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1.
Nano Lett ; 20(5): 3828-3835, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267711

RESUMO

To exploit the high-temperature superinsulation potential of anisotropic thermal management materials, the incorporation of ceramic aerogel into the aligned structural networks is indispensable. However, the long-standing obstacle to exploring ultralight superinsulation ceramic aerogels is the inaccessibility of its mechanical elasticity, stability, and anisotropic thermal insulation. In this study, we report a recoverable, flexible ceramic fiber-aerogel composite with anisotropic lamellar structure, where the interfacial cross-linking between ceramic fiber and aerogel is important in its superinsulation performance. The resulting ultralight aerogel composite exhibits a density of 0.05 g/cm3, large strain recovery (over 50%), and low thermal conductivity (0.0224 W m-1 K-1), while its hydrophobicity is achieved by in situ trichlorosilane coating with the water contact angle of 135°. The hygroscopic tests of such aerogel composites demonstrate a reversible thermal insulation. The mechanical elasticity and stability of the anisotropic composites, with its soundproof performance, shed light on the low-cost superelastic aerogel manufacturing with scalability for energy saving building applications.

2.
Elife ; 82019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785396

RESUMO

Autosomal-dominant Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is characterized by corneal opacification owing to overaccumulation of cholesterol. SCD is caused by mutations in UBIAD1, which utilizes geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) to synthesize vitamin K2. Using cultured cells, we previously showed that sterols trigger binding of UBIAD1 to the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR), thereby inhibiting its endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) (Schumacher et al. 2015). GGpp triggers release of UBIAD1 from HMGCR, allowing maximal ERAD and ER-to-Golgi transport of UBIAD1. SCD-associated UBIAD1 resists GGpp-induced release and is sequestered in ER to inhibit ERAD. We now report knockin mice expressing SCD-associated UBIAD1 accumulate HMGCR in several tissues resulting from ER sequestration of mutant UBIAD1 and inhibition of HMGCR ERAD. Corneas from aged knockin mice exhibit signs of opacification and sterol overaccumulation. These results establish the physiological significance of UBIAD1 in cholesterol homeostasis and indicate inhibition of HMGCR ERAD contributes to SCD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/metabolismo , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Animais , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/enzimologia , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteólise
3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(24): 6175-6184, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190371

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tisagenlecleucel is an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR19) T-cell therapy approved for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory (r/r) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the cellular kinetics of tisagenlecleucel, the effect of patient factors, humoral immunogenicity, and manufacturing attributes on its kinetics, and exposure-response analysis for efficacy, safety and pharmacodynamic endpoints in 79 patients across two studies in pediatric B-ALL (ELIANA and ENSIGN). RESULTS: Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to quantify levels of tisagenlecleucel transgene, responders (N = 62) had ≈2-fold higher tisagenlecleucel expansion in peripheral blood than nonresponders (N = 8; 74% and 104% higher geometric mean Cmax and AUC0-28d, respectively) with persistence measurable beyond 2 years in responding patients. Cmax increased with occurrence and severity of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Tisagenlecleucel continued to expand and persist following tocilizumab, used to manage CRS. Patients with B-cell recovery within 6 months had earlier loss of the transgene compared with patients with sustained clinical response. Clinical responses were seen across the entire dose range evaluated (patients ≤50 kg: 0.2 to 5.0 × 106/kg; patients >50 kg: 0.1 to 2.5 × 108 CAR-positive viable T cells) with no relationship between dose and safety. Neither preexisting nor treatment-induced antimurine CAR19 antibodies affected the persistence or clinical response. CONCLUSIONS: Response to tisagenlecleucel was associated with increased expansion across a wide dose range. These results highlight the importance of cellular kinetics in understanding determinants of response to chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Terapia Genética , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Terapia Genética/efeitos adversos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Camundongos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/patologia , Prognóstico , Transgenes/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Stem Cells ; 35(5): 1290-1302, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263009

RESUMO

Stem cell therapy modulates not only the local microenvironment of the brain but also the systemic immune responses. We explored the impact of human multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) modulating splenic activation and peripheral immune responses after ischemic stroke. Hundred twenty-six Long-Evans adult male rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Twenty-four hours later, they received IV MAPC or saline treatment. At 3 days after infusion, RNA was isolated from the injured cortex and spleen for microarray analysis. Spleen mass, splenocyte phenotype, and releasing cytokines were measured. Serum cytokines, MAPC biodistribution, brain lesion sizes and neurofunctional deficits were compared in rats treated with MAPC or saline with and without spleens. Stroked animals treated with MAPC exhibited genes that more closely resembled animals with sham surgery. Gene categories downregulated by MAPC included leukocyte activation, antigen presentation, and immune effector processing, associated with the signaling pathways regulated by TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IFN-γ within the brain. MAPC treatment restored spleen mass reduction caused by stroke, elevated Treg cells within the spleen, increased IL-10 and decreased IL-1ß released by splenocytes. MAPC reduced IL-6 and IL-1ß and upregulated IL-10 serum levels. Compared with saline, MAPC enhance stroke recovery in rats with intact spleens but had no effects in rats without spleens. MAPC restores expression of multiple genes and pathways involved in immune and inflammatory responses after stroke. Immunomodulation of the splenic response by the intravenous administration of MAPC may create a more favorable environment for brain repair after stroke. Stem Cells 2017;35:1290-1302.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Adultas/citologia , Células-Tronco Multipotentes/citologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Baço/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Citocinas/sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos Long-Evans , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Distribuição Tecidual
5.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 28(5): 918-928, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28251574

RESUMO

The cellular metabolome is considered to be a representation of cellular phenotype and cellular response to changes to internal or external events. Methods to expand the coverage of the expansive physiochemical properties that makeup the metabolome currently utilize multi-step extractions and chromatographic separations prior to chemical detection, leading to lengthy analysis times. In this study, a single-step procedure for the extraction and separation of a sample using a micro-capillary as a separatory funnel to achieve analyte partitioning within an organic/aqueous immiscible solvent system is described. The separated analytes are then spotted for MALDI-MS imaging and distribution ratios are calculated. Initially, the method is applied to standard mixtures for proof of partitioning. The extraction of an individual cell is non-reproducible; therefore, a broad chemical analysis of metabolites is necessary and will be illustrated with the one-cell analysis of a single Snu-5 gastric cancer cell taken from a cellular suspension. The method presented here shows a broad partitioning dynamic range as a single-step method for lipid analysis demonstrating a decrease in ion suppression often present in MALDI analysis of lipids. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/instrumentação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Metabolômica/instrumentação , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/instrumentação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Metaboloma , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 562: 906-913, 2016 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27125684

RESUMO

The recent expansion of natural gas and oil extraction using unconventional oil and gas development (UD) practices such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has raised questions about the potential for environmental impacts. Prior research has focused on evaluations of air and water quality in particular regions without explicitly considering temporal variation; thus, little is known about the potential effects of UD activity on the environment over longer periods of time. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in an area of increasing UD activity over a period of 13months. We analyzed samples from 42 private water wells located in three contiguous counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Permian Basin in Texas. This area has experienced a rise in UD activity in the last few years, and we analyzed samples in four separate time points to assess variation in groundwater quality over time as UD activities increased. We monitored general water quality parameters as well as several compounds used in UD activities. We found that some constituents remained stable over time, but others experienced significant variation over the period of study. Notable findings include significant changes in total organic carbon and pH along with ephemeral detections of ethanol, bromide, and dichloromethane after the initial sampling phase. These data provide insight into the potentially transient nature of compounds associated with groundwater contamination in areas experiencing UD activity.


Assuntos
Indústrias Extrativas e de Processamento , Água Subterrânea/química , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fraturamento Hidráulico , Gás Natural , Texas , Qualidade da Água , Poços de Água
7.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0147625, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26824246

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat or salinity are a major cause of yield loss worldwide. Recent studies revealed that the acclimation of plants to a combination of different environmental stresses is unique and cannot be directly deduced from studying the response of plants to each of the different stresses applied individually. Here we report on the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to a combination of salt and heat stress using transcriptome analysis, physiological measurements and mutants deficient in abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid or ethylene signaling. Arabidopsis plants were found to be more susceptible to a combination of salt and heat stress compared to each of the different stresses applied individually. The stress combination resulted in a higher ratio of Na+/K+ in leaves and caused the enhanced expression of 699 transcripts unique to the stress combination. Interestingly, many of the transcripts that specifically accumulated in plants in response to the salt and heat stress combination were associated with the plant hormone abscisic acid. In accordance with this finding, mutants deficient in abscisic acid metabolism and signaling were found to be more susceptible to a combination of salt and heat stress than wild type plants. Our study highlights the important role abscisic acid plays in the acclimation of plants to a combination of two different abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aclimatação/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio
8.
Sci Rep ; 5: 16795, 2015 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26582249

RESUMO

Following spinal cord injury (SCI), immune-mediated secondary processes exacerbate the extent of permanent neurological deficits. We investigated the capacity of adult bone marrow-derived stem cells, which exhibit immunomodulatory properties, to alter inflammation and promote recovery following SCI. In vitro, we show that human multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) have the ability to modulate macrophage activation, and prior exposure to MAPC secreted factors can reduce macrophage-mediated axonal dieback of dystrophic axons. Using a contusion model of SCI, we found that intravenous delivery of MAPCs one day, but not immediately, after SCI significantly improves urinary and locomotor recovery, which was associated with marked spinal cord tissue sparing. Intravenous MAPCs altered the immune response in the spinal cord and periphery, however biodistribution studies revealed that no MAPCs were found in the cord and instead preferentially homed to the spleen. Our results demonstrate that MAPCs exert their primary effects in the periphery and provide strong support for the use of these cells in acute human contusive SCI.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Adultas/citologia , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/terapia , Células-Tronco Multipotentes/citologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Adulto , Animais , Arginase/metabolismo , Axônios/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Macrófagos/patologia , Atividade Motora , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Distribuição Tecidual , Micção
11.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 85(12): 124101, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25554307

RESUMO

Electrospray mass spectrometry is now a widely used technique for observing cell content of various biological tissues. However, electrospray techniques (liquid chromatography and direct infusion) often involve lysing a group of cells and extracting the biomolecules of interest, rather than a sensitive, individual cell method to observe local chemistry. Presented here is an approach of combining a nanomanipulator workstation with nanospray mass spectrometry, which allows for extraction of a single cell, followed by rapid mass analysis that can provide a detailed metabolic profile. Triacylglycerol content was profiled with this tool coupled to mass spectrometry to investigate heterogeneity between healthy and tumorous tissues as well as lipid droplet containing adipocytes in vitro as proof of concept. This selective approach provides cellular resolution and complements existing bioanalytical techniques with minimal invasion to samples. In addition, the coupling of nanomanipulation and mass spectrometry holds the potential to be used in a great number of applications for individual organelles, diseased tissues, and in vitro cell cultures for observing heterogeneity even amongst cells and organelles of the same tissue.


Assuntos
Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Mama/citologia , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Desenho de Equipamento , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo
12.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 2(12): 953-60, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24191266

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that the intravenous delivery of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodents provides neuroprotection by preserving the blood-brain barrier and systemically attenuating inflammation in the acute time frame following cell treatment; however, the long-term behavioral and anti-inflammatory effects of MAPC administration after TBI have yet to be explored. We hypothesized that the intravenous injection of MAPCs after TBI attenuates the inflammatory response (as measured by microglial morphology) and improves performance at motor tasks and spatial learning (Morris water maze [MWM]). MAPCs were administered intravenously 2 and 24 hours after a cortical contusion injury (CCI). We tested four groups at 120 days after TBI: sham (uninjured), injured but not treated (CCI), and injured and treated with one of two concentrations of MAPCs, either 2 million cells per kilogram (CCI-2) or 10 million cells per kilogram (CCI-10). CCI-10 rats showed significant improvement in left hind limb deficit on the balance beam. On the fifth day of MWM trials, CCI-10 animals showed a significant decrease in both latency to platform and distance traveled compared with CCI. Probe trials revealed a significant decrease in proximity measure in CCI-10 compared with CCI, suggesting improved memory retrieval. Neuroinflammation was quantified by enumerating activated microglia in the ipsilateral hippocampus. We observed a significant decrease in the number of activated microglia in the dentate gyrus in CCI-10 compared with CCI. Our results demonstrate that intravenous MAPC treatment after TBI in a rodent model offers long-term improvements in spatial learning as well as attenuation of neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Adultas/transplante , Comportamento Animal , Lesões Encefálicas/cirurgia , Encéfalo/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/patologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Microglia/patologia , Células-Tronco Multipotentes/transplante , Comportamento Espacial , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalite/patologia , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Encefalite/cirurgia , Injeções Intravenosas , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/metabolismo , Atividade Motora , Ratos , Tempo de Reação , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Neuroinflammation ; 9: 228, 2012 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23020860

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We have demonstrated previously that the intravenous delivery of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) after traumatic brain injury affords neuroprotection via interaction with splenocytes, leading to an increase in systemic anti-inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesize that the observed modulation of the systemic inflammatory milieu is related to T regulatory cells and a subsequent increase in the locoregional neuroprotective M2 macrophage population. METHODS: C57B6 mice were injected with intravenous MAPC 2 and 24 hours after controlled cortical impact injury. Animals were euthanized 24, 48, 72, and 120 hours after injury. In vivo, the proportion of CD4(+)/CD25(+)/FOXP3(+) T-regulatory cells were measured in the splenocyte population and plasma. In addition, the brain CD86(+) M1 and CD206(+) M2 macrophage populations were quantified. A series of in vitro co-cultures were completed to investigate the need for direct MAPC:splenocyte contact as well as the effect of MAPC therapy on M1 and M2 macrophage subtype apoptosis and proliferation. RESULTS: Significant increases in the splenocyte and plasma T regulatory cell populations were observed with MAPC therapy at 24 and 48 hours, respectively. In addition, MAPC therapy was associated with an increase in the brain M2/M1 macrophage ratio at 24, 48 and 120 hours after cortical injury. In vitro cultures of activated microglia with supernatant derived from MAPC:splenocyte co-cultures also demonstrated an increase in the M2/M1 ratio. The observed changes were secondary to an increase in M1 macrophage apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that the intravenous delivery of MAPC after cortical injury results in increases in T regulatory cells in splenocytes and plasma with a concordant increase in the locoregional M2/M1 macrophage ratio. Direct contact between the MAPC and splenocytes is required to modulate activated microglia, adding further evidence to the central role of the spleen in MAPC-mediated neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Adultas/transplante , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/terapia , Microglia/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Multipotentes/fisiologia , Administração Intravenosa , Células-Tronco Adultas/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiopatologia , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células-Tronco Multipotentes/transplante
19.
New Phytol ; 191(2): 528-535, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21443673

RESUMO

Herbivory is thought to be detrimental to plant fitness and commonly results in a metabolic shift in the plant: photosynthetic processes are typically down-regulated, while resource allocation to defenses is increased in herbivore-attacked plants, resulting in fitness costs of induced plant responses. Wild tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, attacked by Tupiocoris notatus mirid bugs becomes resistant against more damaging herbivores through mirid-induced direct and indirect defenses. However, mirid-induced resistance and tissue loss do not result in a reduction of plant fitness. These findings suggest induced metabolic responses allowing the plant to compensate for the lost tissue and resources allocated to defenses. While feeding by Manduca sexta larvae results in a strong down-regulation of photosynthesis, we demonstrate a specific induction of elevated photosynthetic activity in N. attenuata leaves by elicitors in mirid salivary secretions. The elevated CO(2) assimilation rate is sufficient to compensate for the loss of photosynthetically active tissue and balances the net photosynthesis of infested leaves. We discuss the observed increase in the plant's primary metabolic activity as a mechanism that allows plants to alleviate negative fitness effects of mirid attack and mediates the vaccination effects that result in a net benefit in environments with multiple herbivores.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/fisiologia , Manduca/fisiologia , Tabaco/fisiologia , Animais , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Larva/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/fisiologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Transpiração Vegetal , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/imunologia , Tabaco/parasitologia
20.
J Neurosci ; 31(3): 944-53, 2011 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21248119

RESUMO

Macrophage-mediated axonal dieback presents an additional challenge to regenerating axons after spinal cord injury. Adult adherent stem cells are known to have immunomodulatory capabilities, but their potential to ameliorate this detrimental inflammation-related process has not been investigated. Using an in vitro model of axonal dieback as well as an adult rat dorsal column crush model of spinal cord injury, we found that multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) can affect both macrophages and dystrophic neurons simultaneously. MAPCs significantly decrease MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) release from macrophages, effectively preventing induction of axonal dieback. MAPCs also induce a shift in macrophages from an M1, or "classically activated" proinflammatory state, to an M2, or "alternatively activated" antiinflammatory state. In addition to these effects on macrophages, MAPCs promote sensory neurite outgrowth, induce sprouting, and further enable axons to overcome the negative effects of macrophages as well as inhibitory proteoglycans in their environment by increasing their intrinsic growth capacity. Our results demonstrate that MAPCs have therapeutic benefits after spinal cord injury and provide specific evidence that adult stem cells exert positive immunomodulatory and neurotrophic influences.


Assuntos
Axônios/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Multipotentes/fisiologia , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Células do Corno Posterior/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Imuno-Histoquímica , Macrófagos/citologia , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Compressão Nervosa , Células do Corno Posterior/citologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
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