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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20107, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208894

RESUMO

Our understanding of how projected climatic warming will influence the world's biota remains largely speculative, owing to the many ways in which it can directly and indirectly affect individual phenotypes. Its impact is expected to be especially severe in the tropics, where organisms have evolved in more physically stable conditions relative to temperate ecosystems. Lake Tanganyika (eastern Africa) is one ecosystem experiencing rapid warming, yet our understanding of how its diverse assemblage of endemic species will respond is incomplete. Herein, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess how anticipated future warming would affect the mirror-elicited aggressive behaviour of Julidochromis ornatus, a common endemic cichlid in Lake Tanganyika. Given linkages that have been established between temperature and individual behaviour in fish and other animals, we hypothesized that water warming would heighten average individual aggression. Our findings support this hypothesis, suggesting the potential for water warming to mediate behavioural phenotypic expression through negative effects associated with individual health (body condition). We ultimately discuss the implications of our findings for efforts aimed at understanding how continued climate warming will affect the ecology of Lake Tanganyika fishes and other tropical ectotherms.

2.
Horm Behav ; 127: 104879, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121993

RESUMO

Individuals often respond to social disturbances by increasing prosociality, which can strengthen social bonds, buffer against stress, and promote overall group cohesion. Given their importance in mediating stress responses, glucocorticoids have received considerable attention as potential proximate regulators of prosocial behaviour during disturbances. However, previous investigations have largely focused on mammals and our understanding of the potential prosocial effects of glucocorticoids across vertebrates more broadly is still lacking. Here, we assessed whether experimentally elevated glucocorticoid levels (simulating endogenous cortisol responses mounted following disturbances) promote prosocial behaviours in wild groups of the cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher. Using SCUBA in Lake Tanganyika, we observed how subordinate group members adjusted affiliation, helping, and submission (all forms of prosocial behaviour) following underwater injections of either cortisol or saline. Cortisol treatment reduced affiliative behaviours-but only in females-suggesting that glucocorticoids may reduce overall prosociality. Fish with elevated glucocorticoid levels did not increase performance of submission or helping behaviours. Taken together, our results do not support a role for glucocorticoids in promoting prosocial behaviour in this species and emphasize the complexity of the proximate mechanisms that underlie prosociality.

3.
Curr Zool ; 65(1): 21-31, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697235

RESUMO

Conflict is an inherent part of social life in group-living species. Group members may mediate conflict through submissive and affiliative behaviors, which can reduce aggression, stabilize dominance hierarchies, and foster group cohesion. The frequency and resolution of within-group conflict may vary with the presence of neighboring groups. Neighbors can threaten the territory or resources of the whole group, promoting behaviors that foster within-group cohesion. However, neighbors may also foster conflict of interests among group members: opportunities for subordinate dispersal may alter conflict among dominants and subordinates while opportunities for extra-pair reproduction may increase conflict between mates. To understand how neighbors mediate within-group conflict in the cooperatively breeding fish Neolamprologus pulcher, we measured behavioral dynamics and social network structure in isolated groups, groups recently exposed to neighbors, and groups with established neighbors. Aggression and submission between the dominant male and female pair were high in isolated groups, but dominant aggression was directly primarily at subordinates when groups had neighbors. This suggests that neighbors attenuate conflict between mates and foster conflict between dominants and subordinates. Further, aggression and submission between similarly sized group members were most frequent when groups had neighbors, suggesting that neighbors induce rank-related conflict. We found relatively little change in within-group affiliative networks across treatments, suggesting that the presence of neighbors does not alter behaviors associated with promoting group cohesion. Collectively, these results provide some of the first empirical insights into the extent to which intragroup behavioral networks are mediated by intergroup interactions and the broader social context.

4.
J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol ; 331(4): 217-226, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650252

RESUMO

For many species, behaviors such as territory defense and parental care are energetically costly, but are nonetheless can provide substantial fitness gains. In systems in which both parents provide parental care, each of the parents benefits from exhibiting (or having their partner exhibit) these behaviors. However, in many cases, costs and benefits differ between parents due to factors such as size or sex. Different intruder types may also impose different costs on parents. Predatory intruders might consume offspring, whereas conspecifics might threaten the social status of a parent, or provide benefits as a potential group joiner or mate. Responses to these intrusions may also be associated with variation in individual stress responses. We investigated associations among male and female sizes, and the interaction between these, with defense against conspecific and heterospecific territorial intruders by members of successfully breeding pairs in the cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher. We also investigated whether cortisol levels were associated with size or participation in territory defense because each may be a cause or consequence of individual variation in the stress response. We found that females paired with large males performed fewer defensive behaviors than females paired with smaller males. Males paired with relatively large females had higher baseline cortisol levels than those paired with smaller females. Collectively, individual characteristics such as size have consequences for each individual's behavior, and also influence the behavior, and endocrine state of social partners.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Territorialidade , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Social
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(51): 12859-12867, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487220

RESUMO

Current theoretical models of the commons assert that common-pool resources can only be managed sustainably with clearly defined boundaries around both communities and the resources that they use. In these theoretical models, open access inevitably leads to a tragedy of the commons. However, in many open-access systems, use of common-pool resources seems to be sustainable over the long term (i.e., current resource use does not threaten use of common-pool resources for future generations). Here, we outline the conditions that support sustainable resource use in open property regimes. We use the conceptual framework of complex adaptive systems to explain how processes within and couplings between human and natural systems can lead to the emergence of efficient, equitable, and sustainable resource use. We illustrate these dynamics in eight case studies of different social-ecological systems, including mobile pastoralism, marine and freshwater fisheries, swidden agriculture, and desert foraging. Our theoretical framework identifies eight conditions that are critical for the emergence of sustainable use of common-pool resources in open property regimes. In addition, we explain how changes in boundary conditions may push open property regimes to either common property regimes or a tragedy of the commons. Our theoretical model of emergent sustainability helps us to understand the diversity and dynamics of property regimes across a wide range of social-ecological systems and explains the enigma of open access without a tragedy. We recommend that policy interventions in such self-organizing systems should focus on managing the conditions that are critical for the emergence and persistence of sustainability.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Alocação de Recursos , Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Humanos , Propriedade
6.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0185746, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016625

RESUMO

Metabolic rate reduction has been considered the mechanism by which sleep conserves energy, similar to torpor or hibernation. This mechanism of energy savings is in conflict with the known upregulation (compared to wake) of diverse functions during sleep and neglects a potential role in energy conservation for partitioning of biological operations by behavioral state. Indeed, energy savings as derived from state-dependent resource allocations have yet to be examined. A mathematical model is presented based on relative rates of energy deployment for biological processes upregulated during either wake or sleep. Using this model, energy savings from sleep-wake cycling over constant wakefulness is computed by comparing stable limit cycles for systems of differential equations. A primary objective is to compare potential energy savings derived from state-dependent metabolic partitioning versus metabolic rate reduction. Additionally, energy conservation from sleep quota and the circadian system are also quantified in relation to a continuous wake condition. As a function of metabolic partitioning, our calculations show that coupling of metabolic operations with behavioral state may provide comparatively greater energy savings than the measured decrease in metabolic rate, suggesting that actual energy savings derived from sleep may be more than 4-fold greater than previous estimates. A combination of state-dependent metabolic partitioning and modest metabolic rate reduction during sleep may enhance energy savings beyond what is achievable through metabolic partitioning alone; however, the relative contribution from metabolic partitioning diminishes as metabolic rate is decreased during the rest phase. Sleep quota and the circadian system further augment energy savings in the model. Finally, we propose that state-dependent resource allocation underpins both sleep homeostasis and the optimization of daily energy conservation across species. This new paradigm identifies an evolutionary selective advantage for the upregulation of central and peripheral biological processes during sleep, presenting a unifying construct to understand sleep function.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Descanso/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Vigília/fisiologia
7.
R Soc Open Sci ; 4(5): 170350, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573041

RESUMO

Social living has evolved numerous times across a diverse array of animal taxa. An open question is how the transition to a social lifestyle has shaped, and been shaped by, the underlying neurohormonal machinery of social behaviour. The nonapeptide neurohormones, implicated in the regulation of social behaviours, are prime candidates for the neuroendocrine substrates of social evolution. Here, we examined the brains of eight cichlid fish species with divergent social systems, comparing the number and size of preoptic neurons that express the nonapeptides isotocin and vasotocin. While controlling for the influence of phylogeny and body size, we found that the highly social cooperatively breeding species (n = 4) had fewer parvocellular isotocin neurons than the less social independently breeding species (n = 4), suggesting that the evolutionary transition to group living and cooperative breeding was associated with a reduction in the number of these neurons. In a complementary analysis, we found that the size and number of isotocin neurons significantly differentiated the cooperatively breeding from the independently breeding species. Our results suggest that isotocin is related to sociality in cichlids and may provide a mechanistic substrate for the evolution of sociality.

8.
Mol Ecol ; 25(16): 4001-13, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27297293

RESUMO

In group-living species, the degree of relatedness among group members often governs the extent of reproductive sharing, cooperation and conflict within a group. Kinship among group members can be shaped by the presence and location of neighbouring groups, as these provide dispersal or mating opportunities that can dilute kinship among current group members. Here, we assessed how within-group relatedness varies with the density and position of neighbouring social groups in Neolamprologus pulcher, a colonial and group-living cichlid fish. We used restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) methods to generate thousands of polymorphic SNPs. Relative to microsatellite data, RADseq data provided much tighter confidence intervals around our relatedness estimates. These data allowed us to document novel patterns of relatedness in relation to colony-level social structure. First, the density of neighbouring groups was negatively correlated with relatedness between subordinates and dominant females within a group, but no such patterns were observed between subordinates and dominant males. Second, subordinates at the colony edge were less related to dominant males in their group than subordinates in the colony centre, suggesting a shorter breeding tenure for dominant males at the colony edge. Finally, subordinates who were closely related to their same-sex dominant were more likely to reproduce, supporting some restraint models of reproductive skew. Collectively, these results demonstrate that within-group relatedness is influenced by the broader social context, and variation between groups in the degree of relatedness between dominants and subordinates can be explained by both patterns of reproductive sharing and the nature of the social landscape.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Reprodução , Comportamento Social , Animais , Cruzamento , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Physiol Behav ; 151: 386-94, 2015 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26255122

RESUMO

In complex animal societies, direct interactions between group members can influence the behavior and glucocorticoid levels of individuals involved. Recently, it has become apparent that third-party group members can influence dyadic interactions, and vice versa. Thus, glucocorticoid levels may vary depending on interactions of other members of the social group. Using the social cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher, we examined the relationship between levels of the glucocorticoid hormone cortisol in subordinate females and 1) direct interactions with dominant group members, as well as 2) dyadic interactions between the dominant male and female, in which the subordinate female was not directly involved. Subordinate females that frequently engaged in non-aggressive interactions with dominant females had lower cortisol levels. There was no relationship between subordinate female cortisol and agonistic interactions between the subordinate female and either dominant. Subordinate females had higher cortisol levels when in groups in which the dominant breeding pair behaved agonistically towards each other and performed fewer courtship behaviors. For subordinate females in this species, variation in cortisol levels is associated with their own affiliative behavior, but also can be explained by the broader social context of interactions between dominant members of the group.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Hierarquia Social , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Comportamento Social , Animais , Ciclídeos/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Radioimunoensaio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 282(1811)2015 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26136450

RESUMO

The degree to which group members share reproduction is dictated by both within-group (e.g. group size and composition) and between-group(e.g. density and position of neighbours) characteristics. While many studies have investigated reproductive patterns within social groups, few have simultaneously explored how within-group and between-group social structure influence these patterns. Here, we investigated how group size and composition, along with territory density and location within the colony, influenced parentage in 36 wild groups of a colonial, cooperatively breeding fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Dominant males sired 76% of offspring in their group, whereas dominant females mothered 82% of offspring in their group. Subordinate reproduction was frequent, occurring in 47% of sampled groups. Subordinate males gained more paternity in groups located in high-density areas and in groups with many subordinate males. Dominant males and females in large groups and in groups with many reproductively mature subordinates had higher rates of parentage loss, but only at the colony edge. Our study provides, to our knowledge,the first comprehensive quantification of reproductive sharing among groups of wild N. pulcher, a model species for the study of cooperation and social behaviour. Further, we demonstrate that the frequency of extra-pair parentage differs across small social and spatial scales.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Predomínio Social , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução
11.
Naturwissenschaften ; 101(10): 839-49, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25135814

RESUMO

Social interactions facilitate pathogen transmission and increase virulence. Therefore, species that live in social groups are predicted to suffer a higher pathogen burden, to invest more heavily in immune defence against pathogens, or both. However, there are few empirical tests of whether social species indeed invest more heavily in immune defence than non-social species. In the current study, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled comparison of innate immune response in Lamprologine cichlid fishes. We focused on three species of highly social cichlids that live in permanent groups and exhibit cooperative breeding (Julidochromis ornatus, Neolamprologus pulcher and Neolamprologus savoryi) and three species of non-social cichlids that exhibit neither grouping nor cooperative behaviour (Telmatochromis temporalis, Neolamprologus tetracanthus and Neolamprologus modestus). We quantified the innate immune response by injecting wild fishes with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), a lectin that causes a cell-mediated immune response. We predicted that the three highly social species would show a greater immune reaction to the PHA treatment, indicating higher investment in immune defence against parasites relative to the three non-social species. We found significant species-level variation in immune response, but contrary to our prediction, this variation did not correspond to social system. However, we found that immune response was correlated with territory size across the six species. Our results indicate that the common assumption of a positive relationship between social system and investment in immune function may be overly simplistic. We suggest that factors such as rates of both in-group and out-group social interactions are likely to be important mediators of the relationship between sociality and immune function.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Animais , Ciclídeos/classificação , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Filogenia , Fito-Hemaglutininas/farmacologia , Comportamento Social , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 113(1): 152-6, 2014 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24239212

RESUMO

We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticoncepção/normas , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , População Urbana
13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 279(1741): 3209-16, 2012 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22553090

RESUMO

In many non-monogamous systems, males invest less in progeny than do females. This leaves males with higher potential rates of reproduction, and a likelihood of sexual conflict, including, in some systems, coercive matings. If coercive matings are costly, the best female strategy may be to avoid male interaction. We present a model that demonstrates female movement in response to male harassment as a mechanism to lower the costs associated with male coercion, and the effect that female movement has on selection in males for male harassment. We found that, when females can move from a habitat patch to a refuge to which males do not have access, there may be a selection for either high, or low harassment male phenotype, or both, depending on the relationship between the harassment level of male types in the population and a threshold level of male harassment. This threshold harassment level depends on the relative number of males and females in the population, and the relative resource values of the habitat; the threshold increases as the sex ratio favours females, and decreases with the value of the refuge patch or total population. Our model predicts that selection will favour the harassment level that lies closest to this threshold level of harassment, and differing harassment levels will coexist within the population only if they lie on the opposite sides of the threshold harassment. Our model is consistent with empirical results suggesting that an intermediate harassment level provides maximum reproductive fitness to males when females are mobile.


Assuntos
Coerção , Ciprinodontiformes/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Agressão , Animais , Feminino , Insetos/fisiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório , Reprodução , Caracteres Sexuais
14.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 365(1553): 2751-64, 2010 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20679117

RESUMO

Behaviour is typically regarded as among the most flexible of animal phenotypic traits. In particular, expression of cooperative behaviour is often assumed to be conditional upon the behaviours of others. This flexibility is a key component of many hypothesized mechanisms favouring the evolution of cooperative behaviour. However, evidence shows that cooperative behaviours are often less flexible than expected and that, in many species, individuals show consistent differences in the amount and type of cooperative and non-cooperative behaviours displayed. This phenomenon is known as 'animal personality' or a 'behavioural syndrome'. Animal personality is evolutionarily relevant, as it typically shows heritable variation and can entail fitness consequences, and hence, is subject to evolutionary change. Here, we review the empirical evidence for individual variation in cooperative behaviour across taxa, we examine the evolutionary processes that have been invoked to explain the existence of individual variation in cooperative behaviour and we discuss the consequences of consistent individual differences on the evolutionary stability of cooperation. We highlight that consistent individual variation in cooperativeness can both stabilize or disrupt cooperation in populations. We conclude that recognizing the existence of consistent individual differences in cooperativeness is essential for an understanding of the evolution and prevalence of cooperation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Animais
15.
PLoS One ; 4(5): e5458, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19421320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many cooperatively breeding vertebrates, subordinates assist a dominant pair to raise the dominants' offspring. Previously, it has been suggested that subordinates may help in payment for continued residency on the territory (the 'pay-to-stay hypothesis'), but payment might also be reciprocated or might allow subordinates access to reproductive opportunities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured dominant and subordinate female alloparental brood care and reproductive success in four separate experiments and show that unrelated female dominant and subordinate cichlid fish care for each other's broods (alloparental brood care), but that there is no evidence for reciprocal 'altruism' (no correlation between alloparental care received and given). Instead, subordinate females appear to pay with alloparental care for own direct reproduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest subordinate females pay with alloparental care to ensure access to the breeding substrate and thereby increase their opportunities to lay their own clutches. Subordinates' eggs are laid, on average, five days after the dominant female has produced her first brood. We suggest that immediate reproductive benefits need to be considered in tests of the pay-to-stay hypothesis.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Dominação-Subordinação , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Oviparidade/fisiologia
17.
J Anim Ecol ; 75(3): 666-76, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16689949

RESUMO

1. Tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier are important predators in a variety of nearshore communities, including the seagrass ecosystem of Shark Bay, Western Australia. Because tiger sharks are known to influence spatial distributions of multiple prey species, it is important to understand how they use habitats at a variety of spatial scales. We used a combination of catch rates and acoustic tracking to determine tiger shark microhabitat use in Shark Bay. 2. Comparing habitat-use data from tracking against the null hypothesis of no habitat preference is hindered in Shark Bay, as elsewhere, by the difficulty of defining expected habitat use given random movement. We used randomization procedures to generate expected habitat use in the absence of habitat preference and expected habitat use differences among groups (e.g. males and females). We tested the performance of these protocols using simulated data sets with known habitat preferences. 3. The technique correctly classified sets of simulated tracks as displaying a preference or not and was a conservative test for differences in habitat preferences between subgroups of tracks (e.g. males vs. females). 4. Sharks preferred shallow habitats over deep ones, and preferred shallow edge microhabitats over shallow interior ones. The use of shallow edges likely increases encounter rates with potential prey and may have profound consequences for the dynamics of Shark Bay's seagrass ecosystem through indirect effects transmitted by grazers that are common prey of tiger sharks. 5. Females showed a greater tendency to use shallow edge microhabitats than did males; this pattern was not detected by traditional analysis techniques. 6. The randomization procedures presented here are applicable to many field studies that use tracking by allowing researchers both to determine overall habitat preferences and to identify differences in habitat use between groups within their sample.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Tubarões/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Geografia , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Distribuição Aleatória , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Horm Behav ; 50(2): 173-82, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16626710

RESUMO

We tested whether subordinate helper males of the Lake Tanganyika cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher show elevated excretion levels of the stress hormone cortisol and reduced levels of 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone when living in groups with a small breeder male, compared to similar helper males living in groups with a large breeder male, in a full-factorial repeated measures experimental design. We also measured the same hormones in breeder males with and without helper males. Previous research showed that the size difference between large male helpers and male breeders in groups of this species influences behaviour and growth decisions. Contrary to our expectation, no effect of the size-difference between helper males and breeder males on helper hormone levels was detected. Furthermore, helper males had similar hormone excretion levels to those of size-matched breeder males without helpers, and to small breeder males. There was no influence of egg laying on breeder male and helper hormone levels during the experiment. Interestingly, all three hormone levels were significantly lower in helpers showing elevated levels of submissive behaviour towards the breeders, independently of the size of the breeder males. The low cortisol levels suggest that helper males can successfully reduce stress by appeasing breeder males through submission. Furthermore, helper males showing a high level of submissive behaviour had lower levels of androgens than less submissive helpers, suggesting a lower reproductive potential in submissive helpers. We propose that helper submission may be used as an honest signal of reduced interest in reproduction towards the breeder male in this species.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Crescimento/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Predomínio Social , Esteroides/fisiologia , Agressão/fisiologia , Androgênios/sangue , Androgênios/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Conflito Psicológico , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Testosterona/sangue
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 272(1578): 2259-67, 2005 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16191638

RESUMO

How cooperation and altruism among non-relatives can persist in the face of cheating remains a key puzzle in evolutionary biology. Although mechanisms such as direct and indirect reciprocity and limited movement have been put forward to explain such cooperation, they cannot explain cooperation among unfamiliar, highly mobile individuals. Here we show that cooperation may be evolutionarily stable if decisions taken to cooperate and to change group membership are both dependent on anonymous social experience (generalized reciprocity). We find that a win-stay, lose-shift rule (where shifting is either moving away from the group or changing tactics within the group after receiving defection) evolves in evolutionary simulations when group leaving is moderately costly (i.e. the current payoff to being alone is low, but still higher than that in a mutually defecting group, and new groups are rarely encountered). This leads to the establishment of widespread cooperation in the population. If the costs of group leaving are reduced, a similar group-leaving rule evolves in association with cooperation in pairs and exploitation of larger anonymous groups. We emphasize that mechanisms of assortment within populations are often behavioural decisions and should not be considered independently of the evolution of cooperation.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Processos Grupais , Modelos Teóricos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Dinâmica Populacional
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 272(1561): 445-54, 2005 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15734700

RESUMO

Unrelated subordinates may invest in costly help to avoid being evicted from groups (the 'pay-to-stay' hypothesis). However, the effectiveness of eviction to enforce help should depend on its being applied accurately and on the costs it imposes on both dominants and subordinates. The relative cost of being evicted is a function of the population frequency of eviction when population growth is limited by density-dependent factors. We describe a stage-structured pay-to-stay model incorporating density-dependent population growth, costly eviction and occasional errors. Breeders demand some amount of help and evict subordinates that do not provide it. Helpers decide on the amount of help they will provide. The threat of eviction alone is sufficient to enforce helping. However, helping will not be favoured if helpers do not impose costs on breeders. The amount of help provided is less than the cost that subordinates impose upon breeders, when any help is provided. Thus, the net fitness effect of a helper under pay-to-stay alone is negative, even if it is investing in cooperative behaviour. Constraints on dispersal have no effect on the amount of help, although they may influence the tolerance threshold of breeders and group stability, depending on the mechanism of density dependence.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Processos Grupais , Hierarquia Social , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional
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