (SRL, SRA, SRV, ARD and RTN) and exudation (pH, TOC, TN, soluble sugar and organic acids), changed Cd uptake and distribution of both ecotypes of S. alfredii. Meanwhile soil total and DTPA extractable Cd in rhizo-box decreased by biofortification treatments. Superposition biofortification exhibits utmost improvement for the above mentioned parameters, and has potential for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency of hyperaccumulator and sustaining regular growth of non-hyperaccumulator in Cd contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Sedum/metabolismo , Endófitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroponia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Sedum/química , Sedum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 660: 80-96, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639721

RESUMO

Cadmium contamination in soil, water and food has become a global problem since last century's industrial and agricultural revolution. It is a highly toxic metal with serious consequences on human and animal health. Different natural and anthropogenic sources are responsible for Cd release in the soil which ultimately leads to the food chain. Cd persists in soil for long durations due to its minimal microbial or chemical loss. There are various physical, chemical or biological techniques which are helpful to minimize Cd risk in food chain. Among them, in-situ immobilization with organic, inorganic or clay amendments is a cost-effective and an environment friendly strategy to remediate Cd polluted sites. Lime, biochar, organic wastes, phosphorus fertilizers, sepiolite, zeolite, hydroxyapatite and bentonite are commonly used amendments for amelioration of Cd contaminated soils. These amendments reduce Cd uptake and enhance immobilization by adsorption, complexation, and precipitation processes. This review is aimed to provide a comprehensive note on Cd toxicity in humans and environment, its immobilization by different agents through variety of processes, and comparison of technologies for Cd removal from contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Cadeia Alimentar , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/toxicidade , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/instrumentação , Humanos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 190-198, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605848

RESUMO

The identification of high yield genotypes that are capable of accumulating multiple heavy metals in the non-edible parts (roots and shoots), but not in the edible parts (seeds) and have desired nutritional value is necessary for accomplishing phytoremediation coupled with agro-production. In this study, 17 fava bean genotypes were screened in two different field conditions to examine their phytoremediation potential in terms of uptake and translocation of Cd and Pb. Ten genotypes, LBAO, JNJX, DCAN, QXCJ, QIKM, LXYC, YDL6, RBCD, QPID and ZHW6 were found as the best accumulators for Cd and Pb with permissible limit of metals in seeds. The concentration of plant nutrients were genotype and soil type dependent and there was a significant correlation between these two factors. Furthermore, the three genotypes DCAN, LBAO and LXYC showed best performance in alluvial soil type while QPID, RBCD and LXYC were the best in red soil type. Genotype LXYC was similar for both soil types and appeared to be the best fit for phytoremediation coupled with agro-production for slightly or moderately Cd and Pb co-contaminated soil. Therefore, fava bean LXYC genotype is suggested as a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cd/Pb co-contaminated soils coupled with agro-production.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Vicia faba/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , China , Genótipo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Solo/química , Vicia faba/química
16.
Chemosphere ; 214: 259-268, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265933

RESUMO

Field experiments were conducted in two consecutive rice-wheat cropping seasons on a yellow clay soil to assess the efficacy of organic and inorganic amendments for cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) immobilization. Amendments were applied alone and in combinations to compare their efficacy for metals immobilization. Composite amendment of GSA-4 (Green Stabilizing Agent) and biochar resulted in higher biomass and grains yield for both rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Liming, DEK1 (Di Kang No. 1) or GSA-4 amendment increased soil pH from 6.34 to 7.35, 7.20 and 7.15, respectively. Soil amendments significantly reduced DTPA extractable Cd and Pb in soil at wheat harvest. Cadmium and Pb fractionation showed a significant decrease in the extractable fractions by the amendment of biochar (34% and 25%) or GSA-4 (35% and 26%, respectively). GSA-4 and biochar amendment enhanced metals immobilization and reduced their uptake by plant and subsequent accumulation in the grains of rice and wheat, particularly with GSA-4. These results indicate that GSA-4 and biochar, especially their combination, have great potential for application to remediate Cd and Pb contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Cádmio/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Chumbo/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes do Solo/isolamento & purificação , Transporte Biológico , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(2): 1809-1820, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456615

RESUMO

Plant uptake of cadmium (Cd) is affected by soil and environmental conditions. In this study, hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 coupled with inoculated endophytic bacteria M002 on morphological properties, gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence, and Cd uptake of S. alfredii. The results showed that bio-fortification processes (elevated CO2 and/or inoculated with endophytic bacteria) significantly (p < 0.05) promoted growth patterns, improved photosynthetic characteristics and increased Cd tolerance of both ecotypes of S. alfredii, as compared to normal conditions. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in intact leaves of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) were increased by 73.93 and 32.90%, respectively at the low Cd (2 µM), 84.41 and 57.65%, respectively at the high Cd level (10 µM). Superposition treatment increased Cd concentration in shoots and roots of HE, by 50.87 and 82.12%, respectively at the low Cd and 46.75 and 88.92%, respectively at the high Cd level. Besides, superposition treatment declined Cd transfer factor of NHE, by 0.85% at non-Cd rate, 17.22% at the low Cd and 22.26% at the high Cd level. These results indicate that elevated CO2 coupled with endophytic bacterial inoculation may effectively improve phytoremediation efficiency of Cd-contaminated soils by hyperaccumulator, and alleviate Cd toxicity to non-hyperaccumulator ecotype of Sedum alfredii.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacocinética , Dióxido de Carbono , Endófitos/fisiologia , Sedum/microbiologia , Sedum/fisiologia , Bacillus megaterium/fisiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecótipo , Hidroponia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Sedum/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17839, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546027

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils has posed a risk to environment and human health. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of soil amendments for reducing cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L) in a contaminated field. The soil amendments used include lime, DaSan Yuan (DASY), DiKang No.1 (DEK1), biochar, Fe-biochar, Yirang, phosphorus fertilizer, (Green Stabilizing Agent) GSA-1, GSA-2, GSA-3, and GSA-4, applied at 1% rate in a field experiment. The results exposed that GSA-4 treatment showed best effects on reducing Cd and Pb phytoavailability in soil and uptake by early rice. Linear increase in pH (i.e. 5.69 to 6.75) was recorded in GSA-4 amended soil from sowing to the 3rd month of growth season. GSA-4 decreased DTPA extractable contents of cadmium (Cd) from 0.324 to 0.136 mg kg-1 soil and lead (Pb) from 53.21 to 24.68 mg kg-1 soil at 90 days of amendment. Treatment with GSA-4 improved rice growth (56%) and grains yield (42%). The enhancement effects on grain yield may be result from the positive effects of GSA-4 application on increasing photosynthesis (116%) and transpiration rate (152%) as compared to the control. Significant reduction in Cd and Pb uptake in shoot (42% and 44%) and in grains (77 and 88%), was observed, respectively in GSA-4 treatment as compared with the control. Moreover, negative correlation was recorded between DTPA extractable Cd/Pb and soil pH that directly depended on applied amendments. In short, use of combined amendment (GSA-4) was more effective for immobilizing heavy metals in contaminated paddy field, and secures rice safe production, as compared other tested amendment products.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Quelantes/química , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes , Chumbo/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/química , Cádmio/metabolismo , Humanos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
19.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 19(2): 147-158, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405042

RESUMO

Vegetables are important constituents of the human diet. Heavy metals and nitrate are among the major contaminants of vegetables. Consumption of vegetables and fruits with accumulated heavy metals and nitrate has the potential to damage different body organs leading to unwanted effects. Breeding vegetables with low heavy metal and nitrate contaminants is a cost-effective approach. We investigated 38 water spinach genotypes for low Cd and nitrate co-accumulation. Four genotypes, i.e. JXDY, GZQL, XGDB, and B888, were found to have low co-accumulation of Cd (<0.71 mg/kg dry weight) and nitrate (<3100 mg/kg fresh weight) in the edible parts when grown in soils with moderate contamination of both Cd (1.10 mg/kg) and nitrate (235.2 mg/kg). These genotypes should be appropriate with minimized risk to humans who consume them. The Cd levels in the edible parts of water spinach were positively correlated with the concentration of Pb or Zn, but Cd, Pb, or Zn was negatively correlated with P concentration. These results indicate that these three heavy metals may be absorbed into the plant in similar proportions or in combination, minimizing the influx to aerial parts. Increasing P fertilizer application rates appears to prevent heavy metal and nitrate translocation to shoot tissues and the edible parts of water spinach on co-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Ipomoea , Nitratos/metabolismo , Biomassa , Clorofila/análise , Genótipo , Humanos , Ipomoea/química , Ipomoea/genética
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867770

RESUMO

This paper examines the intersection between environmental pollution and people's acknowledgements of, and responses to, health issues in Karhera, a former agricultural village situated between the rapidly expanding cities of New Delhi (India's capital) and Ghaziabad (an industrial district in Uttar Pradesh). A relational place-based view is integrated with an interpretive approach, highlighting the significance of place, people's emic experiences, and the creation of meaning through social interactions. Research included surveying 1788 households, in-depth interviews, participatory mapping exercises, and a review of media articles on environment, pollution, and health. Karhera experiences both domestic pollution, through the use of domestic waste water, or gandapani, for vegetable irrigation, and industrial pollution through factories' emissions into both the air and water. The paper shows that there is no uniform articulation of any environment/health threats associated with gandapani. Some people take preventative actions to avoid exposure while others do not acknowledge health implications. By contrast, industrial pollution is widely noted and frequently commented upon, but little collective action addresses this. The paper explores how the characteristics of Karhera, its heterogeneous population, diverse forms of environmental pollution, and broader governance processes, limit the potential for citizen action against pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Agricultura , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Indústrias , Masculino
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