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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7960, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846417

RESUMO

Theoretically, panic disorder and agoraphobia pathology can be conceptualized as a cascade of dynamically changing defensive responses to threat cues from inside the body. Guided by this trans-diagnostic model we tested the interaction between defensive activation and vagal control as a marker of prefrontal inhibition of subcortical defensive activation. We investigated ultra-short-term changes of vagally controlled high frequency heart rate variability (HRV) during a standardized threat challenge (entrapment) in n = 232 patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia, and its interaction with various indices of defensive activation. We found a strong inverse relationship between HRV and heart rate during threat, which was stronger at the beginning of exposure. Patients with a strong increase in heart rate showed a deactivation of prefrontal vagal control while patients showing less heart rate acceleration showed an increase in vagal control. Moreover, vagal control collapsed in case of imminent threat, i.e., when body symptoms increase and seem to get out of control. In these cases of defensive action patients either fled from the situation or experienced a panic attack. Active avoidance, panic attacks, and increased sympathetic arousal are associated with an inability to maintain vagal control over the heart suggesting that teaching such regulation strategies during exposure treatment might be helpful to keep prefrontal control, particularly during the transition zone from post-encounter to circa strike defense.Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN80046034.

2.
Psychophysiology ; : e13812, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759212

RESUMO

During fear conditioning, a cue (CS) signals an inevitable distal threat (US) and evokes a conditioned response that can be described as attentive immobility (freezing). The organism remains motionless and monitors the source of danger while startle responses are potentiated, indicating a state of defensive hypervigilance. Although in animals vagally mediated fear bradycardia is also reliably observed under such circumstances, results are mixed in human fear conditioning. Using a single-cue fear conditioning and extinction protocol, we tested cardiac reactivity and startle potentiation indexing low-level defensive strategies in a fear-conditioned (n = 40; paired presentations of CS and US) compared with a non-conditioned control group (n = 40; unpaired presentations of CS and US). Additionally, we assessed shock expectancy ratings on a trial-by-trial basis indexing declarative knowledge of the previous contingencies. Half of each group underwent extinction under sham or active transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), serving as additional proof of concept. We found stronger cardiac deceleration during CS presentation in the fear learning relative to the control group. This learned fear bradycardia was positively correlated with conditioned startle potentiation but not with declarative knowledge of CS-US contingencies. TVNS abolished differences in heart rate changes between both groups and removed the significant correlation between late cardiac deceleration and startle potentiation in the fear learning group. Results suggest, fear-conditioned cues evoke attentive immobility in humans, characterized by cardiac deceleration and startle potentiation. Such defensive response pattern is elicited by cues predicting inevitable distal threat and resembles conditioned fear responses observed in rodents.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 177, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731674

RESUMO

Panic disorder (PD) is characterized by a dysfunctional defensive responding to panic-related body symptoms that is assumed to contribute to the persistence of panic symptomatology. The present study aimed at examining whether this dysfunctional defensive reactivity to panic-related body symptoms would no longer be present following successful cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) but would persist when patients show insufficient symptom improvement. Therefore, in the present study, effects of CBT on reported symptoms and defensive response mobilization during interoceptive challenge were investigated using hyperventilation as a respiratory symptom provocation procedure. Changes in defensive mobilization to body symptoms in the course of CBT were investigated in patients with a primary diagnosis of PD with or without agoraphobia by applying a highly standardized hyperventilation task prior to and after a manual-based CBT (n = 38) or a waiting period (wait-list controls: n = 20). Defensive activation was indexed by the potentiation of the amygdala-dependent startle eyeblink response. All patients showed a pronounced defensive response mobilization to body symptoms at baseline. After treatment, no startle reflex potentiation was found in those patients who showed a clinically significant improvement. However, wait-list controls and treatment non-responders continued to show increased defensive responses to actually innocuous body symptoms after the treatment/waiting period. The present results indicate that the elimination of defensive reactivity to actually innocuous body symptoms might be a neurobiological correlate and indicator of successful CBT in patients with PD, which may help to monitor and optimize CBT outcomes.

4.
J Anxiety Disord ; 78: 102361, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508747

RESUMO

Recent meta-analyses indicated differences in fear acquisition and extinction between patients with anxiety-related disorders and comparison subjects. However, these effects are small and may hold for only a subsample of patients. To investigate individual trajectories in fear acquisition and extinction across patients with anxiety-related disorders (N = 104; before treatment) and comparison subjects (N = 93), data from a previous study (Duits et al., 2017) were re-analyzed using data-driven latent class growth analyses. In this explorative study, subjective fear ratings, shock expectancy ratings and startle responses were used as outcome measures. Fear and expectancy ratings, but not startle data, yielded distinct fear conditioning trajectories across participants. Patients were, compared to controls, overrepresented in two distinct dysfunctional fear conditioning trajectories: impaired safety learning and poor fear extinction to danger cues. The profiling of individual patterns allowed to determine that whereas a subset of patients showed trajectories of dysfunctional fear conditioning, a significant proportion of patients (≥50 %) did not. The strength of trajectory analyses as opposed to group analyses is that it allows the identification of individuals with dysfunctional fear conditioning. Results suggested that dysfunctional fear learning may also be associated with poor treatment outcome, but further research in larger samples is needed to address this question.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508683

RESUMO

Much research has been devoted to the development of emotion recognition tests that can be used to investigate how individuals identify and discriminate emotional expressions of other individuals. One of the most prominent emotion recognition tests is the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RME-T). The original RME-T has been widely used to investigate how individuals recognize complex emotional expressions from the eye region of adult faces. However, the RME-T can only be used to investigate inter-individual differences in complex emotion recognition during the processing of adult faces. To extend its usefulness, we developed a modified version of the RME-T, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes of Children Test (RME-C-T). The RME-C-T can be used to investigate how individuals recognize complex emotional expressions from the eye region of child faces. However, the validity of the RME-C-T has not been evaluated yet. We, thus, administered the RME-C-T together with the RME-T to a sample of healthy adult participants (n = 119). The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were also administered. Participants' RME-C-T performance correlated with participants' RME-T performance, implying that the RME-C-T measures similar emotion recognition abilities as the RME-T. Participants' RME-C-T performance also correlated with participants' IRI and TAS scores, indicating that these emotion recognition abilities are affected by empathetic and alexithymic traits. Moreover, participants' RME-C-T performance differed between participants with high and low TAS scores, suggesting that the RME-C-T is sensitive enough to detect impairments in these emotion recognition abilities. The RME-C-T, thus, turned out to be a valid measure of inter-individual differences in complex emotion recognition during the processing of child faces.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 110, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317621

RESUMO

Extinction learning is suggested to be a central mechanism during exposure-based cognitive behavioral psychotherapy. A positive association between the patients' pretreatment extinction learning performance and treatment outcome would corroborate the hypothesis. Indeed, there is first correlational evidence between reduced extinction learning and therapy efficacy. However, the results of these association studies may be hampered by extinction-training protocols that do not match treatment procedures. Therefore, we developed an extinction-training protocol highly tailored to the procedure of exposure therapy and tested it in two samples of 46 subjects in total. By using instructed fear acquisition training, including a consolidation period overnight, we wanted to ensure that the conditioned fear response was well established prior to extinction training, which is the case in patients with anxiety disorders prior to treatment. Moreover, the extinction learning process was analyzed on multiple response levels, comprising unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy ratings, autonomic responses, defensive brain stem reflexes, and neural activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using this protocol, we found robust fear conditioning and slow-speed extinction learning. We also observed within-group heterogeneity in extinction learning, albeit a stable fear response at the beginning of the extinction training. Finally, we found discordance between different response systems, suggesting that multiple processes are involved in extinction learning. The paradigm presented here might help to ameliorate the association between extinction learning performance assessed in the laboratory and therapy outcomes and thus facilitate translational science in anxiety disorders.

7.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(7): 1242, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210370

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1529, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001763

RESUMO

Inhibiting fear-related thoughts and defensive behaviors when they are no longer appropriate to the situation is a prerequisite for flexible and adaptive responding to changing environments. Such inhibition of defensive systems is mediated by ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), limbic basolateral amygdala (BLA), and brain stem locus-coeruleus noradrenergic system (LC-NAs). Non-invasive, transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) has shown to activate this circuit. Using a multiple-day single-cue fear conditioning and extinction paradigm, we investigated long-term effects of tVNS on inhibition of low-level amygdala modulated fear potentiated startle and cognitive risk assessments. We found that administration of tVNS during extinction training facilitated inhibition of fear potentiated startle responses and cognitive risk assessments, resulting in facilitated formation, consolidation and long-term recall of extinction memory, and prevention of the return of fear. These findings might indicate new ways to increase the efficacy of exposure-based treatments of anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Nervo Vago/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1202, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988311

RESUMO

Instructions given prior to extinction training facilitate the extinction of conditioned skin conductance (SCRs) and fear-potentiated startle responses (FPSs) and serve as laboratory models for cognitive interventions implemented in exposure-based treatments of pathological anxiety. Here, we investigated how instructions given prior to extinction training, with or without the additional removal of the electrode used to deliver the unconditioned stimulus (US), affect the return of fear assessed 24 hours later. We replicated previous instruction effects on extinction and added that the additional removal of the US electrode slightly enhanced facilitating effects on the extinction of conditioned FPSs. In contrast, extinction instructions hardly affected the return of conditioned fear responses. These findings suggest that instruction effects observed during extinction training do not extent to tests of return of fear 24 hours later which serve as laboratory models of relapse and improvement stability of exposure-based treatments.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Extinção Psicológica , Medo/psicologia , Reforço Verbal , Adolescente , Adulto , Tornozelo , Eletrocardiografia , Eletrodos , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Física/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(3): 499-506, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634897

RESUMO

D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA-receptor agonist, seems to be a promising enhancer for exposure therapy in anxiety disorders. It has been tested successfully in animal models of fear extinction, where DCS enhanced extinction learning. Applied in clinical studies, results of DCS-augmented exposure therapy remain ambiguous, calling for a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DCS and its exact effect on extinction learning and return of fear (ROF) in humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DCS-augmented extinction learning on behavioral, psychophysiological, and neural indices of ROF during a 24-h delayed recall test. Thirty-seven participants entered a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 3-day fear conditioning and delayed extinction fMRI design. One hour before extinction training, participants received an oral dose of 50 mg of DCS or a placebo. Behavioral arousal ratings revealed a generalized ROF during extinction recall in the placebo but not DCS group. Furthermore, participants receiving DCS compared to placebo showed attenuated differential BOLD responses in left posterior hippocampus and amygdala from extinction learning to extinction recall, due to increased hippocampal recruitment in placebo and trendwise decreased amygdala responding in DCS subjects. Our finding that DCS reduces ROF in arousal ratings and neural structures subserving defensive reactions support a role for NMDA receptors in extinction memory consolidation and encourage further translational research.

11.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 108: 559-601, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446010

RESUMO

Due to their ability to capture attention, emotional stimuli tend to benefit from enhanced perceptual processing, which can be helpful when such stimuli are task-relevant but hindering when they are task-irrelevant. Altered emotion-attention interactions have been associated with symptoms of affective disturbances, and emerging research focuses on improving emotion-attention interactions to prevent or treat affective disorders. In line with the Human Affectome Project's emphasis on linguistic components, we also analyzed the language used to describe attention-related aspects of emotion, and highlighted terms related to domains such as conscious awareness, motivational effects of attention, social attention, and emotion regulation. These terms were discussed within a broader review of available evidence regarding the neural correlates of (1) Emotion-Attention Interactions in Perception, (2) Emotion-Attention Interactions in Learning and Memory, (3) Individual Differences in Emotion-Attention Interactions, and (4) Training and Interventions to Optimize Emotion-Attention Interactions. This comprehensive approach enabled an integrative overview of the current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of emotion-attention interactions at multiple levels of analysis, and identification of emerging directions for future investigations.

12.
Neuropsychologia ; 145: 106606, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246488

RESUMO

Recent event-related potential (ERP) data showed that neutral objects encoded in emotional background pictures were better remembered than objects encoded in neutral contexts, when recognition memory was tested one week later. In the present study, we investigated whether this long-term memory advantage for items is also associated with correct memory for contextual source details. Furthermore, we were interested in the possibly dissociable contribution of familiarity and recollection processes (using a Remember/Know procedure). The results revealed that item memory performance was mainly driven by the subjective experience of familiarity, irrespective of whether the objects were previously encoded in emotional or neutral contexts. Correct source memory for the associated background picture, however, was driven by recollection and enhanced when the content was emotional. In ERPs, correctly recognized old objects evoked frontal ERP Old/New effects (300-500 ms), irrespective of context category. As in our previous study (Ventura-Bort et al., 2016b), retrieval for objects from emotional contexts was associated with larger parietal Old/New differences (600-800 ms), indicating stronger involvement of recollection. Thus, the results suggest a stronger contribution of recollection-based retrieval to item and contextual background source memory for neutral information associated with an emotional event.

13.
Psychophysiology ; 57(2): e13474, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529522

RESUMO

Psychophysiology is a central hub connecting neurobiological and behavioral domains with clinical science, thus providing ideal tools for increasing the understanding of mental disorders beyond the level of symptom reports. The present article provides an overview of how psychophysiological research can contribute toward efforts directed at an improved understanding of anxiety disorders. Starting with the behavioral domain, it is demonstrated that defensive behaviors are fundamental to anxiety disorders and that these behaviors are dynamically organized depending upon the proximity of a specific threat. The next section reviews neural networks that are activated during the encoding of threat-relevant information and during the organization of the cascade of defensive responses, including how passive avoidance might be conceptualized within a neurobehavioral framework. The last section addresses the translation of these behavioral and neuronal findings from experimental psychopathology research to clinical populations. Finally, evidence is presented to support how behavioral approaches may be helpful in predicting treatment outcomes.

14.
Biol Psychol ; 148: 107742, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442479

RESUMO

Recent evidence points to enhanced episodic memory retrieval not only for emotional items but also for neutral information encoded in emotional contexts. However, prior research only tested instructed explicit recognition, and hence here we investigated whether memory retrieval is also heightened for cues from emotional contexts when retrieval is not explicitly probed. During the first session of a two-session experiment, neutral objects were presented on different background scenes varying in emotional and neutral contents. One week later, objects were presented again (with no background) intermixed with novel objects. In both sessions, participants were instructed to attentively watch the stimuli (free viewing procedure), and during the second session, ERPs were also collected to measure the ERP Old/New effect, an electrophysiological correlate of episodic memory retrieval. Analyses were performed using cluster-based permutation tests in order to identify reliable spatio-temporal ERP differences. Based on this approach, old relative to new objects, were associated with larger ERP positivity in an early (364-744 ms) and late time window (760-1148 ms) over distinct central electrode clusters. Interestingly, significant late ERP Old/New differences were only observed for objects previously encoded with emotional, but not neutral scenes (504 to 1144 ms). Because these ERP differences were observed in a non-instructed retrieval context, our results indicate that long-term, spontaneous retrieval for neutral objects, is particularly heightened if encoded within emotionally salient contextual information. These findings may assist in understanding mechanisms underlying spontaneous retrieval of emotional associates and the utility of ERPs to study maladaptive involuntary memories in trauma- and stress-related disorders.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Eletrodos , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Psychophysiology ; 56(10): e13404, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149740

RESUMO

Extinction of conditioned fear serves as a laboratory model for the mechanism of action underlying exposure treatment with patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Thus, an enhanced understanding of individual differences in extinction learning may help to improve exposure procedures by tailoring treatment plans to the specific needs of the patient. Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a promising candidate to investigate individual differences in extinction learning because vmHRV is influenced by an inhibitory prefrontal-amygdala network that is similarly implied in extinction learning. Moreover, low levels of vmHRV were previously associated with a higher prevalence of anxiety disorders and a deficit in safety learning. Here, we report on two studies (Study 1: N = 48; Study 2: N = 120) in which we investigated the boundary conditions of the observed association between vmHRV and safety learning as indexed by startle potentiation during instructed or uninstructed extinction training. In Study 1 (conditional discrimination task), we found that low vmHRV levels are associated with higher CS+ potentiation during instructed extinction. In Study 2 (differential cue conditional task), we observed an association between individual vmHRV levels and defensive responding during CS- presentations and, in later instructed extinction trials, during intertrial intervals. These findings indicate an overactive defensive system in individuals with low levels of vmHRV that interferes with their ability to recognize safety and thus is associated with a general perception of unsafety.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Segurança , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 107: 93-97, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121343

RESUMO

Previous research indicates that acute stress around the time of learning facilitates attention and memory for emotionally salient information. Despite accumulating evidence for these acute stress effects, less is known about the role of chronic stress. In the present study, we therefore tested emotional and neutral scene processing and later recognition memory in female participants using hair cortisol concentrations as a biological marker for chronic stress. Event-related potentials recorded during picture viewing indicated enhanced late positive potentials (LPPs) for emotional, relative to neutral contents. These brain potentials varied as a function of long-term hair cortisol levels: hair-cortisol levels were positively related to overall LPP amplitudes. Results from recognition memory testing one week after encoding revealed better memory for emotional relative to neutral scenes. Hair-cortisol levels, however, were related to poorer memory accuracy. Taken together, our results indicate that chronic stress enhanced attentional processing during encoding of new stimuli and impaired later recognition memory. Results are discussed with regard to putatively opposite effects of chronic stress on certain brain regions (e.g., amygdala and hippocampus).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 269(2): 161-170, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28712090

RESUMO

Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is highly effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, many patients still do not benefit. This study investigates whether a history of traumatic event experience is negatively associated with outcomes of CBT for panic disorder. The moderating role of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene and depression symptoms as well as the association between trauma history and fear reactivity as a potential mechanism are further analyzed. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of 172 male and 60 female patients with panic disorder treated with CBT in a multi-center study. Treatment outcome was assessed at post-treatment using self-report and clinician rating scales. Fear reactivity before treatment was assessed via heart rate and self-reported anxiety during a behavioral avoidance test. Among females, we did not find any differences in treatment response between traumatized and non-traumatized individuals or any two-way interaction trauma history × MAOA genotype. There was a significant three-way interaction trauma history × MAOA genotype × depression symptoms on all treatment outcomes indicating that in traumatized female patients carrying the low-activity allele, treatment effect sizes decreased with increasing depression symptoms at baseline. No such effects were observed for males. In conclusion, we found no evidence for a differential treatment response in traumatized and non-traumatized individuals. There is preliminary evidence for poorer treatment outcomes in a subgroup of female traumatized individuals carrying the low-active variant of the MAOA gene. These patients also report more symptoms of depression symptomatology and exhibit a dampened fear response before treatment which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Medo/fisiologia , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Transtorno de Pânico/terapia , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/genética , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/genética , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Behav Res Ther ; 112: 63-67, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502722

RESUMO

Excessive anxiety and avoidance during provocation of body symptoms are core features of anxiety-related disorders and might contribute to the development and maintenance of these disorders. Previous studies examined psychological (anxiety sensitivity, fear of suffocation and trait anxiety) and biobehavioral (breath-holding time) predictors of reported anxiety during symptom provocation. However, the role of these predictors on avoidance of feared body symptoms remains unclear. Therefore, the present work aimed at investigating the main and interactive effects of psychological and biobehavioral variables in predicting avoidance during provocation of dyspnea that successively increased in severity. 28 of 69 participants prematurely terminated the provocation sequence, thus preventing further progression of symptom provocation. Logistic regressions revealed that higher anxiety sensitivity and lower breath-holding time were significantly associated with avoidance during exposure. Suffocation fear and trait anxiety were not related to avoidance. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between breath-holding time and anxiety sensitivity in predicting avoidance. Participants with a lower breath-holding time showed more avoidance behavior when reporting high as compared to low anxiety sensitivity. The data suggest that anxiety sensitivity and breath-holding time increase the risk to show avoidance and thus might contribute to the development and maintenance of anxiety-related disorders.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Suspensão da Respiração , Dispneia/psicologia , Personalidade , Adulto , Asfixia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Emotion ; 19(1): 178-182, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553757

RESUMO

During social interactions, we rapidly judge others' trustworthiness on basis of their facial characteristics. Face-based trustworthiness judgments may not only affect our current but also our future interactions because we seem to be more inclined to remember untrustworthy than trustworthy faces. Memory formation of salient stimuli like untrustworthy faces may be modulated by the interplay between the autonomic and central nervous system, which can be indexed by changes in vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV). To test this assumption, we investigated whether differences in HRV would be associated with differences in memory formation of untrustworthy faces in a sample of healthy participants (n = 34, all female). Untrustworthy faces were remembered more accurately than trustworthy faces, albeit only by participants with high and not low HRV. Across participants, increased memory accuracy for untrustworthy faces was associated with increased HRV. We discuss these findings in the context of neurobiological theories regarding the interplay between the autonomic and central nervous system during the regulation of autonomic, emotional and cognitive processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Behav Modif ; 43(4): 467-489, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690770

RESUMO

Interoceptive exposure is one component in cognitive behavioral therapy of panic disorder. The present investigation addressed changes in defensive mobilization during repeated interoceptive exposure using a standardized hyperventilation procedure. 26 high and 22 low anxiety sensitive persons (ASI, Peterson & Reiss, 1992) went through two guided hyperventilation and normoventilation procedures, spaced one week apart. Breathing parameters, startle response magnitudes and symptom reports were measured. All participants successfully adhered to the guided breathing procedures. Both groups comparably reported more symptoms during hyperventilation than normoventilation in both sessions. Only high-AS participants displayed potentiated startle magnitudes after the first hyperventilation vs. normoventilation. One week later, when the hyperventilation exercise was repeated, this potentiation was no longer present. Thus, high and low-AS groups no longer differed in their defensive mobilization to symptom provocation. Furthermore, the number of reported baseline symptoms also decreased from session one to session two in the high-AS group. While high-AS reported increased baseline anxiety symptoms in session 1, groups did not differ in session 2. Results indicate a reduction of defensive mobilization during repeated interoceptive exposure.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Interocepção , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperventilação , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Reflexo de Sobressalto , Respiração , Adulto Jovem
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