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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637626

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Preclinical and clinical data suggest that downstream inhibition with an MEK inhibitor, such as binimetinib, might be efficacious for NRAS-mutated cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients enrolled in the NCI-MATCH trial master protocol underwent tumor biopsy and molecular profiling by targeted next-generation sequencing. Patients with NRAS-mutated tumors, except melanoma, were enrolled in subprotocol Z1A, a single-arm study evaluating binimetinib 45 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). A post hoc analysis examined the association of NRAS mutation type with outcome. RESULTS: In total, 47 eligible patients with a refractory solid tumor harboring a codon 12, 13, or 61 NRAS mutation were treated. Observed toxicity was moderate, and 30% of patients discontinued treatment because of binimetinib-associated toxicity. The ORR was 2.1% (1/47 patients). A patient with malignant ameloblastoma harboring a codon 61 NRAS mutation achieved a durable partial response (PR). A patient with NRAS codon 61-mutated colorectal cancer had an unconfirmed PR, and two other patients with NRAS codon 61-mutated colorectal had stable disease for at least 12 months. In an exploratory analysis, patients with colorectal cancer bearing a NRAS codon 61 mutation (n = 8) had a significantly longer OS (P = 0.03) and PFS (P = 0.007) than those with codon 12 or 13 mutations (n = 16). CONCLUSIONS: Single-agent binimetinib did not show promising efficacy in NRAS-mutated cancers. The observation of increased OS and PFS in patients with codon 61 NRAS-mutated colorectal cancer merits further investigation.

2.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(2): 271-278, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377972

RESUMO

Importance: In the National Cancer Institute Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) trial, agents targeting genetic tumor abnormalities are administered to patients. In the NCI-MATCH subprotocol EAY131-Y trial, patients with an AKT1 E17K-mutated metastatic tumor received the pan-AKT inhibitor capivasertib. Objective: To assess the objective response rate (ORR) of capivasertib in patients with an AKT1 E17K-mutated tumor. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between July 13, 2016, and August 10, 2017, patients in the NCI-MATCH trial were enrolled and assigned to the subprotocol EAY131-Y nonrandomized trial. Patients included adults with an AKT1 E17K-mutated metastatic tumor that had progressed with standard treatment, and these patients were assigned to receive capivasertib. Tumor assessments were repeated every 2 cycles. Data analysis of this evaluable population was performed from November 8, 2019, to March 12, 2020. Interventions: The study treatment was capivasertib, 480 mg, orally twice daily for 4 days on and 3 days off weekly in 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effect. If patients continued hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer, the capivasertib dose was 400 mg. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the ORR (ie, complete response [CR] and partial response) according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria, version 1.1. Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), 6-month PFS, overall survival, and safety. Results: In total, 35 evaluable and analyzable patients were included, of whom 30 were women (86%), and the median (range) age was 61 (32-73) years. The most prevalent cancers were breast (18 [51%]), including 15 patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive/ERBB2-negative and 3 with triple-negative disease, and gynecologic (11 [31%]) cancers. The ORR rate was 28.6% (95% CI, 15%-46%). One patient with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma achieved a CR and remained on therapy at 35.6 months. Patients with confirmed partial response had the following tumor types: 7 had HR-positive/ERBB2-negative breast cancer, 1 had uterine leiomyosarcoma, and 1 had oncocytic parotid gland carcinoma and continued receiving treatment at 28.8 months. Sixteen patients (46%) had stable disease as the best response, 2 (6%) had progressive disease, and 7 (20%) were not evaluable. With a median follow-up of 28.4 months, the overall 6-month PFS rate was 50% (95% CI, 35%-71%). Capivasertib was discontinued because of adverse events in 11 of 35 patients (31%). Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events included hyperglycemia (8 [23%]) and rash (4 [11%]). One grade 4 hyperglycemic adverse event was reported. Conclusions and Relevance: This nonrandomized trial found that, in patients with an AKT1 E17K-mutated tumor treated with capivasertib, a clinically significant ORR was achieved, including 1 CR. Clinically meaningful activity with single-agent capivasertib was demonstrated in refractory malignant neoplasms, including rare cancers. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00700882.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(33): 3883-3894, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Therapeutically actionable molecular alterations are widely distributed across cancer types. The National Cancer Institute Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) trial was designed to evaluate targeted therapy antitumor activity in underexplored cancer types. Tumor biopsy specimens were analyzed centrally with next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a master screening protocol. Patients with a tumor molecular alteration addressed by a targeted treatment lacking established efficacy in that tumor type were assigned to 1 of 30 treatments in parallel, single-arm, phase II subprotocols. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor biopsy specimens from 5,954 patients with refractory malignancies at 1,117 accrual sites were analyzed centrally with NGS and selected immunohistochemistry in a master screening protocol. The treatment-assignment rate to treatment arms was assessed. Molecular alterations in seven tumors profiled in both NCI-MATCH trial and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of primary tumors were compared. RESULTS: Molecular profiling was successful in 93.0% of specimens. An actionable alteration was found in 37.6%. After applying clinical and molecular exclusion criteria, 17.8% were assigned (26.4% could have been assigned if all subprotocols were available simultaneously). Eleven subprotocols reached their accrual goal as of this report. Actionability rates differed among histologies (eg, > 35% for urothelial cancers and < 6% for pancreatic and small-cell lung cancer). Multiple actionable or resistance-conferring tumor mutations were seen in 11.9% and 71.3% of specimens, respectively. Known resistance mutations to targeted therapies were numerically more frequent in NCI-MATCH than TCGA tumors, but not markedly so. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated feasibility of screening large numbers of patients at numerous accruing sites in a complex trial to test investigational therapies for moderately frequent molecular targets. Co-occurring resistance mutations were common and endorse investigation of combination targeted-therapy regimens.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087330

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Expanded RAS/BRAF mutations have not been assessed as predictive for single-agent cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), and low mutant allele frequency (MAF) mutations are of unclear significance. We aimed to establish cetuximab efficacy in optimally selected patients using highly sensitive beads, emulsion, amplification, and magnetics (BEAMing) analysis, capable of detecting alterations below standard clinical assays. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CO.17 trial compared cetuximab versus best supportive care (BSC) in RAS/BRAF-unselected mCRC. We performed RAS/BRAF analysis on microdissected tissue of 242 patients in CO.17 trial using BEAMing for KRAS/NRAS (codons 12/13/59/61/117/146) and BRAF V600E. Patients without BEAMing but with previous Sanger sequencing-detected mutations were included. RESULTS: KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations were present in 53%, 4%, and 3% of tumors, respectively. Cetuximab improved overall survival [OS; HR, 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.32-0.81; P = 0.004] and progression-free survival (PFS; HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.15-0.41; P < 0.0001) compared with BSC in RAS/BRAF wild-type patients. Cetuximab did not improve OS/PFS for KRAS-, NRAS-, or BRAF-mutated tumors, and tests of interaction confirmed expanded KRAS (P = 0.0002) and NRAS (P = 0.006) as predictive, while BRAF mutations were not (P = 0.089). BEAMing identified 14% more tumors as RAS mutant than Sanger sequencing, and cetuximab lacked activity in these patients. Mutations at MAF < 5% were noted in 6 of 242 patients (2%). One patient with a KRAS A59T mutation (MAF = 2%) responded to cetuximab. More NRAS than KRAS mutations were low MAF (OR, 20.50; 95% CI, 3.88-96.85; P = 0.0038). CONCLUSIONS: We establish single-agent cetuximab efficacy in optimally selected patients and show that subclonal RAS/BRAF alterations are uncommon and remain of indeterminate significance.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(33): 3895-3904, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758030

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRAFV600 mutations are commonly found in melanoma and thyroid cancers and to a lesser degree in other tumor types. Subprotocol H (EAY131-H) of the NCI-MATCH platform trial sought to investigate the selective BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib in patients with solid tumors, lymphomas, or multiple myeloma whose tumors harbored a BRAFV600 mutation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: EAY131-H is an open-label, single-arm study. Patients with melanoma, thyroid, or colorectal cancer were excluded; patients with non-small-cell lung cancer were later excluded in an amendment. Patients received dabrafenib 150 mg twice per day and trametinib 2 mg per day continuously until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. The primary end point was centrally assessed objective response rate (ORR); secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), 6-month PFS, and overall survival. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients were enrolled, and 29 were included in the primary efficacy analysis as prespecified in the protocol. Median age was 59 years, and 45% of the patients had received ≥ 3 lines of therapy. The confirmed ORR was 38% (90% CI, 22.9% to 54.9%) with P < .0001 against a null rate of 5%, and PFS was 11.4 months (90% CI, 8.4 to 16.3 months); responses were seen in 7 distinct tumor types. Seven patients had a duration of response of > 12 months, including 4 patients with a duration of response of > 24 months. An additional 8 patients had a PFS > 6 months. The median overall survival was 28.6 months. Reported adverse events were comparable to those noted in previously reported profiles of dabrafenib and trametinib. CONCLUSION: This study met its primary end point, with an ORR of 38% (P < .0001) in this mixed histology, pretreated cohort. This promising activity warrants additional investigations in BRAFV600-mutated tumors outside of currently approved indications.

6.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 17(12): 757-770, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632268

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies are describing potential uses of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in the care of patients with colorectal cancer. Owing to this rapidly developing area of research, the Colon and Rectal-Anal Task Forces of the United States National Cancer Institute convened a panel of multidisciplinary experts to summarize current data on the utility of ctDNA in the management of colorectal cancer and to provide guidance in promoting the efficient development and integration of this technology into clinical care. The panel focused on four key areas in which ctDNA has the potential to change clinical practice, including the detection of minimal residual disease, the management of patients with rectal cancer, monitoring responses to therapy, and tracking clonal dynamics in response to targeted therapies and other systemic treatments. The panel also provides general guidelines with relevance for ctDNA-related research efforts, irrespective of indication.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3644, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686686

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a biologically heterogeneous disease. To characterize its mutational profile, we conduct targeted sequencing of 205 genes for 2,105 CRC cases with survival data. Our data shows several findings in addition to enhancing the existing knowledge of CRC. We identify PRKCI, SPZ1, MUTYH, MAP2K4, FETUB, and TGFBR2 as additional genes significantly mutated in CRC. We find that among hypermutated tumors, an increased mutation burden is associated with improved CRC-specific survival (HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.82). Mutations in TP53 are associated with poorer CRC-specific survival, which is most pronounced in cases carrying TP53 mutations with predicted 0% transcriptional activity (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.21-1.94). Furthermore, we observe differences in mutational frequency of several genes and pathways by tumor location, stage, and sex. Overall, this large study provides deep insights into somatic mutations in CRC, and their potential relationships with survival and tumor features.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(21): 2407-2417, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463741

RESUMO

PURPOSE: NCI-MATCH is a nationwide, histology-agnostic, signal-finding, molecular profile-driven trial for patients with refractory cancers, lymphomas, or myelomas. Patients with tumors harboring actionable aberration(s) in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1-3 were treated with AZD4547, an oral FGFR1-3 inhibitor. METHODS: Patients' tumors were screened by next-generation sequencing for predefined FGFR amplification, activating mutations, or fusions. Patients were treated with AZD4547, 80 mg orally twice daily until progression of disease or drug intolerance. A response rate of 16% was considered promising. RESULTS: Between July 2016 and June 2017, 70 patients were assigned and 48 received protocol therapy and are eligible for analysis. Patients' tumors harbored FGFR1 or FGFR2 amplification (n = 20), FGFR2 or FGFR3 single-nucleotide variants (n = 19), or FGFR1 or FGFR3 fusions (n = 9). The most common primary tumors were breast (33.3%), urothelial (12.5%), and cervical cancer (10.4%).Grade 3 adverse events were consistent with those described in previous clinical trials. Confirmed partial responses were seen in 8% (90% CI, 3% to 18%) and were observed only in patients whose tumors harbored FGFR1-3 point mutations or fusions. Stable disease was observed in 37.5% (90% CI, 25.8% to 50.4%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.4 months, and the 6-month PFS rate was 15% (90% CI, 8% to 31%). For patients with tumors harboring FGFR fusions, the response rate was 22% (90% CI, 4.1% to 55%), and 6-month PFS rate was 56% (90% CI, 31% to 100%). CONCLUSION: Preliminary signals of activity appeared to be limited to cancers harboring FGFR activating mutations and fusions, although AZD4547 did not meet the primary end point. Different FGFR somatic alterations may confer different levels of signaling potency and/or oncogene dependence.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(14): 1633-1640, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134701

RESUMO

PURPOSE: National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored clinical trial network studies frequently require biopsy specimens for pharmacodynamic and molecular biomarker analyses, including paired pre- and post-treatment samples. The purpose of this meeting of NCI-sponsored investigators was to identify local institutional standard procedures found to ensure quantitative and qualitative specimen adequacy. METHODS: NCI convened a conference on best biopsy practices, focusing on the clinical research community. Topics discussed were (1) criteria for specimen adequacy in the personalized medicine era, (2) team-based approaches to ensure specimen adequacy and quality control, and (3) risk considerations relevant to academic and community practitioners and their patients. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Key recommendations from the convened consensus panel included (1) establishment of infrastructure for multidisciplinary biopsy teams with a formalized information capture process, (2) maintenance of standard operating procedures with regular team review, (3) optimization of tissue collection and yield methodology, (4) incorporation of needle aspiration and other newer techniques, and (5) commitment of stakeholders to use of guideline documents to increase awareness of best biopsy practices, with the goal of universally improving tumor biopsy practices.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(10): 1021-1029, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proportion of tumors of various histologies that may respond to drugs targeted to molecular alterations is unknown. NCI-MATCH, a collaboration between ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group and the National Cancer Institute, was initiated to find efficacy signals by matching patients with refractory malignancies to treatment targeted to potential tumor molecular drivers regardless of cancer histology. METHODS: Trial development required assumptions about molecular target prevalence, accrual rates, treatment eligibility, and enrollment rates as well as consideration of logistical requirements. Central tumor profiling was performed with an investigational next-generation DNA-targeted sequencing assay of alterations in 143 genes, and protein expression of protein expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog, mutL homolog 1, mutS homolog 2, and RB transcriptional corepressor 1. Treatments were allocated with a validated computational platform (MATCHBOX). A preplanned interim analysis evaluated assumptions and feasibility in this novel trial. RESULTS: At interim analysis, accrual was robust, tumor biopsies were safe (<1% severe events), and profiling success was 87.3%. Actionable molecular alteration frequency met expectations, but assignment and enrollment lagged due to histology exclusions and mismatch of resources to demand. To address this lag, we revised estimates of mutation frequencies, increased screening sample size, added treatments, and improved assay throughput and efficiency (93.9% completion and 14-day turnaround). CONCLUSIONS: The experiences in the design and implementation of the NCI-MATCH trial suggest that profiling from fresh tumor biopsies and assigning treatment can be performed efficiently in a large national network trial. The success of such trials necessitates a broad screening approach and many treatment options easily accessible to patients.

11.
Oncologist ; 25(5): e798-e807, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy improved outcomes for patients with metastatic colon cancer. E5204 was designed to test whether the addition of bevacizumab to mFOLFOX6, following neoadjuvant chemoradiation and definitive surgery, could improve overall survival (OS) in patients with stage II/III adenocarcinoma of the rectum. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: Patients with stage II/III rectal cancer who had completed neoadjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiation and had undergone complete resection were enrolled. Patients were randomized to mFOLFOX6 (Arm A) or mFOLFOX6 with bevacizumab (Arm B) administered every 2 weeks for 12 cycles. RESULTS: E5204 registered only 355 patients (17% of planned accrual goal) as it was terminated prematurely owing to poor accrual. At a median follow-up of 72 months, there was no difference in 5-year overall survival (88.3% vs. 83.7%) or 5-year disease-free survival (71.2% vs. 76.5%) between the two arms. The rate of treatment-related grade ≥ 3 adverse events (AEs) was 68.8% on Arm A and 70.7% on Arm B. Arm B had a higher proportion of patients who discontinued therapy early as a result of AEs and patient withdrawal than did Arm A (32.4% vs. 21.5%, p = .029).The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related AEs were neutropenia, leukopenia, neuropathy, diarrhea (without prior colostomy), and fatigue. CONCLUSION: At 17% of its planned accrual, E5204 did not meet its primary endpoint. The addition of bevacizumab to FOLFOX6 in the adjuvant setting did not significantly improve OS in patients with stage II/III rectal cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: At 17% of its planned accrual, E5204 was terminated early owing to poor accrual. At a median follow-up of 72 months, there was no significant difference in 5-year overall survival (88.3% vs. 83.7%) or in 5-year disease-free survival (71.2% vs. 76.5%) between the two arms. Despite significant advances in the treatment of rectal cancer, especially in improving local control rates, the risk of distant metastases and the need to further improve quality of life remain a challenge. Strategies combining novel agents with chemoradiation to improve both distant and local control are needed.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(3): 214-222, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765263

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The National Cancer Institute Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) trial, the largest national precision oncology study to date (> 1,100 sites) of patients with relapsed or refractory malignancies, assigned patients to targeted therapy in parallel phase II studies based on tumor molecular alterations. The anti-programmed death receptor 1 inhibitor nivolumab previously showed activity in mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient colon cancer. We hypothesized that nivolumab would have activity in patients with MMR-deficient, noncolorectal tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients with relapsed or refractory tumors, good end-organ function, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of ≤ 1 underwent tumor biopsy for centralized screening of molecular alterations. MMR deficiency was defined by complete loss of nuclear expression of MLH1 or MSH2 MMR gene products by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Patients with MMR-deficient colorectal cancer were excluded. Nivolumab, 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks (28-day cycles) and 480 mg every 4 weeks after cycle 4, was administered intravenously. Disease reassessment was performed every 2 cycles. The primary end point was RECIST 1.1 objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: Two percent of 4,902 screened patients had an MMR-deficient cancer by IHC. Forty-two evaluable patients were enrolled, with a median age of 60 years and a median of 3 prior therapies. The most common histologies were endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma (n = 13), prostate adenocarcinoma (n = 5), and uterine carcinosarcoma (n = 4). ORR was 36% (15 of 42 patients). An additional 21% of patients had stable disease. The estimated 6-, 12-, and 18-month progression-free survival rates were 51.3% (90% CI, 38.2% to 64.5%), 46.2% (90% CI, 33.1% to 59.3%), and 31.4% (90% CI, 18.7% to 44.2%), respectively. Median overall survival was 17.3 months. Toxicity was predominantly low grade. CONCLUSION: A variety of refractory cancers (2.0% of those screened) had MMR deficiency as defined in NCI-MATCH. Nivolumab has promising activity in MMR-deficient noncolorectal cancers of a wide variety of histopathologic types.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico
13.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(9): 1032-1041, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487681

RESUMO

Identifying individuals with hereditary syndromes allows for improved cancer surveillance, risk reduction, and optimized management. Establishing criteria for assessment allows for the identification of individuals who are carriers of pathogenic genetic variants. The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal provide recommendations for the assessment and management of patients with high-risk colorectal cancer syndromes. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on criteria for the evaluation of Lynch syndrome and considerations for use of multigene testing in the assessment of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/terapia , Medição de Risco
14.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 16(8): 939-949, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099370

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Screening outline various screening modalities as well as recommended screening strategies for individuals at average or increased-risk of developing sporadic CRC. The NCCN panel meets at least annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions, examine relevant data, and reevaluate and update their recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize 2018 updates to the NCCN Guidelines, with a primary focus on modalities used to screen individuals at average-risk for CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Oncologia/normas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/isolamento & purificação , Colonoscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/isolamento & purificação , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Fezes/química , Humanos , Imunoquímica/métodos , Imunoquímica/normas , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Oncologia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Septinas/genética , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Estados Unidos
15.
Cancer Cell ; 33(1): 7-9, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316434

RESUMO

In this issue of Cancer Cell, Yaeger et al. report mutations, copy number variations, and selected rearrangements from a large series of metastatic colorectal carcinomas and primaries that produced metastases. The results provide important insights into differences in anatomical site of origin, age at onset, etiologic factors, and therapeutic responses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Humanos , Mutação
16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(3): 521-531, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28839110

RESUMO

Biomarkers that guide therapy selection are gaining unprecedented importance as targeted therapy options increase in scope and complexity. In conjunction with high-throughput molecular techniques, therapy-guiding biomarker assays based upon immunohistochemistry (IHC) have a critical role in cancer care in that they inform about the expression status of a protein target. Here, we describe the validation procedures for four clinical IHC biomarker assays-PTEN, RB, MLH1, and MSH2-for use as integral biomarkers in the nationwide NCI-Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) EAY131 clinical trial. Validation procedures were developed through an iterative process based on collective experience and adaptation of broad guidelines from the FDA. The steps included primary antibody selection; assay optimization; development of assay interpretation criteria incorporating biological considerations; and expected staining patterns, including indeterminate results, orthogonal validation, and tissue validation. Following assay lockdown, patient samples and cell lines were used for analytic and clinical validation. The assays were then approved as laboratory-developed tests and used for clinical trial decisions for treatment selection. Calculations of sensitivity and specificity were undertaken using various definitions of gold-standard references, and external validation was required for the PTEN IHC assay. In conclusion, validation of IHC biomarker assays critical for guiding therapy in clinical trials is feasible using comprehensive preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic steps. Implementation of standardized guidelines provides a useful framework for validating IHC biomarker assays that allow for reproducibility across institutions for routine clinical use. Clin Cancer Res; 24(3); 521-31. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/normas , Neoplasias/terapia , Prognóstico , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 442(1-2): 155-168, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098506

RESUMO

Energetic protons are the most abundant particle type in space and can pose serious health risks to astronauts during long-duration missions. The health effects of proton exposure are also a concern for cancer patients undergoing radiation treatment with accelerated protons. To investigate the damage induced by energetic protons in vivo to radiosensitive organs, 6-week-old BALB/c male mice were subjected to 250 MeV proton radiation at whole-body doses of 0.1, 1, and 2 Gy. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of each exposed animal was dissected 4 h post-irradiation, and the isolated small intestinal tissue was analyzed for histopathological and gene expression changes. Histopathologic observation of the tissue using standard hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining methods to screen for morphologic changes showed a marked increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest dose of 0.1 Gy, similar to X- or γ rays. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased dose-dependently, but the dose response appeared supralinear, indicating hypersensitivity at low doses. A significant decrease in surviving crypts and mucosal surface area, as well as in cell proliferation, was also observed in irradiated mice. Gene expression analysis of 84 genes involved in the apoptotic process showed that most of the genes affected by protons were common between the low (0.1 Gy) and high (1 and 2 Gy) doses. However, the genes that were distinctively responsive to the low or high doses suggest that high doses of protons may cause apoptosis in the small intestine by direct damage to the DNA, whereas low doses of protons may trigger apoptosis through a different stress response mechanism.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Prótons/efeitos adversos , Irradiação Corporal Total/efeitos adversos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação
19.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 15(12): 1465-1475, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223984

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal provide recommendations for the management of patients with high-risk syndromes associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The NCCN Panel for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal meets at least annually to assess comments from reviewers within their institutions, examine relevant data, and reevaluate and update their recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on genes newly associated with CRC risk on multigene panels, the associated evidence, and currently recommended management strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Genética , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 5(11): 942-949, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038296

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is rapidly becoming a standard of care for many cancers. However, colorectal cancer had been generally resistant to immunotherapy, despite features in common with sensitive tumors. Observations of substantial clinical activity for checkpoint blockade in colorectal cancers with defective mismatch repair (microsatellite instability-high tumors) have reignited interest in the search for immunotherapies that could be extended to the larger microsatellite stable (MSS) population. The Cancer Research Institute and Fight Colorectal Cancer convened a group of scientists, clinicians, advocates, and industry experts in colorectal cancer and immunotherapy to compile ongoing research efforts, identify gaps in translational and clinical research, and provide a blueprint to advance immunotherapy. We identified lack of a T-cell inflamed phenotype (due to inadequate T-cell infiltration, inadequate T-cell activation, or T-cell suppression) as a broad potential explanation for failure of checkpoint blockade in MSS. The specific cellular and molecular underpinnings for these various mechanisms are unclear. Whether biomarkers with prognostic value, such as the immunoscores and IFN signatures, would also predict benefit for immunotherapies in MSS colon cancer is unknown, but if so, these and other biomarkers for measuring the potential for an immune response in patients with colorectal cancer will need to be incorporated into clinical guidelines. We have proposed a framework for research to identify immunologic factors that may be modulated to improve immunotherapy for colorectal cancer patients, with the goal that the biomarkers and treatment strategies identified will become part of the routine management of colorectal cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(11); 942-9. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Imunoterapia , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Humanos
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