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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 675: 151-164, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026639

RESUMO

The biomagnification of metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) and the metalloid As in aquatic systems is a global health concern. In this study, concentrations of fatty acid biomarkers in zooplankton were analyzed from the Pearl River, South China between September 2016 and July 2017. The objective was to examine how particulate matter, algae and bacteria food sources affect metal bioaccumulation using fatty acid facilitation. In the zooplankton fraction, positive correlations were observed between Pb concentration and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), Zn and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (diatoms and Cryptophyceae biomarkers), Fe with Palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7, diatom marker), and a weak association of Mn with α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). Cu concentration in the zooplankton increased significantly with an endogenous biotic biomarker Stearic acid (C18:0, bacteria biomarker), while Cd concentrations increased with increasing Oleic acid (C18:1n-9, green alga biomarker) concentration. There was a positive correlation between Cr concentration and the sum of Pentadecylic and Margaric acids (C15:0 + C17:0, bacteria biomarkers). Seven of the nine metals examined showed associations with fatty acids in the zooplankton. The bioaccumulation of Co, Cu, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn concentration was correlated to the individual biomasses of Brachionus calyciflorus, Filinia longiseta, Schmackeria forbesi, Limnoithona sinenisis, Thermocyclops brevifurcatus, and Diaphanosoma dubium. For selected zooplankton taxa, the algal biomasses of Euglenophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cryptophyceae, and Bacillariophyceae were correlated. Zooplankton were affected by selected species of phytoplankton and bacteria numbers in the Pearl River. These results show that metal accumulation in zooplankton is not only correlated with diet but is also in part, species specific with metal type. Thus, the bioaccumulation or scavenging of metals across trophic levels is a fundamental and complex component of metal cycling in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias , China , Dieta , Exposição Dietética , Metais/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zooplâncton/fisiologia
2.
PeerJ ; 7: e6269, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701131

RESUMO

A <5 mm thick volcanic ashfall layer associated with the White River Ash (east lobe [WRAe]) originating from the eruption of Mount Churchill, Alaska (833-850 CE; 1,117-1,100 cal BP) was observed in two freeze cores obtained from Pocket Lake (62.5090°N, -114.3719°W), a small subarctic lake located within the city limits of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Here we analyze changes in diatom assemblages to assess impact of tephra deposition on the aquatic biota of a subarctic lake. In a well-dated core constrained by 8 radiocarbon dates, diatom counts were carried out at 1-mm intervals through an interval spanning  1 cm above and below the tephra layer with each 1 mm sub-sample represented about 2 years of deposition. Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) and Stratigraphically Constrained Incremental Sum of Squares (CONISS) analyses were carried out and three distinct diatom assemblages were identified throughout the interval. The lowermost "Pre-WRAe Assemblage (Pre-WRAeA)" was indicative of slightly acidic and eutrophic lacustrine conditions. Winter deposition of the tephra layer drove a subsequent diatom flora shift to the "WRAe Assemblage (WRAeA)" the following spring. The WRAeA contained elevated abundances of taxa associated with oligotrophic, nutrient depleted and slightly more alkaline lake waters. These changes were only apparent in samples within the WRAe containing interval indicating that they were short lived and only sustained for a single year of deposition. Immediately above the WRAe horizon, a third, "Post-WRAe Assemblage (Post-WRAeA)" was observed. This assemblage was initially similar to that of the Pre-WRAeA but gradually became more distinct upwards, likely due to climatic patterns independent of the WRAe event. These results suggest that lacustrine environments are sensitive to perturbations such as deposition of ash fall, but that ecological communities in subarctic systems can also have high resilience and can recover rapidly. If subsampling of the freeze cores was carried out at a more standard resolution (0.5-1 cm) these subtle diatom ecological responses to perturbation associated with the WRAe depositional event would not have been observed. This research illustrates the importance of high-resolution subsampling when studying the environmental impact of geologically "near instantaneous" events such as episodic deposition of ashfalls.

3.
Ecotoxicology ; 27(6): 675-688, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797171

RESUMO

The impact of cadmium on the diatom Nitzschia palea (Kützing) W. Smith 1856 was studied by examining the relation between valve deformities and response through biological processes and genetic expression. Cultures of N. palea were exposed to two Cd treatments (C1 = 2.4 ± 0.6 and C2 = 42.6 ± 4.2 µg Cd/L) along with a control (C0 = 0 µg Cd/L) for 28 days. Cadmium bioaccumulation, diatoms growth, photosynthetic efficiencies, valve deformities and genetic expression were investigated during the course of the experiment. Cadmium exposure had significant effects on bioaccumulation, growth, valve deformities and genetic expression. Maximal effects for all studied endpoints were recorded after 7 days of exposure for the C2 treatment, which corresponded to the sampling time and condition with maximum cadmium bioaccumulation. Abnormal raphe formations (deviation from its lateral position) were significantly more abundant in the C2 treatment compared to the control. Molecular responses were related to cadmium level based on the number of genes impacted, intensity of the response and the frequency of observations. The expression of genes involved in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, photosynthesis, oxidative stress and silica metabolism was affected by cadmium exposure.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Algas/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Proteínas de Algas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
4.
Environ Pollut ; 239: 147-160, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653305

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) contamination in aquatic systems remains a global concern with the biomagnification of methylmercury (MeHg) through primary consumers (zooplankton) to fish and humans. In this study, total mercury (THg) and MeHg concentrations were analyzed in zooplankton collected from Baihua reservoir (Guizhou Province, China). Our results demonstrated that THg and MeHg concentrations were strongly correlated to zooplankton community and biomass composition. The THg concentration was significantly higher in micro-zooplankton compared to meso-zooplankton and macro-zooplankton, and MeHg concentration increased significantly as body size increased. Hg increases in zooplankton were influenced by the numbers of calanoid copepods and Daphnia present relative to phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Many zooplankton taxa in the three size-fractions were affected by THg exposure. The biomasses of Bosmina longirostris, Thermocyclops brevifurcatus, Asplanchna priodonta and Cyclops vicinus vicinus were positively correlated with Hg accumulation, while Daphnia hyalina, and Phyllodiaptomus tunguidus had a negative association. THg and MeHg bioaccumulation factors were correlated with phosphorus and total nitrogen concentration, zooplankton biomass, and chlorophyll-a concentration. Phosphorus loading was associated with increased THg and MeHg accumulation in the zooplankton highlighting biomagification with eutrophication. Chlorophyll-a levels were not correlated to THg and MeHg accumulation in zooplankton when phytoplankton densities were >107 cells L-1 and chlorophyll-a concentrations <9 µgL-1. This finding contradicts the idea of MeHg biodilution with increased algae biomass. However, changes in the phytoplankton species and biomass altered the availability of food for zooplankton, particularly micro-zooplankton and macro-zooplankton. Ultimately, the bioaccumulation of MeHg and THg across lower trophic levels was based more on the availability of preferred food resources than on total biological productivity.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zooplâncton/metabolismo , Animais , Biomassa , China , Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila A , Copépodes/metabolismo , Daphnia/metabolismo , Eutrofização , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Lagos/química
5.
Appl Plant Sci ; 6(12): e01204, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598862

RESUMO

Premise of the Study: Studies of plant cell and organ outline using shape analysis for taxonomic and morphological research have increased in the past decade. However, there are a limited number of available modern, intuitive, and easy software tools to conduct this work. Methods: We developed a tool for shape outline extraction using MATLAB accompanied with R scripts to perform elliptic Fourier analysis. To demonstrate the shape tool, we applied the software and scripts for genera and species shape determinations of diatom (single cell) species with x-, y-, and x- + y-shape symmetries. Results: Using the shape analysis tool, we were able to identify and distinguish different diatom taxa based on forms representing size diminutions associated with population changes. Discussion: Independent of symmetry, species were successfully distinguished using supervised and unsupervised analyses. We hope that these shape analysis tools will be used to add another metric to plant science studies.

6.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 99(5): 542-547, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936616

RESUMO

Habitat homogenization, nutrient enrichment and loss of biodiversity are broadly recognized as the consequences of human activity in aquatic systems. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) are frequently used in aquatic environmental assessment and impact monitoring, but in unique habitats dominated by endemic taxa, traditional approaches may not be appropriate. We examined the impacts of long term anthropogenic impacts upon the littoral episammic diatom community around the town of Soroako, located on Lake Matano, an ancient tropical lake. Lake Matano is located on central Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, and socio-economic conditions are typical of developing nations. Although differences in nutrient concentrations were undetectable with field-based spectroscopy approaches, mean Shannon diversity was decreased in association with proximity the town-site. However, mean ß-diversity was maintained despite several decades of shoreline modification at Soroako. Elevated abundances of early-successional diatom taxa in the disturbed area drove differences between areas immediately offshore of Soroako and those farther away. These findings suggest that increased physical disturbance and TSS loads around Soroako, rather than increased nutrient loading, influenced shifts in the diatom community. These results suggest that microscopy-based biomonitoring approaches are sensitive indicators of environmental modification that could be useful in areas where access to cutting-edge analytical equipment is limited.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Biodiversidade , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Indonésia , Lagos/química
7.
J Phycol ; 53(3): 680-702, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369873

RESUMO

Historically, a morphological species concept has applied shape subjectively in the delimitation of diatom species. This has led to confusion between taxa within the benthic diatom genus Neidium. Samples from Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland (Canada) and New York (USA) were examined for Neidium taxa under LM and SEM. Fourier shape analysis showed that shape as a taxonomic character was not able to discern all species. Isolated individuals from the samples were amplified and sequenced for three chloroplast molecular markers (rbcL, psbC, and psbA) and one nuclear ribosomal molecular marker (18S). Phylogenetic reconstructions were completed with the concatenated chloroplast and 18S dataset using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses. The concatenated chloroplast dataset exhibited a species-level resolution phylogeny of Neidium taxa. The 18S dataset had a lower level of sequence divergence and was unable to differentiate between Neidium taxa. We present emended species descriptions and sequence data for four previously described species: Neidium sacoense, N. longiceps, N. fossum, and N. affine. We describe three novel species (Neidium lowei, N. promontorium, and N. potapovae) and identify two forms with unique molecular signatures. The distinguishing features of N. lowei are its size, valve shape, and longitudinal canal structure. Distinguishing features of N. promontorium are its valve shape, longitudinal canal and apex formation, and surface depression along the axial area. Neidium potapovae is distinguished by its size, formation of valve and apices and single longitudinal canal. This paper demonstrates how future phylogenetic treatments using single cell multigene sequencing can help resolve taxonomic confusion within diatoms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Algas/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Canadá , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , New York , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
8.
Biodivers Data J ; (4): e8176, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27350765

RESUMO

The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah.

9.
PeerJ ; 4: e1705, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26925329

RESUMO

We examined diatom assemblages from 18 stream and pond samples in the Franz Josef Land Archipelago (FJL), the most northern land of Eurasia. More than 216 taxa were observed, revealing a rich circumpolar diatom flora, including many undescribed taxa. Widely distributed taxa were the most abundant by cell densities, while circumpolar taxa were the most species rich. Stream and pond habitats hosted different assemblages, and varied along a pH gradient. Diatoma tenuis was the most abundant and ubiquitous taxon. However, several circumpolar taxa such as Chamaepinnularia gandrupii, Cymbella botellus, Psammothidium sp. and Humidophila laevissima were also found in relatively high abundances. Aerophilic taxa were an important component of FJL diatom assemblages (Humidophila spp., Caloneis spp. and Pinnularia spp.), reflecting the large and extreme seasonal changes in Arctic conditions. We predict a decrease in the abundance of circumpolar taxa, an increase in local (α-) freshwater diatom diversity, but a decrease in regional diversity (circumpolar homogenization) as a result of current warming trends and to a lesser extent the increasing human footprint in the region.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 6: 1084, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26528252

RESUMO

Single cell Chelex® DNA extraction and nested PCR amplification were used to examine partial gene sequences from natural diatom populations for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies at and above the level of species. DNA was extracted from cells that were either fresh collected or stored in RNAlater. Extractions from Lugol's fixation were also attempted with limited success. Three partial gene sequences (rbcL, 18S, and psbA) were recovered using existing and new primers with a nested or double nested PCR approach with amplification and success rates between 70 and 96%. An rbcL consensus tree grouped morphologically similar specimens and was consistent across the two primary sample treatments: fresh and RNAlater. This tool will greatly enhance the number of microscopic diatom taxa (and potentially other microbes) available for barcoding and phylogenetic studies. The near-term increase in sequence data for diatoms generated via routine single cell extractions and PCR will act as a multiproxy validation of longer-term next generation genomics.

11.
J Phycol ; 44(6): 1512-8, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27039865

RESUMO

Different types of malformations are likely to affect the morphology of diatoms when exposed to particularly unstable environmental conditions, the most easily identifiable being distortion of the whole frustule. In the present study, we investigated, by means of SEM, valve abnormalities induced by high cadmium contamination (100 µg · L(-1) ) in small pennate diatoms. Changes in the shape of Amphora pediculus (Kütz.) Grunow and anomalous sculpturing of the cell wall of many species, such as Encyonema minutum (Hilse) D. G. Mann, Mayamaea agrestris (Hust.) Lange-Bert., Gomphonema parvulum (Kütz.) Kütz., or Eolimna minima (Grunow) Lange-Bert., were observed, which were not, or almost not, noticeable in the LM. With consideration to current knowledge of diatom morphogenesis, metal uptake by the cell would induce, directly or indirectly, damage to many cytoplasmic components (e.g., microtubules, cytoskeleton, Golgi-derived vesicles) involved in the precisely organized silica deposition. This study confirms that many species, whatever their size, are likely to exhibit morphological abnormalities under cadmium stress, and that this indicator may be valuable for the biomonitoring of metal contamination, even if SEM observations are not necessary for routine studies.

12.
J Phycol ; 44(2): 284-91, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27041184

RESUMO

Winter ice cover is a fundamental feature of north temperate aquatic systems and is associated with the least productive months of the year. Here we describe a previously unknown freshwater habitat for algal and microbial communities in the ice cover of the freshwater St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada. Sampling performed during winter 2005 revealed the presence of viable algal cells, such as Aulacoseira islandica (O. Müll.) Simonsen (Bacillariophyceae), and microbial assemblage growing in the ice and at the ice-water interface. Vertical channels (1-5 mm wide) containing algae were also observed. Concentrations of chl a ranged between 0.5 and 169 µg · L(-1) of melted ice, with maximal concentrations found in the lower part of the ice cores. These algae have the potential to survive when ice breakup occurs and reproduce rapidly in spring/summer conditions. Freshwater ice algae can thus contribute to in situ primary production, biodiversity, and annual carbon budget in various habitats of riverine communities.

13.
Mol Ecol ; 16(1): 35-48, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17181719

RESUMO

Adaptive radiations are an important source of biodiversity, but resolving which ecological pressures seed these processes in natural systems remains difficult. Here the adaptive radiation among Telmatherina, a genus of freshwater fish endemic to an ancient lake in central Sulawesi, Indonesia, was examined to determine its causal root. We demonstrate that all Telmatherina in this lake can be categorized into three lineages each possessing specialized skull shapes and pharyngeal jaw bones allowing them to exploit different resources. These data demonstrate a natural example of how resource partitioning has likely initiated adaptive radiation in a resource limited environment.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Água Doce , Smegmamorpha/classificação , Animais , Dieta , Cadeia Alimentar , Especiação Genética , Geografia , Indonésia , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Biológicos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Smegmamorpha/anatomia & histologia , Smegmamorpha/genética
14.
Am J Cardiol ; 97(4): 547-51, 2006 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16461054

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acids administration on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients > or =65 years old who received treatment for chronic heart failure (CHF). Twenty patients (mean age 73 years; 15 men) with grade II and III CHF who were on maximal medical management were recruited. Patients were randomized in a double-blind, crossover fashion to 6 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid (1.8 g ecosapentaenoic acid and 1.2 g docosahexaenoic acid) or olive oil. Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to incremental doses of intra-arterial sodium nitroprusside, acetycholine (ACH), angiotensin-II, and N(g)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester were assessed by venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography. The endothelium-dependent increase in FBF was greater in response in ACH infusion after omega-3 fatty acid administration (7.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.81 to 11.08 to 11.3, 95% CI 7.31 to 15.23 arbitrary units (p <0.05) compared with baseline (7.95, 95% CI 4.8 to 11.08 arbitrary units) and olive oil administration (7.27, 95% CI 4.66 to 9.88 arbitrary units) (p = NS for both). Neither omega-3 fatty acid nor olive oil altered endothelium-independent vasodilation in response to infusion of sodium nitroprusside, nor did they influence vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin-II or N(g)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was accompanied by an increase in FBF response to ACH, which represents enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in CHF. Further studies are warranted to assess the mechanism responsible for the beneficial actions of omega-3 fatty acids in CHF.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Fatores Relaxantes Dependentes do Endotélio , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Acetilcolina , Idoso , Angiotensina II , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Masculino , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster , Nitroprussiato , Azeite de Oliva , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pletismografia
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